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1.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 5484, 2020 Oct 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33127918

RESUMO

Meta-holographic encryption is a potentially important technique for information security. Despite rapid progresses in multi-tasked meta-holograms, the number of information channels available in metasurfaces is limited, making meta-holographic encryption vulnerable to some attacking algorithms. Herein, we demonstrate a re-programmable metasurface that can produce arbitrary holographic images for optical encryption. The encrypted information is divided into two matrices. These two matrices are imposed to the incident light and the metasurface, respectively. While the all-dielectric metasurface is static, the phase matrix of incident light provides additional degrees of freedom to precisely control the eventual functions at will. With a single Si metasurface, arbitrary holographic images and videos have been transported and decrypted. We hope that this work paves a more promising way to optical information encryption and authentication.

2.
Opt Express ; 28(18): 26041-26055, 2020 Aug 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32906881

RESUMO

Planar achromatic metalenses with a thickness of the order of wavelength have attracted much attention for their potential applications in ultra-compact optical devices. However, realizing single-layer achromatic metalenses across a wide bandwidth requires that the corresponding meta-atoms have complex cross-sections for correct phase profile and dispersion compensation. Herein, we introduce an effective Abbe number and use lens maker equations to design a dual-layer achromatic metalens in which we compensate the dispersion by using a plano-convex liked metalens combined with a plano-concave liked metalens. The stacked metalens are designed based on simple high refractive index dielectric cylindrical meta-atoms with different radii, which simplify the design and fabrication processes. We demonstrate that a dual-layer achromatic metalens has a small focal length difference across the visible wavelength range and an average focusing efficiency above 50%, which proves that the design method is promising for many potential applications in multi-functional flat optical devices.

3.
Phys Rev Lett ; 125(4): 043901, 2020 Jul 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32794795

RESUMO

Strong mode coupling and Fano resonances arisen from exceptional interaction between resonant modes in single nanostructures have raised much attention for their advantages in nonlinear optics, sensing, etc. Individual electromagnetic multipole modes such as quadrupoles, octupoles, and their counterparts from mode coupling (toroidal dipole and nonradiating anapole mode) have been well investigated in isolated or coupled nanostructures with access to high Q factors in bound states in the continuum. Albeit the extensive study on ordinary dielectric particles, intriguing aspects of light-matter interactions in single chiral nanostructures is lacking. Here, we unveil that extraordinary multipoles can be simultaneously superpositioned in a chiral nanocylinder, such as two toroidal dipoles with opposite moments, and electric and magnetic sextupoles. The induced optical lateral forces and their scattering cross sections can thus be either significantly enhanced in the presence of those multipoles with high-Q factors, or suppressed by the bound states in the continuum. This work for the first time reveals the complex correlation between multipolar effects, chiral coupling, and optical lateral force, providing a distinct way for advanced optical manipulation.

4.
Science ; 368(6498): 1487-1490, 2020 06 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32587020

RESUMO

The development of two-dimensional metasurfaces has shown great potential in quantum-optical technologies because of the excellent flexibility in light-field manipulation. By integrating a metalens array with a nonlinear crystal, we demonstrate a 100-path spontaneous parametric down-conversion photon-pair source in a 10 × 10 array, which shows promise for high-dimensional entanglement and multiphoton-state generation. We demonstrate two-, three- and four-dimensional two-photon path entanglement with different phases encoded by metalenses with fidelities of 98.4, 96.6, and 95.0%, respectively. Furthermore, four-photon and six-photon generation is observed with high indistinguishability of photons generated from different metalenses. Our metalens-array-based quantum photon source is compact, stable, and controllable, indicating a new platform for integrated quantum devices.

