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1.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 2329, 2021 04 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33888689

RESUMO

The health effects of omega-3 fatty acids have been controversial. Here we report the results of a de novo pooled analysis conducted with data from 17 prospective cohort studies examining the associations between blood omega-3 fatty acid levels and risk for all-cause mortality. Over a median of 16 years of follow-up, 15,720 deaths occurred among 42,466 individuals. We found that, after multivariable adjustment for relevant risk factors, risk for death from all causes was significantly lower (by 15-18%, at least p < 0.003) in the highest vs the lowest quintile for circulating long chain (20-22 carbon) omega-3 fatty acids (eicosapentaenoic, docosapentaenoic, and docosahexaenoic acids). Similar relationships were seen for death from cardiovascular disease, cancer and other causes. No associations were seen with the 18-carbon omega-3, alpha-linolenic acid. These findings suggest that higher circulating levels of marine n-3 PUFA are associated with a lower risk of premature death.


Assuntos
Causas de Morte , Ácidos Graxos Ômega-3/sangue , Mortalidade Prematura , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Proteção , Fatores de Risco
2.
Fertil Steril ; 2021 Apr 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33823999

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) methylation at birth and in childhood differ by conception using assisted reproductive technologies (ART) or ovulation induction compared with those in children conceived without fertility treatment. DESIGN: Upstate KIDS is a matched exposure cohort which oversampled on newborns conceived by treatment. SETTING: New York State (excluding New York City). PATIENT(S): This analysis included 855 newborns and 152 children at approximately 9 years of age. INTERVENTION(S): None. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE(S): DNA methylation levels were measured using the Illumina EPIC platform. Single CpG and regional analyses at imprinting genes were conducted. RESULT(S): Compared to no fertility treatment, ART was associated with lower mean DNA methylation levels at birth in 11 CpGs (located in/near SYCE1, SPRN, KIAA2013, MYO1D, GET1/WRB-SH4BGR, IGF1R, SORD, NECAB3/ACTL10, and GET1) and higher mean methylation level in 1 CpG (KLK4; all false discovery rate P<.05). The strongest association (cg17676129) was located at SYCE1, which codes for a synaptonemal complex that plays a role in meiosis and therefore infertility. This CpG remained associated with newborn hypomethylation when the analysis was limited to those conceived with ICSI, but this may be because of underlying male infertility. In addition, nine regions in maternally imprinted genes (IGF1R, PPIEL, SVOPL GNAS, L3MBTL, BLCAP, HYMAI/PLAGL1, SNU13, and MEST) were observed to have decreased mean DNA methylation levels among newborns conceived by ART. In childhood, hypomethylation of the maternally imprinted gene, GNAS, persisted. No CpGs or regions were associated with ovulation induction. CONCLUSION(S): ART but not ovulation induction was associated with hypomethylation at birth, but only one difference at an imprinting region appeared to persist in childhood.

3.
Ann Am Thorac Soc ; 2021 Apr 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33861685

RESUMO

RATIONALE: The coagulation cascade may play a role in the pathogenesis of interstitial lung disease through increased production of thrombin and fibrin deposition. Whether circulating coagulation cascade factors are linked to lung inflammation and scarring among community-dwelling adults is unknown. OBJECTIVE: To test the hypothesis that higher baseline D-dimer levels are associated with markers of early lung injury and scarring. METHODS: Using the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis cohort (n=6,814), we examined associations of baseline D-dimer levels with high attenuation areas (HAA) from Exam 1 (2000-2002, n=6,184) and interstitial lung abnormalities (ILA) from Exam 5 computed tomography (CT) scans (2010-2012, n=2,227), and serum matrix metalloproteinase-7 (MMP-7) and surfactant protein-A (SP-A) from Exam 1 (n=1,098). We examined longitudinal change in forced vital capacity (FVC) from Exams 3-6 (2004-2018, n=3,562). We used linear, logistic regression, and linear mixed models to examine associations and adjust for potential confounders. RESULTS: The mean (SD) age of the cohort was 62 (10) years and D-dimer level was 0.35 (0.69) ug/mL. For every 10% increase in D-dimer level, there was an increase in HAA percent of 0.27 (95% CI 0.08 to 0.47) after adjustment for covariates. Associations were stronger among those older than 65 years (p-values for interaction<0.001). A 10% increase in D-dimer level was associated with an odds ratio of 1.05 for ILA (95% CI 0.99 to 1.11). Higher D-dimer levels were associated with higher serum MMP-7 and a faster decline in FVC. D-dimer was not associated with SP-A. CONCLUSIONS: Higher D-dimer levels were associated with a greater burden of lung parenchymal abnormalities detected on CT scan, MMP-7, and FVC decline among community-dwelling adults.

