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1.
J Dev Orig Health Dis ; : 1-19, 2018 Nov 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30411697

RESUMO

Despite many interventions aiming to reduce excessive gestational weight gain (GWG), it is currently unclear the impact on infant anthropometric outcomes. The aim of this review was to evaluate offspring anthropometric outcomes in studies designed to reduce GWG. A systematic search of seven international databases, one clinical trial registry and three Chinese databases was conducted without date limits. Studies were categorised by intervention type: diet, physical activity (PA), lifestyle (diet + PA), other, gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) (diet, PA, lifestyle, metformin and other). Meta-analyses were reported as weighted mean difference (WMD) for birthweight and birth length, and risk ratio (RR) for small for gestational age (SGA), large for gestational age (LGA), macrosomia and low birth weight (LBW). Collectively, interventions reduced birthweight, risk of macrosomia and LGA by 71 g (WMD: -70.67, 95% CI -101.90 to -39.43, P<0.001), 16% (RR: 0.84, 95% CI 0.73-0.98, P=0.026) and 19% (RR: 0.81, 95% CI 0.69-0.96, P=0.015), respectively. Diet interventions decreased birthweight and LGA by 99 g (WMD -98.80, 95% CI -178.85 to -18.76, P=0.016) and 65% (RR: 0.35, 95% CI 0.17-0.72, P=0.004). PA interventions reduced the risk of macrosomia by 51% (RR: 0.49, 95% CI 0.26-0.92, P=0.036). In women with GDM, diet and lifestyle interventions reduced birthweight by 211 and 296 g, respectively (WMD: -210.93, 95% CI -374.77 to -46.71, P=0.012 and WMD:-295.93, 95% CI -501.76 to -90.10, P=0.005, respectively). Interventions designed to reduce excessive GWG lead to a small reduction in infant birthweight and risk of macrosomia and LGA, without influencing the risk of adverse outcomes including LBW and SGA.

2.
Int J Obes (Lond) ; 42(8): 1489-1499, 2018 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29930313

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVE: Diet-induced weight loss (WL) leads to a compensatory increase in appetite and changes in the plasma concentration of appetite-regulating hormones are likely to play a role. Whether these changes are transient or sustained remains unclear. This study aimed to assess if changes in subjective and objective appetite markers observed with WL are sustained after 1 year (1Y). SUBJECTS/METHODS: In total 100 (45 males) individuals with obesity (BMI: 37 ± 4 kg/m2, age: 43 ± 10 years) underwent 8 weeks (wks) of a very-low energy diet (VLED), followed by 4 wks refeeding, and a 1Y maintenance program. Fasting/postprandial subjective ratings of hunger, fullness, desire to eat, and prospective food consumption (PFC) were assessed, and plasma concentration of active ghrelin (AG), total peptide YY (PYY), active glucagon-like peptide 1, cholecystokinin (CCK), and insulin measured, at baseline, week 13 (Wk13) and 1Y. RESULTS: At Wk13, 16% WL (-18 ± 1 kg, P < 0.001) was associated with a significant increase in fasting and postprandial hunger ratings (P < 0.01 and P < 0.05, respectively), and postprandial fullness (P < 0.01) combined with a reduction in PFC (P < 0.001). These were accompanied by a significant rise in basal and postprandial AG concentrations (P < 0.001, for both), a reduction in postprandial CCK (P < 0.01) and in basal and postprandial insulin (P < 0.001). At 1Y follow-up, with sustained WL (15%; -16 ± 1 kg, P < 0.001), fasting hunger and postprandial fullness ratings remained increased (P < 0.05 for both), and postprandial PFC reduced (P < 0.001). Basal and postprandial AG remained elevated and insulin reduced (P < 0.001, for all), while postprandial CCK was increased (P < 0.01) and PYY decreased (P < 0.001). CONCLUSION: With a 15% sustained WL at 1Y, the drive to eat in the fasting state is increased, but this may be balanced out by raised postprandial feelings of fullness. To assist with WL maintenance, new strategies are required to manage increased hunger and drive to eat.