5.
Light Sci Appl ; 9: 62, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32337026

RESUMO

Lateral optical forces induced by linearly polarized laser beams have been predicted to deflect dipolar particles with opposite chiralities toward opposite transversal directions. These "chirality-dependent" forces can offer new possibilities for passive all-optical enantioselective sorting of chiral particles, which is essential to the nanoscience and drug industries. However, previous chiral sorting experiments focused on large particles with diameters in the geometrical-optics regime. Here, we demonstrate, for the first time, the robust sorting of Mie (size ~ wavelength) chiral particles with different handedness at an air-water interface using optical lateral forces induced by a single linearly polarized laser beam. The nontrivial physical interactions underlying these chirality-dependent forces distinctly differ from those predicted for dipolar or geometrical-optics particles. The lateral forces emerge from a complex interplay between the light polarization, lateral momentum enhancement, and out-of-plane light refraction at the particle-water interface. The sign of the lateral force could be reversed by changing the particle size, incident angle, and polarization of the obliquely incident light.

6.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 1864, 2020 Apr 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32313078

RESUMO

The achievement of structural color has shown advantages in large-gamut, high-saturation, high-brightness, and high-resolution. While a large number of plasmonic/dielectric nanostructures have been developed for structural color, the previous approaches fail to match all the above criterion simultaneously. Herein we utilize the Si metasurface to demonstrate an all-in-one solution for structural color. Due to the intrinsic material loss, the conventional Si metasurfaces only have a broadband reflection and a small gamut of 78% of sRGB. Once they are combined with a refractive index matching layer, the reflection bandwidth and the background reflection are both reduced, improving the brightness and the color purity significantly. Consequently, the experimentally demonstrated gamut has been increased to around 181.8% of sRGB, 135.6% of Adobe RGB, and 97.2% of Rec.2020. Meanwhile, high refractive index of silicon preserves the distinct color in a pixel with 2 × 2 array of nanodisks, giving a diffraction-limit resolution.

7.
Nano Lett ; 19(12): 8972-8978, 2019 12 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31693379

RESUMO

Dielectric metasurfaces have recently been shown to provide an excellent platform for the harmonic generation of light due to their low optical absorption and to the strong electromagnetic field enhancement that can be designed into their constituent meta-atoms. Here, we demonstrate vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) third harmonic generation from a specially designed dielectric metasurface consisting of a titanium dioxide (TiO2) nanostructure array. The metasurface was designed to enhance the generation of VUV light at a wavelength of 185 nm by tailoring its geometric design parameters to achieve an optical resonance at the fundamental laser wavelength of 555 nm. The metasurface exhibits an enhancement factor of nominally 180 compared to an unpatterned TiO2 thin film of the same thickness, evidence of strong field enhancement at the fundamental wavelength. Mode analysis reveals that the origin of the enhancement is an anapole resonance near the pump wavelength. This work demonstrates an effective strategy for the compact generation of VUV light that could enable expanded access to this useful region of the electromagnetic spectrum.

8.
Light Sci Appl ; 8: 99, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31728191

RESUMO

Tomography is an informative imaging modality that is usually implemented by mechanical scanning, owing to the limited depth-of-field (DOF) in conventional systems. However, recent imaging systems are working towards more compact and stable architectures; therefore, developing nonmotion tomography is highly desirable. Here, we propose a metalens-based spectral imaging system with an aplanatic GaN metalens (NA = 0.78), in which large chromatic dispersion is used to access spectral focus tuning and optical zooming in the visible spectrum. After the function of wavelength-switched tomography was confirmed on cascaded samples, this aplanatic metalens is utilized to image microscopic frog egg cells and shows excellent tomographic images with distinct DOF features of the cell membrane and nucleus. Our approach makes good use of the large diffractive dispersion of the metalens and develops a new imaging technique that advances recent informative optical devices.

9.
ACS Sens ; 4(11): 2900-2907, 2019 11 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31602973

RESUMO

We present experimental and theoretical studies of a metamaterial-based plasmonic structure to build a plasmonic-molecular coupling detection system. High molecular sensitivity is realized only when molecules are located in the vicinity of the enhanced field (hot spot region); thus, introducing target molecules in the hot spot region to maximize plasmonic-molecular coupling is crucial to developing the sensing technology. We design a metamaterial consisting of a vertically oriented metal insulator metal (MIM) structure with a 25 nm channel sandwiched between two metal films, which enables the delivery of molecules into the large ravinelike hot spot region, offering an ultrasensitive platform for molecular sensing. This metamaterial is applied to carbon dioxide and butane detection. We design the structure to exhibit resonances at 4033 and 2945 cm-1, which overlap with the C═O and -CH2 vibration modes, respectively. The mutual coupling of these two resonance modes creates a Fano resonance, and their distinct peaks are clearly observed in the corresponding transmission dips. In addition, owing to its small footprint, such a vertical-oriented MIM structure enables us to increase the integration density and allows the detection of a 20 ppm concentration with negligible background noise and high selectivity in the mid-infrared region.