4.
J Nutr ; 2021 Mar 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33693794

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Current literature examining the prospective relation of circulating omega-3 (n-3) and omega-6 (n-6) PUFAs and atrial fibrillation (AF) is limited to predominantly white populations. OBJECTIVES: We investigated the association of circulating n-3 and n-6 PUFAs with incident AF in participants from the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis. METHODS: A total of 6229 participants (mean age = 62 y; 53% female; 39% white, 27% black, 22% Hispanic, and 12% Chinese) who were free of baseline AF and with plasma phospholipid PUFAs measured at baseline using GC were prospectively followed for the development of AF. Incident AF was ascertained using International Classification of Diseases-9 codes from hospital discharge records and Medicare claims data with follow-up through 2014. Multivariable Cox proportional hazards regression analysis was performed to determine the risk of incident AF. RESULTS: During a median follow-up of 12.9 y, 813 (13%) participants developed AF. Each higher SD increment in arachidonic acid (AA; 20:4n-6) concentrations was associated with an 11% decreased risk of incident AF (HR: 0.89; 95% CI: 0.82, 0.96). Similarly, higher overall n-6 PUFA concentrations were also associated with a reduced AF risk (HR per SD increment: 0.93; 95% CI: 0.87, 1.00). Although no significant overall associations were observed for any individual n-3 PUFAs, higher circulating concentrations of DHA (22:6n-3) and EPA (20:5n-3) were associated with a decreased AF risk in blacks and Hispanics (DHA only) but not whites or Chinese Americans. CONCLUSIONS: In a multiethnic cohort of individuals free of baseline cardiovascular disease, higher plasma concentrations of n-6 PUFAs, particularly AA, were associated with a reduced risk of incident AF. Important differences in AF risk were also noted across race/ethnicity for the n-3 PUFAs DHA and EPA.

5.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33674279

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Disruption of lipid metabolism is implicated in gestational diabetes (GDM). However, prospective studies on lipidomics and GDM risk in race/ethnically diverse populations are sparse. Here, we aimed to (1) identify lipid networks in early pregnancy to mid-pregnancy that are associated with subsequent GDM risk and (2) examine the associations of lipid networks with glycemic biomarkers to understand the underlying mechanisms. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: This study included 107 GDM cases confirmed using the Carpenter and Coustan criteria and 214 non-GDM matched controls from the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development Fetal Growth Studies-Singleton cohort, untargeted lipidomics data of 420 metabolites (328 annotated and 92 unannotated), and information on glycemic biomarkers in maternal plasma at visit 0 (10-14 weeks) and visit 1 (15-26 weeks). We constructed lipid networks using weighted correlation network analysis technique. We examined prospective associations of lipid networks and individual lipids with GDM risk using linear mixed effect models. Furthermore, we calculated Pearson's partial correlation for GDM-related lipid networks and individual lipids with plasma glucose, insulin, C-peptide and glycated hemoglobin at both study visits. RESULTS: Lipid networks primarily characterized by elevated plasma diglycerides and short, saturated/low unsaturated triglycerides and lower plasma cholesteryl esters, sphingomyelins and phosphatidylcholines were associated with higher risk of developing GDM (false discovery rate (FDR) <0.05). Among individual lipids, 58 metabolites at visit 0 and 96 metabolites at visit 1 (40 metabolites at both time points) significantly differed between women who developed GDM and who did not (FDR <0.05). Furthermore, GDM-related lipid networks and individual lipids showed consistent correlations with maternal glycemic markers particularly in early pregnancy at visit 0. CONCLUSIONS: Plasma lipid metabolites in early pregnancy both individually and interactively in distinct networks were associated with subsequent GDM risk in race/ethnically diverse US women. Future research is warranted to assess lipid metabolites as etiologic markers of GDM.

