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1.
JAMA Cardiol ; 2020 Mar 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32186652

RESUMO

Importance: Aortic stenosis (AS) has no approved medical treatment. Identifying etiological pathways for AS could identify pharmacological targets. Objective: To identify novel genetic loci and pathways associated with AS. Design, Setting, and Participants: This genome-wide association study used a case-control design to evaluate 44 703 participants (3469 cases of AS) of self-reported European ancestry from the Genetic Epidemiology Research on Adult Health and Aging (GERA) cohort (from January 1, 1996, to December 31, 2015). Replication was performed in 7 other cohorts totaling 256 926 participants (5926 cases of AS), with additional analyses performed in 6942 participants from the Cohorts for Heart and Aging Research in Genomic Epidemiology (CHARGE) Consortium. Follow-up biomarker analyses with aortic valve calcium (AVC) were also performed. Data were analyzed from May 1, 2017, to December 5, 2019. Exposures: Genetic variants (615 643 variants) and polyunsaturated fatty acids (ω-6 and ω-3) measured in blood samples. Main Outcomes and Measures: Aortic stenosis and aortic valve replacement defined by electronic health records, surgical records, or echocardiography and the presence of AVC measured by computed tomography. Results: The mean (SD) age of the 44 703 GERA participants was 69.7 (8.4) years, and 22 019 (49.3%) were men. The rs174547 variant at the FADS1/2 locus was associated with AS (odds ratio [OR] per C allele, 0.88; 95% CI, 0.83-0.93; P = 3.0 × 10-6), with genome-wide significance after meta-analysis with 7 replication cohorts totaling 312 118 individuals (9395 cases of AS) (OR, 0.91; 95% CI, 0.88-0.94; P = 2.5 × 10-8). A consistent association with AVC was also observed (OR, 0.91; 95% CI, 0.83-0.99; P = .03). A higher ratio of arachidonic acid to linoleic acid was associated with AVC (OR per SD of the natural logarithm, 1.19; 95% CI, 1.09-1.30; P = 6.6 × 10-5). In mendelian randomization, increased FADS1 liver expression and arachidonic acid were associated with AS (OR per unit of normalized expression, 1.31 [95% CI, 1.17-1.48; P = 7.4 × 10-6]; OR per 5-percentage point increase in arachidonic acid for AVC, 1.23 [95% CI, 1.01-1.49; P = .04]; OR per 5-percentage point increase in arachidonic acid for AS, 1.08 [95% CI, 1.04-1.13; P = 4.1 × 10-4]). Conclusions and Relevance: Variation at the FADS1/2 locus was associated with AS and AVC. Findings from biomarker measurements and mendelian randomization appear to link ω-6 fatty acid biosynthesis to AS, which may represent a therapeutic target.

2.
J Am Heart Assoc ; 9(3): e013934, 2020 Feb 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32013703

RESUMO

Background While elevated homocysteine has been associated with calcification in several studies, its importance as a cardiovascular risk factor remains unclear. This study examines the relationship between homocysteine and vascular and valve calcification in the MESA (Multi-ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis) cohort. Methods and Results MESA participants with baseline homocysteine measurements and cardiac computed tomography scans were included (N=6789). Baseline and follow-up assessment of vascular (coronary artery [CAC], descending thoracic aorta [DTAC]) and valve (aortic valve [AVC], mitral annular [MAC]) calcification was performed. Prevalence ratio/relative risk regression was used to assess the relationship of homocysteine with prevalent and incident calcification, and multivariable logistic regression was used to assess associations between homocysteine and calcification progression. Elevated homocysteine was associated with greater relative risk of prevalent and incident CAC and incident DTAC. We also identified a strong association between elevated homocysteine and CAC and DTAC progression. Elevated homocysteine was found to confer a >2-fold increased risk of severe CAC progression (defined as ΔCAC ≥100/year) and an ≈1.5-fold increased risk for severe DTAC progression (defined as ΔDTAC ≥100/year). Conclusions To our knowledge, this is the first study demonstrating an association between elevated homocysteine and both incidence and progression of coronary and extra-coronary vascular calcification. Our findings suggest a potential role for elevated homocysteine as a risk factor for severe vascular calcification progression. Future studies are warranted to further assess the utility of homocysteine as a biomarker for vascular calcification incidence and progression. Clinical Trial Registration https://www.clinicaltrials.gov/. Unique identifier: NCT00005487.