10.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces ; 11(29): 25882-25890, 2019 Jul 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31257841

RESUMO

With the rise of Internet of Things, the presence of flexible devices has attracted significant attention owing to design flexibility. A ferroelectric field-effect transistor (FeFET), showing the advantages of high speed, nondestructive readout, and low-power consumption, plays a key role in next-generation technology. However, the performance of these devices is restricted since conventional flexible substrates show poor thermal stability to integrate traditional ferroelectric materials, limiting the compatibility of wearable devices. In this study, we adopt flexible muscovite mica as a substrate due to its good thermal properties and epitaxial integration ability. A flexible FeFET composed of oxide heteroepitaxy on muscovite is realized by combining an aluminum-doped zinc oxide film as the semiconductor channel layer and a Pb(Zr0.7Ti0.3)O3 film as the ferroelectric gate dielectric. The excellent characteristics of the transistor together with superior thermal stability and mechanical flexibility are demonstrated through various mechanical bending and temperature measurements. The on/off current ratio of the FeFET is higher than 103, which based on the field effect in the transfer curve. The smallest bending radius that can be achieved is 5 mm with a cyclability of 300 times and a retention of 100 h. This study opens an avenue to use oxide heteroepitaxy to construct a FeFET for next-generation flexible electronic systems.

11.
Nat Nanotechnol ; 14(3): 227-231, 2019 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30664753

RESUMO

A light-field camera captures both the intensity and the direction of incoming light1-5. This enables a user to refocus pictures and afterwards reconstruct information on the depth of field. Research on light-field imaging can be divided into two components: acquisition and rendering. Microlens arrays have been used for acquisition, but obtaining broadband achromatic images with no spherical aberration remains challenging. Here, we describe a metalens array made of gallium nitride (GaN) nanoantennas6 that can be used to capture light-field information and demonstrate a full-colour light-field camera devoid of chromatic aberration. The metalens array contains an array of 60 × 60 metalenses with diameters of 21.65 µm. The camera has a diffraction-limited resolution of 1.95 µm under white light illumination. The depth of every object in the scene can be reconstructed slice by slice from a series of rendered images with different depths of focus. Full-colour, achromatic light-field cameras could find applications in a variety of fields such as robotic vision, self-driving vehicles and virtual and augmented reality.

12.
Adv Mater ; 31(7): e1806479, 2019 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30549339

RESUMO

The second harmonic generation (SHG) of vertical and planar split-ring resonators (SRRs) that are broken centro-symmetry configurations at the interface of metal surface and air is investigated. Strong interactions, better electromagnetic field confinements, and less leakage into the substrate for vertical SRRs are found. Experimental results show a 2.6-fold enhancement of SHG nonlinearity, which is in good agreement with simulations and calculations. Demonstrations of 3D metastructures and vertical SRRs with strong SHG nonlinearity majorly result from magnetic dipole and electric quadrupole clearly provides potential applications for photonics and sensing.