6.
Metabolism ; 116: 154706, 2021 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33421505

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Elevated plasma lipoprotein (a) [Lp(a)] and coronary artery calcification (CAC) are established cardiovascular risk factors that correlate with each other. We hypothesized that other cardiovascular risk factors could affect their relationship. METHODS: We tested for interactions of 24 study variables related to dyslipidemia, diabetes, insulin resistance, hypertension, inflammation and coagulation with baseline Lp(a) on change in CAC volume and density over 9.5 years in 5975 Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA) participants, free of apparent cardiovascular disease at baseline. RESULTS: Elevated Lp(a) was associated with larger absolute increase in CAC volume (3.21 and 4.45 mm3/year higher for Lp(a) ≥30 versus <30 mg/dL, and Lp(a) ≥50 versus <50 mg/dL, respectively), but not relative change in CAC volume. No association was found with change in CAC density when assessing continuous ln-transformed Lp(a). The association between elevated Lp(a) (≥30 mg/dL) and absolute change in CAC volume was greater in participants with higher circulating levels of interleukin-2 soluble receptor α, soluble tumor necrosis factor alpha receptor 1 and fibrinogen (15.33, 11.81 and 7.02 mm3/year in quartile 4, compared to -3.44, -0.59 and 1.91 mm3/year in quartile 1, respectively). No significant interaction was found for other study variables. Similar interactions were seen when assessing Lp(a) levels ≥50 mg/dL. CONCLUSIONS: Elevated Lp(a) was associated with an absolute increase in CAC volume, especially in participants with higher levels of selected markers of inflammation and coagulation. These results suggest Lp(a) as a potential biomarker for CAC volume progression.


Assuntos
Doença da Artéria Coronariana/sangue , Lipoproteína(a)/sangue , Calcificação Vascular/sangue , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Aterosclerose/sangue , Aterosclerose/epidemiologia , Aterosclerose/etiologia , Biomarcadores/sangue , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/epidemiologia , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/etiologia , Vasos Coronários/patologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Calcificação Vascular/epidemiologia , Calcificação Vascular/etiologia
7.
Eur J Clin Nutr ; 2021 Jan 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33398103

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Pericardial adipose tissue (PAT) is a cardiometabolic risk factor influenced by race/ethnicity, inflammation, and metabolic dysfunction. Omega-3 fatty acids (FAs) and saturated FAs (SFAs) are known to affect these latter phenomena and may influence PAT accumulation. We aimed to determine whether plasma levels of these FAs are related to PAT volume and its rate of change over a median 3-year follow-up. METHODS: Cardiac computed tomography assessed PAT in 6785 Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis participants. Gas chromatography flame-ionization estimated plasma phospholipid FAs. Regression analyses estimated associations of FAs with PAT volume and its rate of change with adjustments for other risk factors. Race-interactions were tested. RESULTS: In cross-section, top tertiles of omega-3 FAs and odd-chained SFAs were associated with 2.8 and 4.93 cm3 lower PAT volumes, respectively; race/ethnicity was a significant modifying variable (p < 0.002). Even-chained SFAs were associated with 3.5 cm3 greater PAT volume. With stratification by race/ethnicity, Chinese Americans in the top tertile of omega-3 FAs showed 10.5 cm3 greater PAT volume than those in the referent tertile. Black individuals in the top tertile of odd-chained SFAs showed 5.0 cm3 lower PAT compared to referents. Black and Chinese Americans in top tertiles of even-chained SFAs showed respective 3.7 and 5.9 cm3 greater PAT volumes compared to referents. Two associations were observed in prospective analyses among Caucasians; race interactions were non-significant. CONCLUSIONS: Cross-sectional and prospective findings provide inconclusive evidence as to whether plasma FAs are related to PAT in healthy individuals. Cohort studies with longer follow-up periods are warranted.

8.
J Psychiatr Res ; 133: 119-124, 2021 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33338734

RESUMO

Previous studies suggested a potential relationship between plasma lipoprotein (a) [Lp(a)] and elevated depressive symptoms. We aimed to investigate any such relationship in the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis participants who were free of cardiovascular events. Analysis included 4938 participants without elevated depressive symptoms and with Lp(a) levels measured at baseline. Participants were examined at four clinic visits over a 10-year period. Elevated depressive symptoms were assessed by the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D) and were defined as a CES-D score ≥16 or use of anti-depressants. Lp(a) level was measured with a latex-enhanced turbidimetric immunoassay. After adjusting for demographics, socioeconomic factors and other confounding factors in Cox regression analyses, a higher ln-transformed Lp(a) level was associated with new elevated depressive symptoms since baseline (hazard ratio [95% CI] = 1.09 [1.02-1.16] per SD increment in ln-transformed level, P = 0.01). However, no association was found when elevated Lp(a) levels were assessed using clinical cut-off point (≥30 or 50 mg/dL), nor in sensitivity analyses using alternative definitions of elevated depressive symptoms. No significant interaction with race/ethnicity was found for all the above analyses. Also, no significant association was found between baseline Lp(a) levels and absolute or relative changes in CES-D score between baseline and last follow-up visits. Our study suggests a potential association between Lp(a) level and new elevated depressive symptoms, but such association was not robust in the sensitivity analyses. Future studies are warranted to investigate the role of Lp(a) in depressive symptoms in other cohorts.