3.
J Hum Nutr Diet ; 31(4): 486-495, 2018 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29659064

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Pregnancy can motivate individuals to adopt lifestyle behaviours that protect the health of their offspring. The aims of the present study were to explore men's and women's beliefs about lifestyle, fertility and pregnancy, as well as where they seek advice. METHODS: Participants (2185 women and 221 men, six unspecified) from 104 countries completed a questionnaire that explored their beliefs about what was important for a healthy pregnancy and their advice-seeking behaviours. Recruitment was via a Massive Open Online Course entitled 'Food as Medicine', with food, nutrient and health content. Comparisons of categorical data were performed using a chi-squared test (P = 0.05). RESULTS: Eating a variety of fruits and vegetables and not smoking (both 93.7%) were the most frequently and equally ranked in the top-five factors for a healthy pregnancy. Taking prenatal supplements (26.8%) was considered to be less important. Participants in Westernised countries ranked not smoking or drinking alcohol as being significantly more important than those in other countries. Overall, doctors (47.7%) were the most common source of fertility and pregnancy advice. Larger proportions of those aged <40 years used the Internet (<40 years 44.1%, >40 years 18.2% χ2 = 152.7, P < 0.01) and social media (<40 years 16.1%, >40 years 3.6%; χ2 = 110.18, P < 0.01) for health information. CONCLUSIONS: There is disconnection between beliefs and actions regarding the lifestyle behaviours considered to be important for a healthy pregnancy, particularly nutrition. Pregnancy advice-seeking has evolved, with younger men and women utilising the Internet and social media. Health professionals must consider new communication strategies to deliver evidence-based lifestyle advice, particularly for younger men and women and where access to healthcare is limited.

4.
J Hum Nutr Diet ; 31(2): 256-265, 2018 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28631347

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: To investigate if a low fermentable oligo-, di- and mono-saccharides and polyols (FODMAP) diet consumed by breastfeeding mothers may be associated with reduced symptoms of infantile colic. METHODS: Exclusively breastfeeding mothers and their typically-developing healthy infants who met the Wessel Criteria for infantile colic were recruited from the community, to this single-blind, open-label, interventional study. After a 3-day qualifying period, mothers were provided a low FODMAP 7-day diet. On days 5, 6 and 7 mothers completed a Baby Day Diary. At baseline and at the end of the 7-day dietary intervention, breast milk was analysed for FODMAP content and infant faecal samples for pH. RESULTS: Eighteen breastfeeding mothers (aged 27-40 years) adhered (100%) to the low FODMAP diet. Infants were of gestational age 37-40.3 weeks and aged 2-17 weeks. At entry, crying durations were a mean [95% CI] of 142 [106-61] min and fell by 52 [178-120] min (P = 0.005; ancova). Combined crying-fussing durations fell by 73 [301-223] min (n = 13; P = 0.007), as did crying episodes (P = 0.01) and fussing durations (P = 0.011). Infant sleeping, feeding, or awake-and-content durations did not change. Infant faecal pH did not change. Breast milk lactose content was stable and other known FODMAPs were not detected. At end of study, mothers reported their baby 'is much more content' and 'can be put down without crying'. CONCLUSIONS: Maternal low FODMAP diet may be associated with a reduction in infant colic symptoms. A randomized controlled study is warranted to determine if a maternal low FODMAP diet is effective in reducing symptoms.

5.
Int J Obes (Lond) ; 41(8): 1224-1231, 2017 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28439092

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVE: Diet-induced weight loss (WL) leads to increased hunger and reduced fullness feelings, increased ghrelin and reduced satiety peptides concentration (glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1), cholecystokinin (CCK) and peptide YY (PYY)). Ketogenic diets seem to minimise or supress some of these responses. The aim of this study was to determine the timeline over which changes in appetite occur during progressive WL with a ketogenic very-low-energy diet (VLED). SUBJECTS/METHODS: Thirty-one sedentary adults (18 men), with obesity (body mass index: 37±4.5 kg m-2) underwent 8 weeks (wks) of a VLED followed by 4 wks of weight maintenance. Body weight and composition, subjective feelings of appetite and appetite-related hormones (insulin, active ghrelin (AG), active GLP-1, total PYY and CCK) were measured in fasting and postprandially, at baseline, on day 3 of the diet, 5 and 10% WL, and at wks 9 and 13. Data are shown as mean±s.d. RESULTS: A significant increase in fasting hunger was observed by day 3 (2±1% WL), (P<0.01), 5% WL (12±8 days) (P<0.05) and wk 13 (17±2% WL) (P<0.05). Increased desire to eat was observed by day 3 (P<0.01) and 5% WL (P<0.05). Postprandial prospective food consumption was significantly reduced at wk 9 (16±2% WL) (P<0.01). Basal total PYY was significantly reduced at 10% WL (32±8 days) (P<0.05). Postprandial active GLP-1 was increased at 5% WL (P<0.01) and CCK reduced at 5 and 10% WL (P<0.01, for both) and wk 9 (P<0.001). Basal and postprandial AG were significantly increased at wk 13 (P<0.001, both). CONCLUSIONS: WL with a ketogenic VLED transiently increases the drive to eat up to 3 weeks (5% WL). After that, and while participants are ketotic, a 10-17% WL is not associated with increased appetite. However, hunger feelings and AG concentrations increase significantly from baseline, once refeeding occurs.