3.
Clin Nutr ; 2020 Jan 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32008872

RESUMO

BACKGROUND & AIMS: Omega-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) have been shown to relate to insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes (T2D), but influence of race/ethnicity has not been investigated. The aim of this study was to determine whether omega-6 PUFAs, and estimated desaturase enzyme activity, are associated with fasting glucose, insulin, homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) and incident T2D, and whether associations differ by race/ethnicity. METHODS: This study was conducted in the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA) (N = 6282). Associations between baseline plasma phospholipid fatty acids (LA, Linoleic Acid; GLA, γ-linoleic acid; DGLA, Dihomo-γ-linolenic acid; AA, arachidonic acid; D5D, delta-5 desaturase; D6D, delta-6 desaturase), fasting glucose, insulin, and HOMA-IR [(fasting insulin - fasting glucose)/22.5] were evaluated using linear regression. Associations between omega-6 PUFAs (N = 5508 after excluding diabetics at baseline) and T2D incidence were assessed using Cox proportional hazards regression. Analyses were replicated/stratified by race/ethnicity (White, Black, Chinese, Hispanic) and tests for interaction were assessed by inclusion of a cross-product term in models. RESULTS: In fully adjusted models, insulin and HOMA-IR were positively associated with LA (insulin: 0.213 per SD, p = 0.01; HOMA-IR: 0.252 per SD, p < 0.001), GLA (insulin: 0.010 per SD, p < 0.001; HOMA-IR: 0.006 per SD, p < 0.001), DGLA (insulin: 0.279 per SD, p < 0.001; HOMA-IR: 0.175 per SD, p < 0.001) and D6D activity (insulin: 0.001 per SD, p < 0.001; HOMA-IR: 0.006 per SD, p < 0.001), and inversely associated with AA (insulin -0.272 per SD, p < 0.001; HOMA-IR: -0.125 per SD, p = 0.03) and D5D activity (insulin: -0.530 per SD, p < 0.001; HOMA-IR: -0.322 per SD, p < 0.001), while weak or no associations were observed with fasting glucose, and associations appeared to differ by race/ethnicity. After accounting for HOMA-IR at baseline, LA was inversely (HR: 0.87, p = 0.003) and DGLA (HR: 1.17, p < 0.001) and AA (HR: 1.15, p = 0.001) were positively associated with T2D in the overall population, but associations were attenuated or no longer present when stratified by race/ethnicity (P-interaction >0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Results confirm previous reports that omega-6 PUFAs are associated with hyperinsulinemia. Findings suggest omega-6 PUFAs are more likely markers of hyperinsulinemia rather than a protective/risk factor for T2D and indicate racial/ethnic differences in associations, but further research is needed to confirm findings.

4.
Alzheimer Dis Assoc Disord ; 34(1): 31-39, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31385821

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Relationships between brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), insulin-like growth factor (IGF-1), aldosterone, and cognition in aging were evaluated in the population-based Epidemiology of Hearing Loss Study (1993 to present). METHODS: Beginning in 1998 to 2000, cognitive impairment was assessed by report of physician diagnoses and the Mini-Mental State Examination. In 2009 to 2010 and 2013 to 2016, information was collected on diagnosis of mild cognitive impairment/dementia. Decline in cognitive function was assessed by principal component analysis from additional tests administered during 2009 to 2010 and 2013 to 2016. BDNF, IGF-1, and aldosterone were measured in serum collected in 1998 to 2000. RESULTS: There were 1970 participants (mean age=66.9 y; 59.1% female) without cognitive impairment at baseline. Among women, low BDNF was associated with 16-year incident cognitive impairment [hazard ratio=1.76; 95% confidence interval (CI)=1.04, 2.98]. Among men, increasing IGF-1 was associated with decreased risk [per SD: relative risk (RR)=0.57; 95% CI=0.35, 0.92], whereas increasing aldosterone levels were associated with increased risk (per SD: RR=1.28; 95% CI=1.01, 1.62) for 5-year incident mild cognitive impairment/dementia. Overall, low BDNF was associated with increased risk (RR=1.52; 95% CI=1.02, 2.26) for 5-year cognitive decline. CONCLUSION: Low levels of serum BDNF and IGF-1 were associated with poorer cognition during aging. There may be differential biomarker effects by sex.