9.
Nutrients ; 12(11)2020 Nov 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33227993

RESUMO

Maternal plasma phospholipid polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) play critical roles in maternal health and fetal development. Beyond dietary factors, maternal moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) has been linked to multiple health benefits for both the mother and offspring, but studies investigating the influence of maternal MVPA on maternal PUFA profile are scarce. The objective of present study was to examine the time-specific and prospective associations of MVPA with plasma PUFA profile among pregnant women. This study included 321 participants from the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development (NICHD) Fetal Growth Studies-Singletons cohort. Maternal plasma phospholipid PUFAs and MPVA were measured at four visits during pregnancy (10-14, 15-26, 23-31, and 33-39 gestational weeks (GW)). Associations of maternal MVPA with individual plasma PUFAs and desaturase activity were examined using generalized linear models. Maternal MVPA was associated inversely with plasma phospholipid linoleic acid, gamma-linolenic acid, and Δ6-desaturase in late pregnancy (23-31 or 33-39 GW), independent of maternal age, race, education, parity, pre-pregnancy body mass index, and dietary factors. Findings from this longitudinal study indicate that maternal habitual MVPA may play a role on PUFAs metabolism, particular by alerting plasma n-6 subclass and desaturase activity in late pregnancy. These associations are novel and merit confirmation in future studies.

10.
Atherosclerosis ; 313: 14-19, 2020 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33002750

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: South Asians are at increased risk for cardiovascular disease (CVD). Aortic valve calcium (AVC) is associated with CVD risk and aortic stenosis. Elevated Lp(a) is a heritable risk factor for CVD and AVC. AVC prevalence and its association with Lp(a) have not been studied in South Asians. METHODS: Among participants in the Mediators of Atherosclerosis in South Asians Living in America (MASALA) study (n = 695), AVC prevalence and extent were compared to four race/ethnic groups in the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA) (n = 4671). Multivariable regression was performed to evaluate associations between Lp(a) and AVC stratified by race/ethnic groups, adjusting for cardiovascular risk factors. RESULTS: After age and sex adjustment, South Asians had higher median Lp(a) (17.0 mg/dL) compared to Whites (12.9 mg/dL), Hispanics (13.1 mg/dL) and Chinese Americans (12.9 mg/dL), and Blacks had highest Lp(a) levels (35.1 mg/dL). There were no differences in the odds of AVC in South Asians compared with Whites or Hispanics, after age and sex adjustment (p = 0.64 and 0.63, respectively). Odds of AVC was lower in Chinese (OR 0.35; 95%CI 0.23-0.54) and somewhat lower in Blacks compared with South Asians (OR 0.76; 0.56-1.04). There were no associations between Lp(a) and AVC presence or extent in South Asians. Lp(a) was associated with AVC only among Blacks and Whites. CONCLUSIONS: Although present in Whites and Blacks, there were no associations between Lp(a) and AVC in South Asians. These differences may be due to statistic power or race specific modifying factors that influences the effect of Lp(a) particles on AVC pathogenesis.

11.
Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol ; : ATVBAHA120314965, 2020 Oct 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33115273

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Lp(a) (lipoprotein[a]) is an independent risk factor for cardiovascular diseases and plasma levels are primarily determined by variation at the LPA locus. We performed a genome-wide association study in the UK Biobank to determine whether additional loci influence Lp(a) levels. Approach and Results: We included 293 274 White British individuals in the discovery analysis. Approximately 93 095 623 variants were tested for association with natural log-transformed Lp(a) levels using linear regression models adjusted for age, sex, genotype batch, and 20 principal components of genetic ancestry. After quality control, 131 independent variants were associated at genome-wide significance (P≤5×10-8). In addition to validating previous associations at LPA, APOE, and CETP, we identified a novel variant at the APOH locus, encoding ß2GPI (beta2-glycoprotein I). The APOH variant rs8178824 was associated with increased Lp(a) levels (ß [95% CI] [ln nmol/L], 0.064 [0.047-0.081]; P=2.8×10-13) and demonstrated a stronger effect after adjustment for variation at the LPA locus (ß [95% CI] [ln nmol/L], 0.089 [0.076-0.10]; P=3.8×10-42). This association was replicated in a meta-analysis of 5465 European-ancestry individuals from the Framingham Offspring Study and Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (ß [95% CI] [ln mg/dL], 0.16 [0.044-0.28]; P=0.0071). CONCLUSIONS: In a large-scale genome-wide association study of Lp(a) levels, we identified APOH as a novel locus for Lp(a) in individuals of European ancestry. Additional studies are needed to determine the precise role of ß2GPI in influencing Lp(a) levels as well as its potential as a therapeutic target.