Assuntos
Regulação do Apetite/fisiologia , Dieta Cetogênica , Perda de Peso/fisiologia , Adulto , Área Sob a Curva , Índice de Massa Corporal , Colecistocinina/metabolismo , Jejum/fisiologia , Feminino , Grelina/metabolismo , Peptídeo 1 Semelhante ao Glucagon/metabolismo , Humanos , Fome/fisiologia , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Noruega , Obesidade/dietoterapia , Obesidade/metabolismo , Obesidade/prevenção & controle , Peptídeo YY/metabolismo , Período Pós-Prandial/fisiologia , Resposta de Saciedade/fisiologia , Fatores de Tempo
6.
Eur J Clin Nutr ; 71(6): 712-717, 2017 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28176775

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVE: Reduced sleep is a strong and independent risk factor for weight gain and obesity. Maternal obesity preconception and throughout gestation can increase the risk of adverse pregnancy outcomes and impact on offspring health in later life. This study investigated the relationship between sleeping behaviour and macronutrient intake in childbearing aged women. SUBJECTS/METHODS: We used cross-sectional data from the Australian Longitudinal Study on Women's Health 1973-78 cohort, aged 31-36 years in 2009 (n=8200). Subjective sleeping behaviour was reported and macronutrient intake was measured using a validated food frequency questionnaire. Latent class analysis (LCA) was used to derive sleeping patterns. Multivariate regression analysis was used to investigate the relationships between sleep and macronutrient intake. RESULTS: LCA identified three sleep patterns: (LC1) average sleep (~8 h) with no adverse sleep-related symptoms (n=3570); (LC2) average sleep (~8 h) with sleeping difficulties and severe tiredness (n=2109); and (LC3) short sleep (~6 h) with sleeping difficulties and severe tiredness (n=915). In fully adjusted models, LC2 was inversely associated with percentage energy as protein (b=-0.24; P=0.01) and the protein-to-carbohydrate ratio (b=-0.01; P<0.05). LC3 was positively associated with percentage of energy as fat (b=0.29; P=0.01), saturated fat (b=0.24; P=<0.001) and monounsaturated fat (b=0.09; P=0.04). CONCLUSIONS: Sleeping behaviour patterns were associated with macronutrient intake in childbearing aged women. Improved sleep patterns, together with diet and physical activity strategies, may make it easier for women to achieve a balanced diet and optimise their weight status in preparation for pregnancy.


Assuntos
Dieta , Sono , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Austrália , Índice de Massa Corporal , Estudos de Coortes , Estudos Transversais , Carboidratos da Dieta/administração & dosagem , Gorduras na Dieta/administração & dosagem , Fibras na Dieta/administração & dosagem , Proteínas na Dieta/administração & dosagem , Exercício , Ácidos Graxos/administração & dosagem , Ácidos Graxos Monoinsaturados/administração & dosagem , Feminino , Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
7.
J Hum Nutr Diet ; 30(1): 36-50, 2017 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27561947

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Short food questions are appealing to measure dietary intakes. METHODS: A review of studies published between 2004 and 2016 was undertaken and these were included in the present study if they reported on a question or short item questionnaire (≤50 items, data presented as ≤30 food groups) measuring food intake or food-related habits, in children (aged 6 months to 18 years), and reported question validity or reliability. Thirty studies met the inclusion criteria. RESULTS: Most questions assessed foods or food groups (n = 29), with the most commonly assessed being fruit (n = 22) or vegetable intake (n = 23), dairy foods and discretionary foods (n = 20 studies each). Four studies assessed food habits, with the most common being breakfast and meal frequency (n = 4 studies). Twenty studies assessed reliability, and 25 studies determined accuracy and were most commonly compared against food records. Evaluation of question performance relied on statistical tests such as correlation. CONCLUSIONS: The present study has identified valid and reliable questions for the range of key food groups of interest to public health nutrition. Questions were more likely to be reliable than accurate, and relatively few questions were both reliable and accurate. Gaps in repeatable and valid short food questions have been identified that will provide direction for future tool development.


