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1.
BMJ Glob Health ; 6(1)2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33472838

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Global health conferences are important platforms for knowledge exchange, decision-making and personal and professional growth for attendees. Neocolonial patterns in global health at large and recent opinion reports indicate that stakeholders from low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) may be under-represented at such conferences. This study aims to describe the factors that impact LMIC representation at global health conferences. METHODS: A systematic review of articles reporting factors determining global health conference attendance was performed using the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses guidelines. Articles presenting conference demographics and data on the barriers and/or facilitators to attendance were included. Articles were screened at title and abstract level by four independent reviewers. Eligible articles were read in full text, analysed and evaluated with a risk of bias assessment. RESULTS: Among 8765 articles screened, 46 articles met inclusion criteria. Thematic analysis yielded two themes: 'barriers to conference attendance' and 'facilitators to conference attendance'. In total, 112 conferences with 254 601 attendees were described, of which 4% of the conferences were hosted in low-income countries. Of the 98 302 conference attendees, for whom affiliation was disclosed, 38 167 (39%) were from LMICs. CONCLUSION: 'Conference inequity' is common in global health, with LMIC attendees under-represented at global health conferences. LMIC attendance is limited by systemic barriers including high travel costs, visa restrictions and lower acceptance rates for research presentations. This may be mitigated by relocating conferences to visa-friendly countries, providing travel scholarships and developing mentorship programmes to enable LMIC researchers to participate in global conferences.

2.
Anesth Analg ; 2020 Nov 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33264116

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: International standards for safe anesthetic care have been developed by the World Federation of Societies of Anaesthesiologists (WFSA) and the World Health Organization (WHO). Whether these standards are met is unknown in many nations, including Guatemala, a country with universal health coverage. We aimed to establish an overview of anesthesia care capacity in public surgical hospitals in Guatemala to help guide public sector health care development. METHODS: In partnership with the Guatemalan Ministry of Public Health and Social Assistance (MSPAS), a national survey of all public hospitals providing surgical care was conducted using the WFSA anesthesia facility assessment tool (AFAT) in 2018. Each facility was assessed for infrastructure, service delivery, workforce, medications, equipment, and monitoring practices. Descriptive statistics were calculated and presented. RESULTS: Of the 46 public hospitals in Guatemala in 2018, 36 (78%) were found to provide surgical care, including 20 district, 14 regional, and 2 national referral hospitals. We identified 573 full-time physician surgeons, anesthesiologists, and obstetricians (SAO) in the public sector, with an estimated SAO density of 3.3/100,000 population. There were 300 full-time anesthesia providers working at public hospitals. Physician anesthesiologists made up 47% of these providers, with an estimated physician anesthesiologist density of 0.8/100,000 population. Only 10% of district hospitals reported having an anesthesia provider continuously present intraoperatively during general or neuraxial anesthesia cases. No hospitals reported assessing pain in the immediate postoperative period. While the availability of some medications such as benzodiazepines and local anesthetics was robust (100% availability across all hospitals), not all hospitals had essential medications such as ketamine, epinephrine, or atropine. There were deficiencies in the availability of essential equipment and basic intraoperative monitors, such as end-tidal carbon dioxide detectors (17% availability across all hospitals). Postoperative care and access to resuscitative equipment, such as defibrillators, were also lacking. CONCLUSIONS: This first countrywide, MSPAS-led assessment of anesthesia capacity at public facilities in Guatemala revealed a lack of essential materials and personnel to provide safe anesthesia and surgery. Hospitals surveyed often did not have resources regardless of hospital size or level, which may suggest multiple factors preventing availability and use. Local and national policy initiatives are needed to address these deficiencies.