12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33115816

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Longer duration of lactation is associated with lower cardiometabolic disease risk, but pathogenic pathways involved in the disease progression are unclear, especially among high-risk women. We aimed to examine the associations of lifetime lactation duration with cardiometabolic biomarkers among middle-aged women with a history of gestational diabetes (GDM). RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: Women with a history of GDM participating in the Nurses' Health Study II, a prospective cohort study, were identified and followed through biennial questionnaires beginning in 1991. Lactation history was asked in three follow-up questionnaires to calculate lifetime duration. In 2012-2014, fasting blood samples were collected through the Diabetes & Women's Health Study to measure inflammatory (C-reactive protein (CRP), interleukin (IL) 6), liver enzyme (alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, and gamma-glutamyl transferase), and lipid biomarkers (total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol). RESULTS: At follow-up blood collection, women were at median age 58.2 (95% CI 51 to 65) years and 26.3 (95% CI 15.7 to 34.1) years since GDM index pregnancy. After multiple adjustment including prepregnancy body mass index (BMI), longer duration of lactation was significantly associated with lower CRP (least squares (LS) mean 1.90 mg/L (95% CI 1.47 to 2.45) for 0-month lactation, 1.98 mg/L (95% CI 1.68 to 2.32) for up to 12-month lactation, 1.67 mg/L (95% CI 1.42 to 1.97) for 12-24 month lactation, and 1.39 mg/L (95% CI 1.19 to 1.62) for >24-month lactation; p trend=0.003) and IL-6 (1.25 pg/L (95% CI 0.94 to 1.68), 1.19 pg/L (95% CI 0.99 to 1.42), 1.04 pg/L (95% CI 0.87 to 1.25), and 0.93 pg/L (95% CI 0.78 to 1.11); p trend=0.04). Longer duration of lactation was associated with lower risk for chronic inflammation using CRP 3 mg/L cut-off in middle-aged women (OR 0.81 (95% CI 0.69 to 0.940 per 1-year increase) with multiple adjustment. CONCLUSIONS: Longer lifetime duration of lactation was associated with favorable inflammatory biomarker concentrations in middle-aged women with a history of GDM. Chronic inflammatory pathways may be responsible for previously reported associations between lactation and long-term risk for cardiometabolic diseases.

13.
Am J Audiol ; 29(4): 862-872, 2020 Dec 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32976033

RESUMO

Purpose The dichotic digits test (DDT) is commonly administered in clinical and research settings, but it is not well understood how performance changes in aging. The purpose of this study is to determine the 5-year change on the free recall task and right ear advantage (REA) in a population-based cohort and factors associated with change. Method Participants in the population-based Epidemiology of Hearing Loss Study, who completed the DDT during the fourth (2009-2010) and fifth (2013-2016) examination periods were included (n = 865, M age = 72.8 years at baseline). Free recall DDT was administered using 25 sets of triple-digit pairs presented at 70 dB HL. The REA was calculated by subtracting the score in the left ear from the score in the right ear. Results In 5 years, most participants (62.4%) declined on free recall performance (mean decline = 3.0% [4.5 digits], p < .01). In age-sex-adjusted models, higher baseline scores, hearing impairment, and lower education were significantly associated with increased risk of decline. An REA at baseline (76.8%) and follow-up (77.9%) was common. Half of participants (50.6%) had a 5-year REA widening (M = 1.9% [1.4 digits], p = .01). Older age, but not hearing impairment, was associated with increased risk of REA widening. Conclusions The 5-year decline on free recall recognition performance was not associated with age but was associated with hearing impairment, whereas the 5-year widening of REA was associated with age but not hearing impairment. These results indicate that the REA may be a more sensitive measure of aging of the central auditory system than free recall performance.

