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1.
Phys Rev Lett ; 127(15): 156101, 2021 Oct 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34678010

RESUMO

Two-dimensional (2D) materials can roll up, forming stable scrolls under suitable conditions. However, the great diversity of materials and fabrication techniques has resulted in a huge parameter space significantly complicating the theoretical description of scrolls. In this Letter, we describe a universal binding energy of scrolls determined solely by their material parameters, the bending stiffness, and the Hamaker coefficient. Aiming to predict the stability of functionalized scrolls in water solutions, we consider the electrostatic double-layer repulsion force that may overcome the binding energy and flatten the scrolls. Our predictions are represented as comprehensive maps indicating the stable and unstable regions of a rolled-up conformation state in the space of material and external parameters. While focusing mostly on functionalized graphene in this work, our approach is applicable to the whole range of 2D materials able to form scrolls.

2.
Adv Mater ; 33(25): e2100442, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33977595

RESUMO

A class of compounds sharing the properties of 2D materials and electrolytes, namely 2D electrolytes is described theoretically and demonstrated experimentally. 2D electrolytes dissociate in different solvents, such as water, and become electrically charged. The chemical and physical properties of these compounds can be controlled by external factors, such as pH, temperature, electric permittivity of the medium, and ionic concentration. 2D electrolytes, in analogy with polyelectrolytes, present reversible morphological transitions from 2D to 1D, as a function of pH, due to the interplay of the elastic and Coulomb energies. Since these materials show stimuli-responsive behavior to the environmental conditions, 2D electrolytes can be considered as a novel class of smart materials that expand the functionalities of 2D materials and are promising for applications that require stimuli-responsive demeanor, such as drug delivery, artificial muscles, and energy storage.

3.
Nat Nanotechnol ; 16(2): 174-180, 2021 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33169010

RESUMO

Membranes are ubiquitous in nature with primary functions that include adaptive filtering and selective transport of chemical/molecular species. Being critical to cellular functions, they are also fundamental in many areas of science and technology. Of particular importance are the adaptive and programmable membranes that can change their permeability or selectivity depending on the environment. Here, we explore implementation of such biological functions in artificial membranes and demonstrate two-dimensional self-assembled heterostructures of graphene oxide and polyamine macromolecules, forming a network of ionic channels that exhibit regulated permeability of water and monovalent ions. This permeability can be tuned by a change of pH or the presence of certain ions. Unlike traditional membranes, the regulation mechanism reported here relies on specific interactions between the membranes' internal components and ions. This allows fabrication of membranes with programmable, predetermined permeability and selectivity, governed by the choice of components, their conformation and their charging state.

4.
Phys Rev Lett ; 125(8): 086803, 2020 Aug 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32909796

RESUMO

Electrons commonly couple through Fröhlich interactions with longitudinal optical phonons to form polarons. However, trions possess a finite angular momentum and should therefore couple instead to rotational optical phonons. This creates a polaronic trion whose binding energy is determined by the crystallographic orientation of the lattice. Here, we demonstrate theoretically within the Fröhlich approach and experimentally by photoluminescence emission that the bare trion binding energy (20 meV) is significantly enhanced by the phonons at the interface between the two-dimensional semiconductor MoS_{2} and the bulk transition metal oxide SrTiO_{3}. The low-temperature binding energy changes from 60 meV in [001]-oriented substrates to 90 meV for [111] orientation, as a result of the counterintuitive interplay between the rotational axis of the MoS_{2} trion and that of the SrTiO_{3} phonon mode.