3.
PLoS One ; 15(11): e0241553, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33156837

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Interfacility transfers may reflect a time delay of definitive surgical care, but few studies have examined the prevalence of interfacility transfers in the urban low- and middle-income (LMIC) setting. The aim of this study was to determine the number of interfacility transfers required for surgical and obstetric conditions in an urban MIC setting to better understand access to definitive surgical care among LMIC patients. METHODS: A retrospective analysis of public interfacility transfer records was conducted from April 2015 to April 2016 in Cali, Colombia. Data were obtained from the single municipal ambulance agency providing publicly funded ambulance transfers in the city. Interfacility transfers were defined as any patient transfer between two healthcare facilities. We identified the number of transfers for patients with surgical conditions and categorized transfers based on patient ICD-9-CM codes. We compared surgical transfers from public vs. private healthcare facilities by condition type (surgical, obstetric, nonsurgical), transferring physician specialty, and transfer acuity (code blue, emergent, urgent and nonurgent) using logistic regression. RESULTS: 31,659 patient transports occurred over the 13-month study period. 22250 (70.2%) of all transfers were interfacility transfers and 7777 (35%) of transfers were for patients with surgical conditions with an additional 2,244 (10.3%) for obstetric conditions. 49% (8660/17675) of interfacility transfers from public hospitals were for surgical and obstetric conditions vs 32% (1466/4580) for private facilities (P<0.001). The most common surgical conditions requiring interfacility transfer were fractures (1,227, 5.4%), appendicitis (913, 4.1%), wounds (871, 3.9%), abdominal pain (818, 3.6%), trauma (652, 2.9%), and acute abdomen (271, 1.2%). CONCLUSION: Surgical and obstetric conditions account for nearly half of all urban interfacility ambulance transfers. The most common reasons for transfer are basic surgical conditions with public healthcare facilities transferring a greater proportion of patient with surgical conditions than private facilities. Timely access to an initial healthcare facility may not be a reliable surrogate of definitive surgical care given the substantial need for interfacility transfers.

4.
Trauma Surg Acute Care Open ; 5(1): e000451, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32724859

RESUMO

Introduction: Trauma is the leading cause of death and disability among Brazilian children and adolescents. Trauma protocols such as those developed by the Advanced Trauma Life Support course are widely taught, but few studies have assessed the degree to which the use of protocolized trauma assessment improves outcomes. This study aims to quantify the adherence of trauma assessment protocols among different types of frontline trauma providers. Methods: A prospective observational study of pediatric trauma care in one of the busiest Latin American trauma centers was conducted during 6 months. Trauma primary survey assessments were observed and adherence to each step of a standardized primary assessment protocol was recorded. Adherence to the assessment protocol was compared among different types of providers, the time of presentation and severity of injury. The relationship between protocol adherence and clinical outcomes including mortality, length of hospital stay, admission to pediatric intensive care unit, use of blood components, mechanical ventilation and number of imaging exams performed in the first 24 hours were also assessed. Results: Emergency department evaluations of 64 patients out of 274 pediatric admissions were observed over a period of 6 months. 50% of the primary assessments were performed by general surgeons, 34.4% by residents in general surgery and 15.6% by pediatricians. There was an average adherence rate of 34.1% to the trauma protocol. Adherence among each specific step included airway: 17.2%; breathing: 59.4%; circulation: 95.3%; disability: 28.8%; exposure: 18.8%. No differences between specialties were observed. Patients with a more thorough primary assessment underwent fewer CT scans (receiver operating characteristic curve area: 0.661; p=0.027). Conclusions: Our study demonstrates that trauma assessment protocol adherence among trauma providers is low. Thorough initial assessment reduced the use of CT scans suggesting that standardized pediatric trauma assessments may be a way to reduce unnecessary radiological imaging among children. Level of evidence: IV. Study type: Pediatric and global trauma.