13.
Opt Express ; 26(18): 23397-23410, 2018 Sep 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30184841

RESUMO

Enabling laser white-lighting at a correlated color temperature (CCT) of 6500K with the use of only red/green/blue (RGB) tri-color laser diodes (LDs) is demonstrated, which can further perform wavelength division multiplexing (WDM) communication with a high-spectral-usage 16 QAM-OFDM data stream at 11.2 Gbps over 0.5 m. The sampling rate of encoded data is optimized to avoid the aliasing effect and to effectively amplify the signal with high on/off extinction and modulation depth. Proper oversampling can decrease the peak-to-average power ratio (PAPR) of the OFDM data and filter out unwanted noise. There are also six different diffusers used to diverge the white-light mixed by the RGB LD beam. By analyzing the color-casting transmittance, surface roughness, CCT uniformity, divergent angle of the diffuser, and the data transmission capacity, the frosted glass (FG2.8) diffuser with high transmittance diverges the white light with the divergent angle of ± 20° and supports the highest data rate of 14 Gbps over 0.5 m. To fit the day-light CCT, the blue LD power at an optimized bias current is further attenuated with a 0.6-optical density filter for reducing CCT from 100000K to 6500K; however, such an adjustment also degrades the SNR ratio to sacrifice the achievable data rate of the blue LD. The polycarbonate (PC1.5) diffuser with proper surface roughness diverged white-light exhibits the best CCT uniformity and a divergent angle of ± 30° but supports a data rate of only 6.4 Gbps over 0.5 m. The poly (methyl methacrylate) PMMA1.5 diffuser scatters the white light with the largest angle of ± 40°; however, the data rate also decreases to 4.8 Gbps over 0.5 m.

14.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces ; 10(36): 30574-30580, 2018 Sep 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30118205

RESUMO

In the era of Internet of Things, the demand for flexible and transparent electronic devices has shifted to the forefront of materials science research. However, the radiation damage to key performance of transparent devices under radiative environment remains as a critical issue. Here, we present a promising technology for nonvolatile transparent electronic devices based on flexible oxide heteroepitaxy. A direct fabrication of epitaxial lead lanthanum zirconate titanate on transparent flexible mica substrate with indium tin oxide electrodes is presented. The transparent flexible ferroelectric heterostructures not only retain their superior performance, thermal stability, reliability, and mechanical durability, but also exhibit remarkably robust properties against to a strong radiation exposure. Our study demonstrates an extraordinary concept to realize transparent flexible nonvolatile electronic devices for the design and development of next-generation smart devices with potential application in electronics, automotive, aerospace, and nuclear systems.

15.
Nano Lett ; 18(9): 5738-5743, 2018 09 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30067376

RESUMO

Vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) light has important applications in many fields, ranging from device fabrication to photochemistry, from environmental remediation to microscopy and spectroscopy. Methods to produce coherent VUV light frequently utilize high harmonic generation in media such as rare gases or atomic vapors; nonlinear optical crystals that support second harmonic generation into the VUV are quite rare. Here, we demonstrate an all-dielectric metasurface designed for the nonlinear optical generation of VUV light. Consisting of an array of zinc oxide nanoresonators, the device exhibits a magnetic dipole resonance at a wavelength of 394 nm. When excited with ultrafast laser pulses at this wavelength, the second harmonic at 197 nm is readily generated. Manipulation of the metasurface design enables control over the radiation pattern. This work has the potential to open the door toward simple and compact VUV sources for new applications.

16.
ACS Omega ; 3(2): 1627-1634, 2018 Feb 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30023811

RESUMO

The matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) are well-known mediators that are activated in tumor progression. MMP2 is a kind of gelatinase in extracellular matrix remodeling and cancer metastasis processes. MMP2 secretion increased in many types of cancer diseases, and its abnormal expression is associated with a poor prognosis. We fabricated a nanocomposite that sensed MMP2 expression by a red and blue light change. This nanocomposite consisted of an upconversion nanoparticle (UCNP), MMP2-sensitive peptide, and CuInS2/ZnS quantum dot (CIS/ZnS QD). An UCNP is composed of NaYF4:Tm/Yb@NaYF4:Nd/Yb, which has multiple emissions at UV/blue-visible wavelengths under 808 nm laser excitation. The conjugated CIS/ZnS QD showed the red-visible fluorescence though the FRET process. The two fluorophores were connected by a MMP2-sensitive peptide to form a novel MMP2 biosensor, named UCNP@p-QD. UCNP@p-QD was highly biocompatible according to cell viability assay. The FRET-based biosensor was employed in the MMP2 determination in vitro and in vivo. Furthermore, it was administrated into the tumor-bearing mouse to check MMP2 expression. UCNP@p-QD could be a promising tool for biological study and biomedical application. In this study, we demonstrated that the CIS/ZnS QD improved the upconversion intensity through a near-infrared-induced FRET process. This nanocomposite has the advantage of light penetration, excellent biocompatibility, and high sensitivity to sense MMP2. The near-infrared-induced composites are a potential inspiration for use in biomedical applications.