5.
Adv Mater ; 32(29): e2001543, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32538523

RESUMO

Ultrafast interlayer charge transfer is one of the most distinct features of van der Waals (vdW) heterostructures. Its dynamics competes with carrier thermalization such that the energy of nonthermalized photocarriers may be harnessed by band engineering. In this study, nonthermalized photocarrier energy is harnessed to achieve near-infrared (NIR) to visible light upconversion in a metal-insulator-semiconductor (MIS) vdW heterostructure tunnel diode consisting of few-layer graphene (FLG), hexagonal boron nitride (hBN), and monolayer tungsten disulfide (WS2 ). Photoexcitation of the electrically biased heterostructure with 1.58 eV NIR laser in the linear absorption regime generates emission from the ground exciton state of WS2 , which corresponds to upconversion by ≈370 meV. The upconversion is realized by electrically assisted interlayer transfer of nonthermalized photoexcited holes from FLG to WS2 , followed by formation and radiative recombination of excitons in WS2 . The photocarrier transfer rate can be described by Fowler-Nordheim tunneling mechanism and is electrically tunable by two orders of magnitude by tuning voltage bias applied to the device. This study highlights the prospects for realizing novel electro-optic upconversion devices by exploiting electrically tunable nonthermalized photocarrier relaxation dynamics in vdW heterostructures.

6.
Nano Lett ; 20(3): 1647-1653, 2020 Mar 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32078334

RESUMO

Strong many-body interactions in two-dimensional (2D) semiconductors give rise to efficient exciton-exciton annihilation (EEA). This process is expected to result in the generation of unbound high energy carriers. Here, we report an unconventional photoresponse of van der Waals heterostructure devices resulting from efficient EEA. Our heterostructures, which consist of monolayer transition metal dichalcogenide (TMD), hexagonal boron nitride (hBN), and few-layer graphene, exhibit photocurrent when photoexcited carriers possess sufficient energy to overcome the high energy barrier of hBN. Interestingly, we find that the device exhibits moderate photocurrent quantum efficiency even when the semiconducting TMD layer is excited at its ground exciton resonance despite the high exciton binding energy and large transport barrier. Using ab initio calculations, we show that EEA yields highly energetic electrons and holes with unevenly distributed energies depending on the scattering condition. Our findings highlight the dominant role of EEA in determining the photoresponse of 2D semiconductor optoelectronic devices.

7.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 116(52): 26431-26434, 2019 Dec 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31818954

RESUMO

Recent experimental [I. Jo et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 119, 016402 (2017)] and numerical [M. Ippoliti, S. D. Geraedts, R. N. Bhatt, Phys. Rev. B 95, 201104 (2017)] evidence suggests an intriguing universal relationship between the Fermi surface anisotropy of the noninteracting parent 2-dimensional (2D) electron gas and the strongly correlated composite Fermi liquid formed in a strong magnetic field close to half-filling. Inspired by these observations, we explore more generally the question of anisotropy renormalization in interacting 2D Fermi systems. Using a recently developed [H. -K. Tang et al., Science 361, 570 (2018)] nonperturbative and numerically exact projective quantum Monte Carlo simulation as well as other numerical and analytic techniques, only for Dirac fermions with long-range Coulomb interactions do we find a universal square-root decrease of the Fermi-surface anisotropy. For the [Formula: see text] composite Fermi liquid, this result is surprising since a Dirac fermion ground state was only recently proposed as an alternative to the usual Halperin-Lee-Read state. Our proposed universality can be tested in several anisotropic Dirac materials including graphene, topological insulators, organic conductors, and magic-angle twisted bilayer graphene.

8.
Endeavour ; 43(3): 100697, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31699398

RESUMO

In 2019, the world scientific community celebrates the 110th anniversary of the death of Nikolai Vasilevich Sorokin (1846-1909), an eminent Russian biologist. On this occasion, this paper reviews the life and work of Sorokin, who was known for many important scientific breakthroughs, particularly in botany, mycology, and microbiology. Drawing upon Sorokin's publications and unpublished papers from archives, this account traces his key educational influences and the development of his research interests, research-related travels, contributions to the Russian movement in women's higher education, and his key publications, particularly his four-volume treatise on plant parasites.