5.
World J Surg ; 44(10): 3299-3309, 2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32488666

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: All-cause perioperative mortality rate (POMR) is a commonly reported metric to assess surgical quality. Benchmarking POMR remains difficult due to differences in surgical volume and case mix combined with the burden of reporting and leveraging this complex and high-volume data. We seek to determine whether the pooled and individual procedure POMR of each bellwether (cesarean section, laparotomy, management of open fracture) correlate with state-level all-cause POMR in the interest of identifying benchmark procedures that can be used to make standardized regional comparisons of surgical quality. METHODS: The Brazilian National Healthcare Database (DATASUS) was queried to identify unadjusted all-cause POMR for all patient admissions among public hospitals in Brazil in 2018. Bellwether procedures were identified as any procedure involving laparotomy, cesarean section, or treatment of open long bone fracture and then classified as emergent or elective. The pooled POMR of all bellwether procedures as well as for each individual bellwether procedure was compared with the all-cause POMR in each of the 26 states, and one federal district and correlations were calculated. Funnel plots were used to compare surgical volume to perioperative mortality for each bellwether procedure. RESULTS: 4,756,642 surgical procedures were reported to DATASUS in 2018: 237,727 emergent procedures requiring laparotomy, 852,821 emergent cesarean sections, and 210,657 open, long bone fracture repairs. Pooled perioperative mortality for all of the bellwether procedures was correlated with all-procedure POMR among states (r = 0.77, p < 0.001). POMR for emergency procedures (2.4%) correlated with the all-procedure (emergent and elective) POMR (1.6%, r = 0.93, p < .001), while POMR for elective procedures (0.4%) did not (p = .247). POMR for emergency laparotomy (4.4%) correlated with all-procedure POMR (1.6%, r = 0.52, p = .005), as did the POMR for open, long bone fractures (0.8%, r = 0.61, p < .001). POMR for emergency cesarean section (0.05%) did not correlate with all-procedure POMR (p = 0.400). There was a correlation between surgical volume and emergency laparotomy POMR (r = - 0.53, p = .004), but not for emergency cesarean section or open, long bone fractures POMR. CONCLUSION: Procedure-specific POMR for laparotomy and open long bone fracture correlates modestly with all-procedure POMR among Brazilian states which is primarily driven by emergency procedure POMR. Selective reporting of emergency laparotomy and open fracture POMR may be a useful surrogate to guide subnational surgical policy decisions.

6.
Global Health ; 16(1): 1, 2020 01 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31898532

RESUMO

Efforts from the developed world to improve surgical, anesthesia and obstetric care in low- and middle-income countries have evolved from a primarily volunteer mission trip model to a sustainable health system strengthening approach as private and public stakeholders recognize the enormous health toll and financial burden of surgical disease. The National Surgical, Obstetric and Anesthesia Plan (NSOAP) has been developed as a policy strategy for countries to address, in part, the health burden of diseases amenable to surgical care, but these plans have not developed in isolation. The NSOAP has become a phenomenon of globalization as a broad range of partners - individuals and institutions - help in both NSOAP formulation, implementation and financing. As the nexus between policy and action in the field of global surgery, the NSOAP reflects a special commitment by state actors to make progress on global goals such as Universal Health Coverage and the United Nations Sustainable Development Goals. This requires a continued global commitment involving genuine partnerships that embrace the collective strengths of both national and global actors to deliver sustained, safe and affordable high-quality surgical care for all poor, rural and marginalized people.


Assuntos
Política de Saúde , Internacionalidade , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Operatórios , Anestesia , Feminino , Humanos , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Obstétricos , Gravidez
8.
Am Surg ; 82(6): 526-32, 2016 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27305885

RESUMO

Multiple stump closure techniques after distal pancreatectomy (DP) for trauma have been described, and all are associated with a significant fistula rate. With increasing emphasis on abbreviated laparotomy, stapled pancreatectomy has become more common. This study describes the outcomes of patients with different closure techniques of the pancreatic stump after resection following pancreatic trauma. Retrospective analysis of 50 trauma patients, who sustained grade III pancreatic injuries with subsequent DP and stapled stump closure, were conducted from 1995 to 2011. Demographic, operative, and outcome data were analyzed to characterize patients, and to directly compare closure techniques. After 12 patients were excluded because of early death (<72 hours), final analyses included 38 patients: 19 (50%) had stapled closure alone and 19 (50%) had stapling with adjunct, including additional closure with sutures, fibrin sealants, or a combination of sutures with fibrin sealants/omental coverage. Twenty-four patients (63%) had postoperative complications, most commonly pancreatic fistula (n = 11, 29%). There were no significant differences with regard to pancreatic fistula or other abdominal complications between closure groups, or were any factors associated with increased likelihood of complications. DP remains a morbid operation after trauma regardless of closure technique. Stapled closure alone is perhaps the method of choice in this setting due to the time constraints directly related to outcomes.


Assuntos
Pâncreas/lesões , Pancreatectomia , Fístula Pancreática/prevenção & controle , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/prevenção & controle , Técnicas de Fechamento de Ferimentos , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Humanos , Tempo de Internação , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Resultado do Tratamento , Adulto Jovem
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