Assuntos
Dieta , Avaliação Nutricional , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adolescente , Criança , Laticínios , Bases de Dados Factuais , Frutas , Humanos , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Verduras
8.
Eur J Clin Nutr ; 70(5): 607-12, 2016 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26931666

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Nutritional status influences patients' clinical and functional outcomes. The aims were to identify changes in nutritional state during subacute care and associated participant characteristics. SUBJECTS/METHODS: A longitudinal study was undertaken with consecutive patients admitted to subacute care wards during a 3-month period. Participants were recruited under a waiver of consent to reflect the usual demographic. Change in classification (malnourished, at risk of malnutrition, well nourished) of the full Mini Nutritional Assessment (full MNA) between admission and discharge was the primary outcome. Weight (kg), mid-arm and calf circumference (cm) change were secondary outcomes. Hand grip strength (kg) and fat-free mass (kg) (assessed using bioelectrical impedance analysis) were measured for a consenting subgroup. RESULTS: Participants (n=248, 36.7% male) had a median age of 80 years and a length of stay of 17 days. On admission, 29.1% were classified as malnourished. By discharge, nutritional classification remained stable for 62.0% of participants (n=132), declined for 10.3% (n=22) and improved for 27.7% (n=59, including 52.5% malnourished on admission). Impaired cognition (odds ratio (OR)=0.169, P=0.002) and higher full MNA score at admission (OR=0.870, P=0.001) reduced odds of improvement in full MNA. There was no change in hand grip strength (n=46), but there was a decline in mean fat-free mass (-1.1 kg, 95% confidence interval: -0.1 to -2.2 kg, P=0.043, n=24). CONCLUSIONS: Multidisciplinary care supports the nutritional state of most patients admitted to subacute care. Those with cognitive impairments or at risk of malnutrition were less likely to demonstrate improvement and may benefit from more intensive or tailored nutritional care.


Assuntos
Hospitalização , Desnutrição/fisiopatologia , Estado Nutricional , Cuidados Semi-Intensivos/estatística & dados numéricos , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Impedância Elétrica , Feminino , Avaliação Geriátrica , Força da Mão , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Desnutrição/diagnóstico , Desnutrição/etiologia , Avaliação Nutricional , Fatores de Risco
9.
Pediatr Obes ; 10(5): 380-7, 2015 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25559355

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Gut hormones change with weight loss in adults but are not well studied in obese youth. OBJECTIVE: The primary aim was to evaluate how gut hormones and subjective appetite measure change with dietary weight loss in obese adolescents. METHODS: Participants were a subset of those taking part in the 'Eat Smart Study'. They were aged 10-17 years with body mass index (BMI) > 90th centile and were randomized to one of three groups: wait-listed control, structured reduced carbohydrate or structured low-fat dietary intervention for 12 weeks. Outcomes were fasting glucose, insulin, leptin, adiponectin, total amylin, acylated ghrelin, active glucagon-like peptide-1, glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP), pancreatic polypeptide (PP) and total peptide tyrosine-tyrosine. Pre- and postprandial subjective sensations of appetite were assessed using visual analogue scales. RESULTS: Of 87 'Eat Smart' participants, 74 participated in this sub-study. The mean (standard deviation) BMI z-score was 2.1 (0.4) in the intervention groups at week 12 compared with 2.2 (0.4) in the control group. Fasting insulin (P = 0.05) and leptin (P = 0.03) levels decreased, while adiponectin levels increased (P = 0.05) in the intervention groups compared with control. The intervention groups were not significantly different from each other. A decrease in BMI z-score at week 12 was associated with decreased fasting insulin (P < 0.001), homeostatic model of assessment-insulin resistance (P < 0.001), leptin (P < 0.001), total amylin (P = 0.03), GIP (P = 0.01), PP (P = 0.02) and increased adiponectin (P < 0.001). There was no significant difference in appetite sensations. CONCLUSIONS: Modest weight loss in obese adolescents leads to changes in some adipokines and gut hormones that may favour weight regain.


Assuntos
Polipeptídeo Inibidor Gástrico/metabolismo , Grelina/metabolismo , Obesidade Pediátrica/metabolismo , Adiponectina/metabolismo , Adolescente , Adulto , Apetite , Índice de Massa Corporal , Peso Corporal , Jejum/metabolismo , Feminino , Peptídeo 1 Semelhante ao Glucagon/metabolismo , Humanos , Insulina/metabolismo , Resistência à Insulina , Leptina/metabolismo , Masculino , Peptídeo YY/metabolismo , Período Pós-Prandial , Perda de Peso
10.
Eur J Clin Nutr ; 68(8): 892-7, 2014 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24824013