9.
Adv Mater ; 31(41): e1903569, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31448503

RESUMO

The reduced electrical screening in 2D materials provides an ideal platform for realization of exotic quasiparticles, that are robust and whose functionalities can be exploited for future electronic, optoelectronic, and valleytronic applications. Recent examples include an interlayer exciton, where an electron from one layer binds with a hole from another, and a Holstein polaron, formed by an electron dressed by a sea of phonons. Here, a new quasiparticle is reported, "polaronic trion" in a heterostructure of MoS2 /SrTiO3 (STO). This emerges as the Fröhlich bound state of the trion in the atomically thin monolayer of MoS2 and the very unique low energy soft phonon mode (≤7 meV, which is temperature and field tunable) in the quantum paraelectric substrate STO, arising below its structural antiferrodistortive (AFD) phase transition temperature. This dressing of the trion with soft phonons manifests in an anomalous temperature dependence of photoluminescence emission leading to a huge enhancement of the trion binding energy (≈70 meV). The soft phonons in STO are sensitive to electric field, which enables field control of the interfacial trion-phonon coupling and resultant polaronic trion binding energy. Polaronic trions could provide a platform to realize quasiparticle-based tunable optoelectronic applications driven by many body effects.

10.
Sci Adv ; 5(7): eaaw2347, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31334350

RESUMO

Understanding the remarkable excitonic effects and controlling the exciton binding energies in two-dimensional (2D) semiconductors are crucial in unlocking their full potential for use in future photonic and optoelectronic devices. Here, we demonstrate large excitonic effects and gate-tunable exciton binding energies in single-layer rhenium diselenide (ReSe2) on a back-gated graphene device. We used scanning tunneling spectroscopy and differential reflectance spectroscopy to measure the quasiparticle electronic and optical bandgap of single-layer ReSe2, respectively, yielding a large exciton binding energy of 520 meV. Further, we achieved continuous tuning of the electronic bandgap and exciton binding energy of monolayer ReSe2 by hundreds of milli-electron volts through electrostatic gating, attributed to tunable Coulomb interactions arising from the gate-controlled free carriers in graphene. Our findings open a new avenue for controlling the bandgap renormalization and exciton binding energies in 2D semiconductors for a wide range of technological applications.

11.
Curr Pharm Des ; 24(20): 2317-2321, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30019639

RESUMO

Neurodegenerative disorders have been and remain persistent sources of enormous suffering throughout human history. The tragedy of their impact on human relationships, physical vitality, and fundamental dignity cannot be understated. Parkinson's disease (PD), one of the most common of these terrible illnesses, has a global incidence of approximately two-to-four percent of the human population, along with devastating social and economic impact. The present review analyzes aspects of PD pathophysiology that offer particularly attractive strategies for the development of improved prevention and therapy. The occurrence, symptoms, pathogenesis, and etiology of PD are considered, with focus on how the Alpha synuclein protein, which normally regulates neurotransmitter release, is aggregated by oxidative stressors into toxic inclusions, prominently including Lewy bodies and insoluble fibrils that disrupt the organization of brain areas responsible for motor control. The contribution to a progressively prooxidant tissue environment resulting from interaction between advanced glycation end products (AGEs) and their cognate receptors (RAGEs) is examined here as a significant driver of PD. This review also explores strategies currently being developed by a U.S.-Russian team that may reduce the risk and severity of PD by use of recombinant atoxic derivatives (ad) of botulinum neurotoxins (BoNT/A ad), that traffic inducers of the cytoprotective enzyme heme oxygenase to selected midbrain neurons, at which Alpha synuclein aggregation occurs. Considered together, the topic material presented here provides both researchers and clinicians with a short but concise overview of the current understanding of PD pathology and approaches to biotherapeutic (precision) countermeasures to its onset and progression.