17.
Opt Express ; 26(10): 13148-13182, 2018 May 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29801344

RESUMO

The research and development of optical metasurfaces has been primarily driven by the curiosity for novel optical phenomena that are unattainable from materials that exist in nature and by the desire for miniaturization of optical devices. Metasurfaces constructed of artificial patterns of subwavelength depth make it possible to achieve flat, ultrathin optical devices of high performance. A wide variety of fabrication techniques have been developed to explore their unconventional functionalities which in many ways have revolutionized the means with which we control and manipulate electromagnetic waves. The relevant research community could benefit from an overview on recent progress in the fabrication and applications of the metasurfaces. This review article is intended to serve that purpose by reviewing the state-of-the-art fabrication methods and surveying their cutting-edge applications.

18.
Small ; 14(17): e1703920, 2018 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29611338

RESUMO

An ultrathin planar cavity metasurface is proposed based on ultrathin film interference and its practicability for light manipulation in visible region is experimentally demonstrated. Phase of reflected light is modulated by finely adjusting the thickness of amorphous silicon (a-Si) by a few nanometers on an aluminum (Al) substrate via nontrivial phase shifts at the interfaces and interference of multireflections generated from the planar cavity. A phase shift of π, the basic requirement for two-level phase metasurface systems, can be accomplished with an 8 nm thick difference. For proof of concept, gradient metasurfaces for beam deflection, Fresnel zone plate metalens for light focusing, and metaholograms for image reconstruction are presented, demonstrating polarization-independent and broadband characteristics. This novel mechanism for phase modulation with ultrathin planar cavity provides diverse routes to construct advanced flat optical devices with versatile applications.

19.
Adv Mater ; 30(21): e1706918, 2018 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29633385

RESUMO

Given the high demand for miniaturized optoelectronic circuits, plasmonic devices with the capability of generating coherent radiation at deep subwavelength scales have attracted great interest for diverse applications such as nanoantennas, single photon sources, and nanosensors. However, the design of such lasing devices remains a challenging issue because of the long structure requirements for producing strong radiation feedback. Here, a plasmonic laser made by using a nanoscale hyperbolic metamaterial cube, called hyperbolic metacavity, on a multiple quantum-well (MQW), deep-ultraviolet emitter is presented. The specifically designed metacavity merges plasmon resonant modes within the cube and provides a unique resonant radiation feedback to the MQW. This unique plasmon field allows the dipoles of the MQW with various orientations into radiative emission, achieving enhancement of spontaneous emission rate by a factor of 33 and of quantum efficiency by a factor of 2.5, which is beneficial for coherent laser action. The hyperbolic metacavity laser shows a clear clamping of spontaneous emission above the threshold, which demonstrates a near complete radiation coupling of the MQW with the metacavity. This approach shown here can greatly simplify the requirements of plasmonic nanolaser with a long plasmonic structure, and the metacavity effect can be extended to many other material systems.

20.
Nat Nanotechnol ; 13(3): 227-232, 2018 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29379204

RESUMO

Metalenses consist of an array of optical nanoantennas on a surface capable of manipulating the properties of an incoming light wavefront. Various flat optical components, such as polarizers, optical imaging encoders, tunable phase modulators and a retroreflector, have been demonstrated using a metalens design. An open issue, especially problematic for colour imaging and display applications, is the correction of chromatic aberration, an intrinsic effect originating from the specific resonance and limited working bandwidth of each nanoantenna. As a result, no metalens has demonstrated full-colour imaging in the visible wavelength. Here, we show a design and fabrication that consists of GaN-based integrated-resonant unit elements to achieve an achromatic metalens operating in the entire visible region in transmission mode. The focal length of our metalenses remains unchanged as the incident wavelength is varied from 400 to 660 nm, demonstrating complete elimination of chromatic aberration at about 49% bandwidth of the central working wavelength. The average efficiency of a metalens with a numerical aperture of 0.106 is about 40% over the whole visible spectrum. We also show some examples of full-colour imaging based on this design.

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