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Nutritional issues that are associated with Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) remain poorly understood. The aim of this analysis was to describe and explore longitudinal observations of body mass index (BMI) in a cohort of children with DMD. SUBJECTS/METHODS: Anthropometric and clinical characteristics were collected retrospectively and longitudinally for boys with DMD seen in two large neuromuscular clinics. BMI Z-scores were determined using the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention reference values for children (2000). RESULTS: Medical records (n=193) were examined from which 75% were included for analysis. The mean age of the cohort at the time of data collection was 11.9 years, with 72% of patients currently or previously using steroids. The highest prevalence of obesity based on the BMI Z-score was 50% at the age of 10 years. Longitudinally, BMI Z-scores from the age of 2 to 12 years plot approximately one s.d. above the mean, after which there is a marked and progressive decline. BMI gainers were identified for whom BMI Z-score increased by 1.65 units compared with the 0.09 units in non-gainers. BMI gainers were younger when they had their first BMI measurement (5.9 vs 7.2 years), and this measure was significantly lower compared with the non-gainers (BMI Z-score: 0.04 vs 1.17). In this cohort, BMI was associated with age, ambulatory status and lung function. CONCLUSIONS: This study demonstrates that boys with DMD using steroid therapy experience shifts in BMI. A declining BMI appears to be associated with increasing age. Interpretation of growth patterns is limited here by a lack of normative growth references in DMD.


Assuntos
Composição Corporal , Índice de Massa Corporal , Glucocorticoides/uso terapêutico , Crescimento , Distrofia Muscular de Duchenne/tratamento farmacológico , Obesidade Pediátrica/etiologia , Esteroides/uso terapêutico , Adolescente , Fatores Etários , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Estudos de Coortes , Glucocorticoides/efeitos adversos , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Obesidade Pediátrica/epidemiologia , Prevalência , Valores de Referência , Estudos Retrospectivos , Esteroides/efeitos adversos
11.
J Hum Nutr Diet ; 27(5): 479-88, 2014 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24236642

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In the future, it may be possible for individuals to take a genetic test to determine their genetic predisposition towards developing lifestyle-related chronic diseases. A systematic review of the literature was undertaken to identify the factors associated with an interest in having predictive genetic testing for obesity, type II diabetes and heart disease amongst unaffected adults. METHODS: Ovid Medline, PsycINFO and EMBASE online databases were searched using predefined search terms. Publications meeting the inclusion criteria (English language, free-living adult population not selected as a result of their disease diagnosis, reporting interest as an outcome, not related to a single gene inherited disease) were assessed for quality and content. Narrative synthesis of the results was undertaken. RESULTS: From the 2329 publications retrieved, eight studies met the inclusion criteria and were included in the review. Overall, the evidence base was small but of positive quality. Interest was associated with personal attitudes towards disease risk and the provision of information about genetic testing, shaped by perceived risk of disease and expected outcomes of testing. The role of demographic factors was investigated with largely inconclusive findings. CONCLUSIONS: Interest in predictive genetic testing for obesity, type II diabetes or heart disease was greatest amongst those who perceived the risk of disease to be high and/or the outcomes of testing to be beneficial.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/genética , Medicina Baseada em Evidências , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Testes Genéticos , Cardiopatias/genética , Obesidade/genética , Aceitação pelo Paciente de Cuidados de Saúde , Adulto , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/diagnóstico , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/epidemiologia , Diagnóstico Precoce , Cardiopatias/diagnóstico , Cardiopatias/epidemiologia , Humanos , Obesidade/diagnóstico , Obesidade/epidemiologia , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Fatores de Risco
12.
J Hum Nutr Diet ; 27(5): 513-21, 2014 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24147997

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The assessment of competence for health professionals including nutrition and dietetics professionals in work-based settings is challenging. The present study aimed to explore the experiences of educators involved in the assessment of nutrition and dietetics students in the practice setting and to identify barriers and enablers to effective assessment. METHODS: A qualitative research approach using in-depth interviews was employed with a convenience sample of inexperienced dietitian assessors. Interviews explored assessment practices and challenges. Data were analysed using a thematic approach within a phenomenological framework. Twelve relatively inexperienced practice educators were purposefully sampled to take part in the present study. RESULTS: Three themes emerged from these data. (i) Student learning and thus assessment is hindered by a number of barriers, including workload demands and case-mix. Some workplaces are challenged to provide appropriate learning opportunities and environment. Adequate support for placement educators from the university, managers and their peers and planning are enablers to effective assessment. (ii) The role of the assessor and their relationship with students impacts on competence assessment. (iii) There is a lack of clarity in the tasks and responsibilities of competency-based assessment. CONCLUSIONS: The present study provides perspectives on barriers and enablers to effective assessment. It highlights the importance of reflective practice and feedback in assessment practices that are synonymous with evidence from other disciplines, which can be used to better support a work-based competency assessment of student performance.