Assuntos
Antiparkinsonianos/uso terapêutico , Heme Oxigenase (Desciclizante)/metabolismo , Doença de Parkinson/tratamento farmacológico , Doença de Parkinson/metabolismo , alfa-Sinucleína/metabolismo , Adaptação Fisiológica , Regulação Enzimológica da Expressão Gênica , Humanos
12.
FEMS Microbiol Lett ; 365(18)2018 09 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30052940

RESUMO

This review is devoted to the mechanisms of antibiotic resistance in mollicutes (class Bacilli, subclass Mollicutes), the smallest self-replicating bacteria, that can cause diseases in plants, animals and humans, and also contaminate cell cultures and vaccine preparations. Research in this area has been mainly based on the ubiquitous mollicute and the main contaminant of cell cultures, Acholeplasma laidlawii. The omics technologies applied to this and other bacteria have yielded a complex picture of responses to antimicrobials, including their removal from the cell, the acquisition of antibiotic resistance genes and mutations that potentially allow global reprogramming of many cellular processes. This review provides a brief summary of well-known resistance mechanisms that have been demonstrated in several mollicutes species and, in more detail, novel mechanisms revealed in A. laidlawii, including the least explored vesicle-mediated transfer of short RNAs with a regulatory potency. We hope that this review highlights new avenues for further studies on antimicrobial resistance in these bacteria for both a basic science and an application perspective of infection control and management in clinical and research/production settings.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana , Tenericutes/efeitos dos fármacos , Pesquisa Biomédica/tendências
13.
Phys Rev Lett ; 120(18): 187401, 2018 May 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29775359

RESUMO

Using the quasiclassical concept of Berry curvature we demonstrate that a Dirac exciton-a pair of Dirac quasiparticles bound by Coulomb interactions-inevitably possesses an intrinsic angular momentum making the exciton effectively self-rotating. The model is applied to excitons in two-dimensional transition metal dichalcogenides, in which the charge carriers are known to be described by a Dirac-like Hamiltonian. We show that the topological self-rotation strongly modifies the exciton spectrum and, as a consequence, resolves the puzzle of the overestimated two-dimensional polarizability employed to fit earlier spectroscopic measurements.

14.
J Proteomics ; 110: 117-28, 2014 Oct 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25088052

RESUMO

Mycoplasmas (class Mollicutes), the smallest prokaryotes capable of self-replication, as well as Archaea, Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria constitutively produce extracellular vesicles (EVs). However, little is known regarding the content and functions of mycoplasma vesicles. Here, we present for the first time a proteomics-based characterisation of extracellular membrane vesicles from Acholeplasma laidlawii PG8. The ubiquitous mycoplasma is widespread in nature, found in humans, animals and plants, and is the causative agent of phytomycoplasmoses and the predominant contaminant of cell cultures. Taking a proteomics approach using LC-ESI-MS/MS, we identified 97 proteins. Analysis of the identified proteins indicated that A. laidlawii-derived EVs are enriched in virulence proteins that may play critical roles in mycoplasma-induced pathogenesis. Our data will help to elucidate the functions of mycoplasma-derived EVs and to develop effective methods to control infections and contaminations of cell cultures by mycoplasmas. In the present study, we have documented for the first time the proteins in EVs secreted by mycoplasma vesicular proteins identified in this study are likely involved in the adaptation of bacteria to stressors, survival in microbial communities and pathogen-host interactions. These findings suggest that the secretion of EVs is an evolutionally conserved and universal process that occurs in organisms from the simplest wall-less bacteria to complex organisms and indicate the necessity of developing new approaches to control infects.


Assuntos
Acholeplasma laidlawii/metabolismo , Proteínas de Bactérias/química , Proteoma/química , Vesículas Transportadoras/metabolismo , Fatores de Virulência/química , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Líquido Extracelular/metabolismo , Dados de Sequência Molecular , Mycoplasma
15.
ScientificWorldJournal ; 2014: 150615, 2014.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24605048

RESUMO

This study demonstrated that extracellular membrane vesicles are involved with the development of resistance to fluoroquinolones by mycoplasmas (class Mollicutes). This study assessed the differences in susceptibility to ciprofloxacin among strains of Acholeplasma laidlawii PG8. The mechanisms of mycoplasma resistance to antibiotics may be associated with a mutation in a gene related to the target of quinolones, which could modulate the vesiculation level. A. laidlawii extracellular vesicles mediated the export of the nucleotide sequences of the antibiotic target gene as well as the traffic of ciprofloxacin. These results may facilitate the development of effective approaches to control mycoplasma infections, as well as the contamination of cell cultures and vaccine preparations.


