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1.
Neuron ; 109(14): 2353-2361.e11, 2021 07 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34171289

RESUMO

To navigate social environments, people must simultaneously hold representations about their own and others' abilities. During self-other mergence, people estimate others' abilities not only on the basis of the others' past performance, but the estimates are also influenced by their own performance. For example, if we perform well, we overestimate the abilities of those with whom we are co-operating and underestimate competitors. Self-other mergence is associated with specific activity patterns in the dorsomedial prefrontal cortex (dmPFC). Using a combination of non-invasive brain stimulation, functional magnetic resonance imaging, and computational modeling, we show that dmPFC neurostimulation silences these neural signatures of self-other mergence in relation to estimation of others' abilities. In consequence, self-other mergence behavior increases, and our assessments of our own performance are projected increasingly onto other people. This suggests an inherent tendency to form interdependent social representations and a causal role of the dmPFC in separating self and other representations.


Assuntos
Modelos Neurológicos , Córtex Pré-Frontal/fisiologia , Percepção Social , Adolescente , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Córtex Pré-Frontal/diagnóstico por imagem , Tempo de Reação/fisiologia , Comportamento Social , Estimulação Magnética Transcraniana , Adulto Jovem
2.
Neuron ; 109(8): 1396-1408.e7, 2021 04 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33730554

RESUMO

More than one type of probability must be considered when making decisions. It is as necessary to know one's chance of performing choices correctly as it is to know the chances that desired outcomes will follow choices. We refer to these two choice contingencies as internal and external probability. Neural activity across many frontal and parietal areas reflected internal and external probabilities in a similar manner during decision-making. However, neural recording and manipulation approaches suggest that one area, the anterior lateral prefrontal cortex (alPFC), is highly specialized for making prospective, metacognitive judgments on the basis of internal probability; it is essential for knowing which decisions to tackle, given its assessment of how well they will be performed. Its activity predicted prospective metacognitive judgments, and individual variation in activity predicted individual variation in metacognitive judgments. Its disruption altered metacognitive judgments, leading participants to tackle perceptual decisions they were likely to fail.


Assuntos
Julgamento/fisiologia , Metacognição/fisiologia , Córtex Pré-Frontal/fisiologia , Adulto , Mapeamento Encefálico , Feminino , Humanos , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Testes Neuropsicológicos , Córtex Pré-Frontal/diagnóstico por imagem , Estudos Prospectivos , Estimulação Magnética Transcraniana
3.
Nat Hum Behav ; 5(1): 83-98, 2021 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32868885

RESUMO

Environments furnish multiple information sources for making predictions about future events. Here we use behavioural modelling and functional magnetic resonance imaging to describe how humans select predictors that might be most relevant. First, during early encounters with potential predictors, participants' selections were explorative and directed towards subjectively uncertain predictors (positive uncertainty effect). This was particularly the case when many future opportunities remained to exploit knowledge gained. Then, preferences for accurate predictors increased over time, while uncertain predictors were avoided (negative uncertainty effect). The behavioural transition from positive to negative uncertainty-driven selections was accompanied by changes in the representations of belief uncertainty in ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC). The polarity of uncertainty representations (positive or negative encoding of uncertainty) changed between exploration and exploitation periods. Moreover, the two periods were separated by a third transitional period in which beliefs about predictors' accuracy predominated. The vmPFC signals a multiplicity of decision variables, the strength and polarity of which vary with behavioural context.


Assuntos
Comportamento Exploratório/fisiologia , Córtex Pré-Frontal/fisiologia , Incerteza , Teorema de Bayes , Encéfalo/diagnóstico por imagem , Encéfalo/fisiologia , Comportamento de Escolha/fisiologia , Feminino , Neuroimagem Funcional , Humanos , Julgamento/fisiologia , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Córtex Pré-Frontal/diagnóstico por imagem , Adulto Jovem
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