5.
J Clin Lipidol ; 14(1): 109-121.e5, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31882375

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Discordant levels of apolipoprotein B (apo B) relative to low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) or non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (non-HDL-C) may be associated with subclinical atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD). OBJECTIVE: The present study investigated whether discordance between apo B and LDL-C or non-HDL-C levels was associated with subclinical ASCVD measured by coronary artery calcium (CAC). METHODS: This study was conducted in a subpopulation of the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA) cohort, aged 45 to 84 years, free of ASCVD, and not taking lipid-lowering medications at the baseline (2000-2002) (prevalence analytic N = 4623; incidence analytic N = 2216; progression analytic N = 3947). Apo B discordance relative to LDL-C and non-HDL-C was defined using residuals and percentile rankings (>5/10/15 percentile). Associations with prevalent and incident CAC (CAC > 0 vs CAC = 0) were assessed using prevalence ratio/relative risk regression and CAC progression (absolute increase/year) using multinomial logistic regression. RESULTS: Higher apo B levels were associated with CAC prevalence, incidence, and progression. Apo B discordance relative to LDL-C or non-HDL-C was inconsistently associated with CAC prevalence and progression. Discordantly high apo B relative to LDL-C and non-HDL-C was associated with CAC progression. Associations for apo B discordance with non-HDL-C remained after further adjustment for metabolic syndrome components. CONCLUSION: Apo B was associated with CAC among adults aged ≥45 years not taking statins, but provided only modest additional predictive value of apo B for CAC prevalence, incidence, or progression beyond LDL-C or non-HDL-C. Apo B discordance may still be important for ASCVD risk assessment and further research is needed to confirm findings.

6.
Epidemiology ; 30 Suppl 2: S10-S16, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31569148

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Short telomere length (TL), an indicator of cellular aging and oxidative stress, has been implicated in glucose homeostasis. Additionally, studies have illustrated that the association of TL with health outcomes may vary by age. Yet, data on the association between TL and gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) are sparse and the potential effect modification by age remains unknown. METHODS: We prospectively investigated TL in early pregnancy in relation to the subsequent GDM risk in a case-control study of 93 women with GDM and 186 randomly selected controls matched on age, race/ethnicity, and gestational weeks at blood collection. TL was measured using blood samples collected at 10-14 gestational weeks and reported as the T/S ratio, a ratio of telomere repeat length T to copy number of a single copy gene S. Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated using conditional logistic regression adjusted for major risk factors. RESULTS: Overall, TL was not significantly associated with GDM risk. The TL-GDM association was significantly modified by age (Pinteraction = 0.02). Shorter TL in early pregnancy was associated with an increased GDM risk among women <30 years old (adjusted OR comparing the shortest vs. longest tertile: 3.1, 95% CI = 1.2, 8.1), but not associated with GDM risk among women ≥30 years. CONCLUSION: Our findings suggest that TL in early pregnancy may be implicated in GDM development, particularly among younger women.