14.
Am J Epidemiol ; 2020 Aug 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32803215

RESUMO

Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), an omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid, attenuates interstitial lung disease (ILD) in experimental models but human studies are lacking. We examined associations of circulating levels of DHA, and other polyunsaturated fatty acids, with hospitalization and death due to ILD over 12 years in the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA, n=6,573). We examined cross-sectional associations with CT lung abnormalities in MESA (2000-2012), Framingham Heart Study (2005-2011), and Age Gene/Environment Susceptibility (2002-2006) Study (total n=10,193). Polyunsaturated fatty acid levels were from fasting blood samples and extracted from plasma phospholipids (MESA and Age Gene/Environment Susceptibility) or red blood cell membranes (Framingham Heart Study). Higher DHA levels were associated with a lower risk of hospitalizations due to ILD (adjusted rate ratio 0.69 per standard deviation increment (95% CI 0.48, 0.99) and a lower rate of death due to ILD (adjusted hazard ratio 0.68 per standard deviation increment, 95% CI 0.47, 0.98). Higher DHA was associated with less interstitial lung abnormalities on CT (pooled adjusted odds ratio 0.65 per natural log increment; 95% CI 0.46, 0.91). Higher DHA levels were associated with a lower risk of hospitalization and death due to ILD and less lung abnormalities on CT in a meta-analysis of population-based cohorts.

15.
Matern Fetal Med ; 2(1): 2-9, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32776014

RESUMO

Objective: This study investigated the prospective associations of circulating levels of sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) levels with cardiometabolic biomarkers and risk of gestational diabetes (GDM) during pregnancy. It also examines the longitudinal trajectory of SHBG in women with and without GDM. Methods: We conducted a nested case-control study of 107 incident GDM cases and 214 matched controls within the Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development Fetal Growth Studies-Singleton Cohort. The cohort enrolled non-obese and obese women aged 18-40 years with a singleton pregnancy between 8 and 13 weeks of gestation from 2009 to 2013. GDM was ascertained via medical records review. Blood samples were drawn four times at gestational weeks 10-14, 15-26, 23-31, and 33-39. The prospective associations between SHBG levels and cardiometabolic biomarkers were examined using the Spearman partial correlation among the controls. The longitudinal trajectories of SHBG levels were examined among the cases and the controls. Meta-analysis of prospective studies were performed to examine the association between SHBG levels and GDM risk. Results: SHBG levels at gestational weeks 10-14 were significantly inversely associated with fasting insulin (r = -0.17, P = 0.01) and insulin resistance as measured by HOMA-IR (r = -0.17, P = 0.01) at gestational week 15-26. SHBG at gestational weeks 10-14 and 15-26 was lower in cases than controls (mean ± standard deviation: (204.0 ±â€Š97.6) vs. (220.9 ±â€Š102.5) nmol/L, P = 0.16 and (305.6 ±â€Š124.3) vs. (322.7 ±â€Š105.1) nmol/L, P = 0.14, respectively), yet the differences were not significant. In the meta-analysis, SHBG was 41.5 nmol/L (95% confidence interval: 23.9, 59.1, P < 0.01) significantly lower among women with GDM than without, and each 50 nmol/L increase in SHBG was significantly associated with an odds ratio of 0.85 (95% confidence interval: 0.76-0.95, P = 0.01) for GDM. Conclusion: Lower SHBG levels in early pregnancy were prospectively associated with higher high insulin levels and insulin resistance in mid-pregnancy and subsequent risk of GDM, independent of adiposity. SHBG may serve as a marker for the identification of high-risk pregnancies during early pregnancy.

16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32747382

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Several adipokines are implicated in the pathophysiology of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM), however, longitudinal data in early pregnancy on many adipokines are lacking. We prospectively investigated the association of a panel of adipokines in early and mid-pregnancy with GDM risk. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: Within the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development (NICHD) Fetal Growth Studies-Singletons cohort (n=2802), a panel of 10 adipokines (plasma fatty acid binding protein-4 (FABP4), chemerin, interleukin-6 (IL-6), leptin, soluble leptin receptor (sOB-R), adiponectin, omentin-1, vaspin, and retinol binding protein-4) were measured at gestational weeks (GWs) 10-14, 15-26, 23-31, and 33-39 among 107 GDM cases (ascertained on average at GW 27) and 214 non-GDM controls. Conditional logistic regression was used to estimate ORs of each adipokine and GDM, controlling for known GDM risk factors including pre-pregnancy body mass index. RESULTS: Throughout pregnancy changes in chemerin, sOB-R, adiponectin, and high-molecular-weight adiponectin (HMW-adiponectin) concentrations from 10-14 to 15-26 GWs were significantly different among GDM cases compared with non-GDM controls. In early and mid-pregnancy, FABP4, chemerin, IL-6 and leptin were positively associated with increased GDM risk. For instance, at 10-14 GWs, the OR comparing the highest versus lowest quartile (ORQ4-Q1) of FABP4 was 3.79 (95% CI 1.63 to 8.85). In contrast, in both early and mid-pregnancy adiponectin (eg, ORQ4-Q1 0.14 (0.05, 0.34) during 10-14 GWs) and sOB-R (ORQ4-Q1 0.23 (0.11, 0.50) during 10-14 GWs) were inversely related to GDM risk. At 10-14 GWs a model that included conventional GDM risk factors and FABP4, chemerin, sOB-R, and HMW-adiponectin improved the estimated prediction (area under the curve) from 0.71 (95% CI 0.66 to 0.77) to 0.77 (95% CI 0.72 to 0.82). CONCLUSIONS: A panel of understudied adipokines including FABP4, chemerin, and sOB-R may be implicated in the pathogenesis of GDM with significant associations detected approximately 10-18 weeks before typical GDM screening.