Assuntos
Acholeplasma laidlawii/efeitos dos fármacos , Adaptação Fisiológica , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Ciprofloxacina/farmacologia , Genes Bacterianos , Mutação , Acholeplasma laidlawii/genética , Acholeplasma laidlawii/fisiologia , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Antibacterianos/farmacocinética , Sequência de Bases , Transporte Biológico , Ciprofloxacina/farmacocinética , DNA Topoisomerase IV/química , DNA Topoisomerase IV/genética , DNA Bacteriano , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Microscopia de Força Atômica , Microscopia Eletrônica de Transmissão , Dados de Sequência Molecular , Homologia de Sequência de Aminoácidos , Homologia de Sequência do Ácido Nucleico
16.
Rejuvenation Res ; 17(2): 168-71, 2014 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24050307

RESUMO

The receptor for advanced glycation end products (RAGE) regulates cellular proliferation in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). The aim of this study was to test the in vitro effect of Yo Jyo Hen Shi Ko (YHK), a nutraceutical with prior data suggesting its hepatocyte-protecting role, in regulating RAGE in the proliferation of the HCC cell line HuH7 as well checking also its potential modulation in the expression of the transcriptional factor nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) p65. Our study showed that YHK significantly reduced cellular growth in the HuH7 cell line (p<0.05). Moreover, this phytocompound partly reduced gene expression of NF-κB p65 (by 35%, p<0.05). These data suggest that YHK has a potential role as a modulator of RAGE and RAGE ligands for potential healthy liver intervention in HCC prevention strategies.


Assuntos
Envelhecimento/efeitos dos fármacos , Anti-Inflamatórios/farmacologia , Antimutagênicos/farmacologia , Hepatócitos/metabolismo , Fígado/fisiologia , Preparações de Plantas/farmacologia , Substâncias Protetoras/farmacologia , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Hepatócitos/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Fígado/efeitos dos fármacos , NF-kappa B/metabolismo , RNA Mensageiro/genética , RNA Mensageiro/metabolismo , Receptor para Produtos Finais de Glicação Avançada , Receptores Imunológicos/genética , Receptores Imunológicos/metabolismo
17.
ScientificWorldJournal ; 2012: 315474, 2012.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23251100

RESUMO

For the first time, the phytopathogenicity of extracellular vesicles of Acholeplasma laidlawii PG8 (a ubiquitous mycoplasma that is one of the five common species of cell culture contaminants and is a causative agent for phytomycoplasmoses) in Oryza sativa L. plants was studied. Data on the ability of extracellular vesicles of Acholeplasma laidlawii PG8 to penetrate from the nutrient medium into overground parts of Oryza sativa L. through the root system and to cause alterations in ultrastructural organization of the plants were presented. As a result of the analysis of ultrathin leaf sections of plants grown in medium with A. laidlawii PG8 vesicles, we detected significant changes in tissue ultrastructure characteristic to oxidative stress in plants as well as their cultivation along with bacterial cells. The presence of nucleotide sequences of some mycoplasma genes within extracellular vesicles of Acholeplasma laidlawii PG8 allowed a possibility to use PCR (with the following sequencing) to perform differential detection of cells and bacterial vesicles in samples under study. The obtained data may suggest the ability of extracellular vesicles of the mycoplasma to display in plants the features of infection from the viewpoint of virulence criteria--invasivity, infectivity--and toxigenicity--and to favor to bacterial phytopathogenicity.