Assuntos
Atitude do Pessoal de Saúde , Determinação de Necessidades de Cuidados de Saúde , Nutricionistas/educação , Competência Profissional , Estudantes de Ciências da Saúde , Adulto , Austrália , Barreiras de Comunicação , Serviços de Dietética , Retroalimentação Psicológica , Feminino , Serviço Hospitalar de Nutrição , Humanos , Ciências da Nutrição/educação , Papel Profissional , Saúde Pública , Recursos Humanos , Carga de Trabalho , Local de Trabalho
13.
J Hum Nutr Diet ; 26 Suppl 1: 140-4, 2013 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23495761

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Innovative dietary intake measurement tools, such as web-based food records, are becoming increasingly available for self-monitoring. However, the accuracy of this method has not been well studied. This pilot study aimed to evaluate the accuracy of energy intake (EI) estimated by a web-based food record, by comparison with total energy expenditure (TEE) measured by doubly-labelled water (DLW) in overweight and obese women. METHODS: Total energy expenditure (TEE) was assessed in weight stable (±1 kg) women (n = 9), with a mean (SD) age of 34.5 (11.3) years and body mass index of 29.2 (1.4) kg m(-2) over 10 days using the DLW technique. All food and beverages were self-reported for 9-days using a web-based food record and mean daily EI calculated. Food record accuracy was assessed by calculating the absolute (EI - TEE) and percentage (EI/TEE × 100) differences between EI and TEE. Women were identified as under-reporters of EI based on the 95% confidence limits of the expected EI : TEE of 1. RESULTS: The mean (SD) self-reported EI was 8351 (1225) kJ day(-1) [1996 (293) kcal day(-1) ] and TEE was 10 648 (1774) kJ day(-1) [2545 (424) kcal day(-1) ]. The mean (SD) absolute difference in self-reported EI and TEE was -2301 (1535) kJ day(-1) [-550 (367) kcal day(-1) ], representing a mean reporting accuracy of 79.6% (14.1%), with four participants under-reporting EI. CONCLUSIONS: This pilot study highlights the opportunity for the use of the Internet as a novel medium for recording and assessing dietary intake. Although further research is needed in more diverse population groups, the accuracy of web-based food records for assessing EI appears to be consistent with other published dietary intake methods.


Assuntos
Registros de Dieta , Ingestão de Energia , Metabolismo Energético , Internet , Avaliação Nutricional , Obesidade , Autorrelato , Adulto , Índice de Massa Corporal , Feminino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Obesidade/etiologia , Sobrepeso , Projetos Piloto , Adulto Jovem
14.
Clin Nutr ; 32(4): 613-8, 2013 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23206381

RESUMO

BACKGROUND & AIMS: The aim of this study was to (i) to compare the accuracy of reporting for child's total energy intake from a food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) completed independently by the mother, father and child in comparison to total energy expenditure (TEE) measured using doubly labeled water (DLW) (ii) compare the accuracy of the weighed food record (WFR) and DLW. METHODS: Healthy weight children (mean ± SD age 9.8 ± 1.3 years, n = 6 girls/3 boys) and their parents independently completed an FFQ about children's intake. A 4-day WFR of child intake was recorded simultaneously. The accuracy of energy intakes reports were determined by the absolute and percentage differences between estimated energy intake and TEE measured by DLW. RESULTS: The mean difference (limits of agreement LOA, ± 2SD) when compared to DLW was; child 130 (-1518, 1258) kcal or (113 ± 35% of TEE); father 398 (0,796) kcal or (121 ± 13%); mother 807 (-213, 1824) kcal or (144 ± 26%) and for the WFR -153 (1089, -1395) kcal or 95 ± 32%. CONCLUSIONS: Children were the most accurate reporters when compared to their parents, with fathers more accurate than mothers. The 4-day WFR was approximately equal to the child report FFQ in estimating EI in children 8-11 years.


Assuntos
Registros de Dieta , Ingestão de Energia , Inquéritos e Questionários , Índice de Massa Corporal , Criança , Metabolismo Energético , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pais
15.
Obes Rev ; 13(12): 1125-38, 2012 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22891692

RESUMO

Assessing dietary intake is important in evaluating childhood obesity intervention effectiveness. The purpose of this review was to evaluate the dietary intake methods and reporting in intervention studies that included a dietary component to treat overweight or obese children. A systematic review of studies published in the English language, between 1985 and August 2010 in health databases. The search identified 2,295 papers, of which 335 were retrieved and 31 met the inclusion criteria. Twenty-three studies reported energy intake as an outcome measure, 20 reported macronutrient intakes and 10 studies reported food intake outcomes. The most common dietary method employed was the food diary (n = 13), followed by 24-h recall (n = 5), food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) (n = 4) and dietary questionnaire (n = 4). The quality of the dietary intake methods reporting was rated as 'poor' in 15 studies (52%) and only 3 were rated as 'excellent'. The reporting quality of FFQs tended to be higher than food diaries/recalls. Deficiencies in the quality of dietary intake methods reporting in child obesity studies were identified. Use of a dietary intake methods reporting checklist is recommended. This will enable the quality of dietary intake results to be evaluated, and an increased ability to replicate study methodology by other researchers.