17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32620506

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Lipoprotein (a) [Lp(a)] is a risk factor for coronary heart disease and calcific aortic valve disease. We determined the relationships of Lp(a) with prevalence and progression of coronary artery calcification (CAC), mitral annular calcification (MAC), and thoracic aortic calcification (TAC) in a multi-ethnic cohort of middle to older-aged adults. METHODS: This analysis included 6705 Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis participants. Lp(a) was measured with a turbidimetric immunoassay. CAC, MAC, and TAC were assessed by cardiac computed tomography both at baseline and once during follow-up. RESULTS: In adjusted relative risk regression cross-sectional analysis, a Lp(a) level ≥50 mg/dL was associated with a 22% higher prevalence of MAC (relative risk (RR) = 1.22, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.00, 1.49). No significant associations were observed for prevalent CAC or TAC. In adjusted prospective analyses, participants with Lp(a) ≥50 mg/dL were at significantly higher risk for rapid CAC progression (median follow-up = 8.9 years), defined as ≥100 units/year, compared to those with lower Lp(a) levels (RR = 1.67, 95% CI = 1.23, 2.27). The association between higher Lp(a) levels and incident CHD was no longer significant after adjusting for CAC progression. No significant associations were observed for MAC or TAC progression (median follow-up = 2.6 years). CONCLUSIONS: Higher Lp(a) levels are associated with more rapid CAC progression. Additional study is needed to better understand how this relationship can further improve the ability of Lp(a) to enhance cardiovascular disease risk prediction.

18.
J Clin Lipidol ; 14(4): 531-541, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32651087

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Fasting free fatty acid (FFA) levels may be associated with cardiovascular disease (CVD) and mortality, but research among generally healthy adults, females, and racially/ethnically diverse populations is lacking. OBJECTIVE: The primary aim of this project was to investigate prospective associations between fasting FFAs and coronary heart disease (CHD) and CVD incidence and CVD-specific and all-cause mortality in a generally healthy age, sex, and racially/ethnically heterogeneous population. METHODS: This study was conducted in the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis cohort using baseline (2000-2002) fasting FFAs and outcome data through 2015 (N = 6678). Cox proportional hazards regression was used to calculate hazard ratios for associations between FFAs and CHD, CVD, CVD-specific mortality, and all-cause mortality. Interactions by age, sex, race/ethnicity, and metabolic syndrome were evaluated by stratification and cross-product terms. A secondary analysis was conducted to evaluate associations between FFAs, and inflammatory and endothelial activation biomarkers were evaluated using linear regression (analytic N range: 964-6662). RESULTS: FFA levels were not associated with CHD or CVD incidence. Higher FFAs were associated with CVD-specific and all-cause mortality, but associations were attenuated in fully adjusted models with a borderline significant association remaining only for all-cause mortality (fully adjusted, per standard deviation increase hazard ratio = 1.07, 95% confidence interval: 1.00-1.14). Associations did not differ by age, sex, race/ethnicity, or metabolic syndrome. CONCLUSIONS: Fasting FFAs were not associated with CHD, CVD, or CVD-specific mortality and were modestly associated with all-cause mortality, regardless of age, sex, race/ethnicity, or metabolic syndrome status.