Assuntos
Acholeplasma laidlawii/genética , Acholeplasma laidlawii/patogenicidade , Organelas/metabolismo , Doenças das Plantas/microbiologia , Acholeplasma laidlawii/citologia , Meios de Cultura , Di-Hidrolipoil-Lisina-Resíduo Acetiltransferase/genética , Genes Fúngicos , Interações Hospedeiro-Patógeno , Organelas/genética , Oryza/microbiologia , Estresse Oxidativo , Doenças das Plantas/genética , Folhas de Planta/microbiologia , Folhas de Planta/ultraestrutura , Raízes de Plantas/microbiologia , Polirribonucleotídeo Nucleotidiltransferase/genética , RNA Ribossômico 16S , RNA Ribossômico 23S
18.
Phys Rev Lett ; 107(15): 156801, 2011 Oct 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22107311

RESUMO

We show that the pseudospin, being an additional degree of freedom for carriers in graphene, can be efficiently controlled by means of the electron-electron interactions which, in turn, can be manipulated by changing the substrate. In particular, an out-of-plane pseudospin component can occur leading to a zero-field Hall current as well as to polarization-sensitive interband optical absorption.

19.
J Proteomics ; 74(12): 2920-36, 2011 Nov 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21835275

RESUMO

For the first time, we studied the phytopathogenicity toward Oryza sativa L. of unadapted and adapted to unfavorable environment (starvation) cells of Acholeplasma laidlawii PG8--ubiquitous mycoplasma found in the soil, waste waters, tissues of the highest eukaryotes and being the basic contaminant of cell cultures and a causative agent of phytomycoplasmoses. The features of morphology, ultrastructural organization and proteomes of unadapted and adapted cells of the mycoplasma and infected plants were presented. Using 2D-DIGE and MS, 43 proteins of O. sativa L. that were differentially expressed in the leaves of plants cultivated in media with A. laidlawii PG8 were identified. The qualitative and quantitative responses of the plant proteome toward adapted and unadapted mycoplasma cells differed. That may be explained by differences in the virulence of the corresponding bacterial cells. Using 2D-DIGE and MS, 82 proteins that were differentially expressed in adapted and unadapted mycoplasma cells were detected. In adapted cells of the mycoplasma, in comparison with unadapted ones, a significant increase in the expression of PNPase--a global regulator of virulence in phytopathogenic bacteria occurred; there was also decreased expression of 40 proteins including 14 involved in bacterial virulence and the expression of 31 proteins including 5 involved in virulence was not detected. We propose that differences in the phytopathogenicity of adapted and unadapted A. laidlawii PG8 cells may be related to features of their proteomes and membrane vesicles.


Assuntos
Acholeplasma laidlawii/fisiologia , Adaptação Fisiológica/fisiologia , Proteínas de Bactérias/biossíntese , Interações Hospedeiro-Patógeno/fisiologia , Oryza/microbiologia , Doenças das Plantas/microbiologia , Proteoma/biossíntese , Fatores de Virulência/biossíntese
20.
ScientificWorldJournal ; 11: 1120-30, 2011 May 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21623458

RESUMO

Extracellular vesicle production is believed to be a ubiquitous process in bacteria, but the data on such a process in Mollicutes are absent. We report the isolation of ultramicroforms - extracellular vesicles from supernatants of Acholeplasma laidlawii PG8 (ubiquitous mycoplasma; the main contaminant of cell culture). Considering sizes, morphology, and ultrastructural organization, the ultramicroforms of A. laidlawii PG8 are similar to membrane vesicles of Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. We demonstrate that A. laidlawii PG8 vesicles contain genetic material and proteins, and are mutagenic to lymphocytes of human peripheral blood. We show that Mycoplasma gallisepticum S6, the other mycoplasma, also produce similar structures, which suggests that shedding of the vesicles might be the common phenomenon in Mollicutes. We found that the action of stress conditions results in the intensive formation of ultramicroforms in mycoplasmas. The role of vesicular formation in mycoplasmas remains to be studied.


Assuntos
Acholeplasma laidlawii/fisiologia , Vesículas Transportadoras/química , Vesículas Transportadoras/ultraestrutura , Acholeplasma laidlawii/genética , Acholeplasma laidlawii/ultraestrutura , Transporte Biológico , Células Cultivadas , Dano ao DNA , Espaço Extracelular , Humanos , Linfócitos/microbiologia , Testes de Mutagenicidade , Mycoplasma gallisepticum/genética , Mycoplasma gallisepticum/fisiologia , Mycoplasma gallisepticum/ultraestrutura , Estresse Fisiológico
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