Assuntos
Inquéritos sobre Dietas/métodos , Dieta , Ingestão de Energia/fisiologia , Obesidade/dietoterapia , Avaliação de Processos e Resultados (Cuidados de Saúde) , Adolescente , Criança , Registros de Dieta , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Rememoração Mental , Projetos de Pesquisa
16.
J Hum Hypertens ; 26(1): 3-13, 2012 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21307883

RESUMO

Hypertension is a public health priority in developed countries and worldwide, and is strongly associated with increased risk and progression of cardiovascular and renal diseases. A systematic review and meta-analysis were conducted to examine the association between dairy food intake during adulthood and the development of elevated blood pressure (EBP), specifically comparing the association of EBP with consumption of low-fat dairy foods versus high-fat dairy foods, as well as cheese versus fluid dairy foods (milk or yogurt). Seven databases were searched and five cohort studies selected for inclusion, involving nearly 45,000 subjects and 11,500 cases of EBP. Meta-analysis of consumption of dairy foods and EBP in adults gave a relative risk (RR) of 0.87 (95% confidence interval (CI) 0.81-0.94). Separation of high- and low-fat dairy foods, however, indicated a significant association with low-fat dairy foods only (RR of 0.84 (95% CI 0.74-0.95)). Additional analyses showed no association between EBP and cheese, although fluid dairy foods were significantly associated with a reduced development in EBP (RR of 0.92 (95% CI 0.87-0.98)). Little heterogeneity was observed among the data presented. This meta-analysis supports the inverse association between low-fat dairy foods and fluid dairy foods and risk of EBP. Understanding these relationships can aid in the development of public health messages involving dairy foods, and supports current recommendations.


Assuntos
Laticínios , Dieta com Restrição de Gorduras , Dieta Hiperlipídica , Hipertensão/epidemiologia , Hipertensão/prevenção & controle , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Risco , Adulto Jovem
17.
Eur J Clin Nutr ; 65(12): 1314-20, 2011 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21731043

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Dietary assessment in humans is hampered by the phenomena of under and overreporting of energy intake, when food records are used to evaluate habitual dietary intake. Different methods to evaluate mis-reporting have been proposed using cut-offs derived from estimates of reported energy intake and basal metabolic rate, or, from predictions of total energy expenditure. This study compares the effect of using two different cut-off approaches to screen food records for validity, completed by a large cohort of Australian children (n=2460), from Grades 1, 5 and 10 (aged 5-17 years). SUBJECTS/METHODS: Energy intake was calculated from 24-h food and drink records for each child. These data were screened using the Goldberg and McCrory cut-offs. The effect of using these two cut-offs on the collected dataset was explored by considering the mean and standard deviation of energy intake in each year level before and after the cut-offs were applied. RESULTS: The use of the Goldberg cut-off resulted in 9% of the total cohort being classified as underreporters, with 60% of these subjects being in Grade 10. The McCrory cut-offs revealed that overall, 22% of the total cohort underreported EI. 33.3% of Grade 1 children were classified as overreporters with this value falling to about 20% of Grade 10 children, while 10-15% of Grade 1 children underreported, with this figure rising to about 30% in Grade 10. CONCLUSIONS: Both the Goldberg and McCrory approaches have their advantages and disadvantages, and we suggest that consideration should be given to the reason for screening data before a particular approach is used, with recognition that these methods do differ in their aims and outcomes. The McCrory method consistently classified a greater number of children as underreporters.


Assuntos
Registros de Dieta , Dieta , Ingestão de Energia , Metabolismo Energético , Autorrelato , Austrália , Metabolismo Basal , Criança , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Valores de Referência , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes
18.
J Hum Nutr Diet ; 22(5): 383-93, 2009 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-19743977

RESUMO

Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) is a recessive X linked genetic disorder characterised by progressive muscle weakness and reduced muscle tone. Affecting only boys, it limits life expectancy to approximately 20 years. A literature review was conducted using MEDLINE and the Cochrane Library, employing the term 'Duchenne muscular dystrophy'. A total of 1491 articles in English were recovered. These papers were searched thematically under the headings: body composition (n = 10), energy expenditure (n = 10), nutrition (n = 6), corticosteroid therapy (n = 55) and gene therapy (n = 199). Key dietetic practice points were identified relevant to nutritional management. Papers supporting these key themes were assigned a level of evidence and grade of recommendation. There is limited high-quality evidence to guide the nutritional management of boys with DMD. Currently, the majority of evidence is based on expert opinion and clinical expertise. Delayed growth, short stature, muscle wasting and increased fat mass are characteristics of DMD and impact on nutritional status and energy requirements. The early introduction of steroids has altered the natural history of the disease, but can exacerbate weight gain in a population already susceptible to obesity. Prior to commencing steroids, anticipatory guidance for weight management should be provided. Malnutrition is a feature of end stage disease requiring a multidisciplinary approach, such as texture modification and supplemental feeding. Micronutrient requirements are yet to be determined but, as a result of corticosteroid treatment, vitamin D and calcium should be supplemented. Some evidence exists supporting supplementation with creatine monohydrate to improve muscle strength. More research is needed to provide a higher quality of evidence for dietitians working within this area.