19.
PLoS Med ; 17(6): e1003102, 2020 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32530938

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: De novo lipogenesis (DNL) is the primary metabolic pathway synthesizing fatty acids from carbohydrates, protein, or alcohol. Our aim was to examine associations of in vivo levels of selected fatty acids (16:0, 16:1n7, 18:0, 18:1n9) in DNL with incidence of type 2 diabetes (T2D). METHODS AND FINDINGS: Seventeen cohorts from 12 countries (7 from Europe, 7 from the United States, 1 from Australia, 1 from Taiwan; baseline years = 1970-1973 to 2006-2010) conducted harmonized individual-level analyses of associations of DNL-related fatty acids with incident T2D. In total, we evaluated 65,225 participants (mean ages = 52.3-75.5 years; % women = 20.4%-62.3% in 12 cohorts recruiting both sexes) and 15,383 incident cases of T2D over the 9-year follow-up on average. Cohort-specific association of each of 16:0, 16:1n7, 18:0, and 18:1n9 with incident T2D was estimated, adjusted for demographic factors, socioeconomic characteristics, alcohol, smoking, physical activity, dyslipidemia, hypertension, menopausal status, and adiposity. Cohort-specific associations were meta-analyzed with an inverse-variance-weighted approach. Each of the 4 fatty acids positively related to incident T2D. Relative risks (RRs) per cohort-specific range between midpoints of the top and bottom quintiles of fatty acid concentrations were 1.53 (1.41-1.66; p < 0.001) for 16:0, 1.40 (1.33-1.48; p < 0.001) for 16:1n-7, 1.14 (1.05-1.22; p = 0.001) for 18:0, and 1.16 (1.07-1.25; p < 0.001) for 18:1n9. Heterogeneity was seen across cohorts (I2 = 51.1%-73.1% for each fatty acid) but not explained by lipid fractions and global geographical regions. Further adjusted for triglycerides (and 16:0 when appropriate) to evaluate associations independent of overall DNL, the associations remained significant for 16:0, 16:1n7, and 18:0 but were attenuated for 18:1n9 (RR = 1.03, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.94-1.13). These findings had limitations in potential reverse causation and residual confounding by imprecisely measured or unmeasured factors. CONCLUSIONS: Concentrations of fatty acids in the DNL were positively associated with T2D incidence. Our findings support further work to investigate a possible role of DNL and individual fatty acids in the development of T2D.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/metabolismo , Ácidos Graxos/metabolismo , Lipogênese , Idoso , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/sangue , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/epidemiologia , Ácidos Graxos/sangue , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Redes e Vias Metabólicas , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos
20.
PLoS Genet ; 16(5): e1008747, 2020 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32407400

RESUMO

Abnormal fetal growth is a risk factor for infant morbidity and mortality and is associated with cardiometabolic diseases in adults. Genetic influences on fetal growth can vary at different gestation times, but genome-wide association studies have been limited to birthweight. We performed trans-ethnic genome-wide meta-analyses and fine mapping to identify maternal genetic loci associated with fetal weight estimates obtained from ultrasound measures taken during pregnancy. Data included 1,849 pregnant women from four race/ethnic groups recruited through the NICHD Fetal Growth Studies. We identified a novel genome-wide significant association of rs746039 [G] (ITPR1) with reduced fetal weight from 24 to 33 weeks gestation (P<5x10-8; log10BF>6). Additional tests revealed that the SNP was associated with head circumference (P = 4.85x10-8), but not with abdominal circumference or humerus/femur lengths. Conditional analysis in an independent sample of mother-offspring pairs replicated the findings and showed that the effect was more likely maternal but not fetal. Trans-ethnic approaches successfully narrowed down the haplotype block that contained the 99% credible set of SNPs associated with head circumference. We further demonstrated that decreased placental expression of ITPR1 was correlated with increased placental epigenetic age acceleration, a risk factor for reduced fetal growth, among male fetuses (r = -0.4, P = 0.01). Finally, genetic risk score composed of known maternal SNPs implicated in birthweight among Europeans was associated with fetal weight from mid-gestation onwards among Whites only. The present study sheds new light on the role of common maternal genetic variants in the inositol receptor signaling pathway on fetal growth from late second trimester to early third trimester. Clinical Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT00912132.


Assuntos
Grupos Étnicos/genética , Grupos Étnicos/estatística & dados numéricos , Desenvolvimento Fetal/genética , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla/estatística & dados numéricos , Receptores de Inositol 1,4,5-Trifosfato/genética , Gravidez , Adulto , Comparação Transcultural , Feminino , Peso Fetal/etnologia , Peso Fetal/genética , Loci Gênicos , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla/métodos , Idade Gestacional , Humanos , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Gravidez/etnologia , Gravidez/genética , Gravidez/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto Jovem
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