Assuntos
Distrofia Muscular de Duchenne/dietoterapia , Terapia Nutricional , Cálcio/uso terapêutico , Criança , Creatina/uso terapêutico , Suplementos Nutricionais , Humanos , Masculino , Desnutrição/dietoterapia , Desnutrição/etiologia , Distrofia Muscular de Duchenne/complicações , Distrofia Muscular de Duchenne/tratamento farmacológico , Necessidades Nutricionais , Obesidade/etiologia , Obesidade/prevenção & controle , Esteroides/uso terapêutico , Vitamina D/uso terapêutico
19.
Public Health Nutr ; 12(6): 799-807, 2009 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-18647427

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the relative efficacy of four popular weight-loss programmes on plasma lipids and lipoproteins as measures of CVD risk. DESIGN: A multi-centred, randomised, controlled trial of four diets - Dr Atkins' New Diet Revolution, The Slim-Fast Plan, Weight Watchers Pure Points programme and Rosemary Conley's 'Eat yourself Slim' Diet and Fitness Plan - against a control diet, in parallel for 6 months. SETTING AND SUBJECTS: The trial was conducted at five universities across the UK (Surrey, Nottingham, Ulster (Coleraine), Bristol and Edinburgh (Queen Margaret University College)) and involved the participation of 300 overweight and obese males and females aged 21-60 years in a community setting. RESULTS: Significant weight loss was achieved by all dieting groups (5-9 kg at 6 months) but no significant difference was observed between diets at 6 months. The Weight Watchers and Rosemary Conley (low-fat) diets were followed by significant reductions in plasma LDL cholesterol (both -12.2 % after 6 months, P < 0.01), whereas the Atkins (low-carbohydrate) and Weight Watchers diets were followed by marked reductions in plasma TAG (-38.2 % and -22.6 % at 6 months respectively, P < 0.01). These latter two diets were associated with an increase in LDL particle size, a change that has been linked to reduced CVD risk. CONCLUSIONS: Overall, these results demonstrate the favourable effects of weight loss on lipid-mediated CVD risk factors that can be achieved through commercially available weight-loss programmes. No detrimental effects on lipid-based CVD risk factors were observed in participants consuming a low-carbohydrate diet.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares/epidemiologia , Dieta Redutora , Lipídeos/sangue , Obesidade/terapia , Perda de Peso/fisiologia , Adulto , Doenças Cardiovasculares/sangue , Doenças Cardiovasculares/prevenção & controle , HDL-Colesterol/sangue , LDL-Colesterol/sangue , Dieta com Restrição de Carboidratos , Exercício/fisiologia , Feminino , Alimentos Formulados , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Obesidade/sangue , Obesidade/dietoterapia , Fatores de Risco , Triglicerídeos/sangue , Reino Unido/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
20.
Int J Obes (Lond) ; 32(9): 1337-47, 2008 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-18607378

RESUMO

In this review, we discuss the role of inactivity and exercise on appetite regulation, both in the short and long term, and the potential mechanisms involved. A better short-term appetite control has been described in active compared to sedentary men, and an exercise intervention was shown to improve appetite control in previously sedentary individuals. The mechanisms whereby exercise improves short-term appetite control remain obscure and although the changes in the postprandial release of satiety peptides are attractive hypotheses, it remains unproven. The impact of exercise on habitual food intake is also controversial and likely to be dependent on restraint level and body weight. We hypothesize that the beneficial impact of exercise on appetite regulation can contribute to its well-established efficacy in the prevention of weight regain in obese individuals. However, more studies are needed in the obese population to clearly establish the role of exercise on appetite control in this group.


Assuntos
Regulação do Apetite/fisiologia , Exercício/fisiologia , Obesidade/prevenção & controle , Ingestão de Alimentos/fisiologia , Ingestão de Energia/fisiologia , Metabolismo Energético/fisiologia , Humanos , Leptina/sangue , Motivação , Obesidade/fisiopatologia , Perda de Peso/fisiologia
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