7.
PLoS Med ; 16(9): e1002910, 2019 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31518348

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Despite dietary recommendations of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) for cardiometabolic health, n-3 and n-6 PUFAs and their interplay in relation to diabetes risk remain debated. Importantly, data among pregnant women are scarce. We investigated individual plasma phospholipid n-3 and n-6 PUFAs in early to midpregnancy in relation to subsequent risk of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). METHODS AND FINDINGS: Within the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development (NICHD) Fetal Growth Studies-Singleton Cohort (n = 2,802), individual plasma phospholipid n-3 and n-6 PUFAs levels were measured at gestational weeks (GWs) 10-14, 15-26, 23-31, and 33-39 among 107 GDM cases (ascertained on average at GW 27) and 214 non-GDM controls. Conditional logistic regression was used, adjusting for major risk factors for GDM. After adjusting for covariates, individual n-3 eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), docosapentaenoic acid (DPA), and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) were inversely correlated with insulin-resistance markers, whereas individual n-6 dihomo-gamma-linolenic acid (DGLA) was positively correlated with insulin-resistance markers. At GW 15-26, a standard deviation (SD) increase in total n-3 PUFAs and individual n-3 DPA was associated with a 36% (adjusted odds ratio 0.64; 95% CI 0.42-0.96; P = 0.042) and 33% (0.67; 95% CI 0.45-0.99; P = 0.047) lower risk of GDM, respectively; however, the significance did not persist after post hoc false-discovery rate (FDR) correction (FDR-corrected P values > 0.05). Associations between total n-6 PUFAs and GDM were null, whereas associations with individual n-6 PUFAs were differential. Per SD increase, gamma-linolenic acid (GLA) at GWs 10-14 and DGLA at GWs 10-14 and 15-26 were significantly associated with a 1.40- to 1.95-fold higher risk of GDM, whereas docosatetraenoic acid (DTA) at GW 15-26 was associated with a 45% (0.55; 95% CI 0.37-0.83) lower risk of GDM (all FDR-corrected P values < 0.05). Null associations were observed for linoleic acid (LA) in either gestational window in relation to risk of GDM. Women with high (≥median) n-3 PUFAs and low (

Assuntos
Glicemia/metabolismo , Diabetes Gestacional/sangue , Ácidos Graxos Ômega-3/sangue , Ácidos Graxos Ômega-6/sangue , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Materna , Estado Nutricional , Fosfolipídeos/sangue , Adolescente , Adulto , Biomarcadores/sangue , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Diabetes Gestacional/diagnóstico , Diabetes Gestacional/etiologia , Feminino , Idade Gestacional , Humanos , Insulina/sangue , Resistência à Insulina , Estudos Longitudinais , Gravidez , Estudos Prospectivos , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Adulto Jovem
9.
Laryngoscope ; 2019 Aug 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31424564

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES/HYPOTHESIS: To determine the 10-year incidence of hearing impairment (HI) and associated risk factors in the Beaver Dam Offspring Study (BOSS; 2004-present), a large middle-aged cohort followed for 10 years. STUDY DESIGN: Prospective cohort study. METHODS: Hearing thresholds were measured at baseline (2005-2008) and 5- (2010-2013) and 10-year (2015-2017) follow-up examinations. HI was defined as a pure-tone average >25 dB HL in either ear. BOSS participants free of HI at baseline with at least one follow-up examination (N = 2,065) were included. Potential risk factors evaluated included cardiovascular measures, health history, lifestyle factors, inflammatory markers, vitamins D and B12, lead, and cadmium. RESULTS: Participants were 21 to 79 years (mean age = 47.9 years) at baseline. The 10-year cumulative HI incidence was 17.4% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 15.7-19.2) and was twice as likely in men (24.4%, 95% CI: 21.5-27.7) than in women (12.2%, 95% CI: 10.3-14.3). In a multivariable adjusted model, age (hazard ratio [HR] = 1.48, 95% CI: 1.38-1.59, per 5 years), male sex (HR = 2.47, 95% CI: 1.91-3.18), less than a college education (HR = 1.35, 95% CI: 1.02-1.79), body mass index (HR = 1.03, 95% CI: 1.01-1.05, per kg/m2 ), and higher cadmium levels (HR = 1.42, 95% CI: 1.05-1.92, quintile 5 vs. quintiles 1-4) were associated with the 10-year cumulative incidence of HI. There was no association between high lead levels, vitamins D or B12, and 10-year incidence of HI. CONCLUSIONS: In addition to age and sex, obesity, education, and blood cadmium levels were associated with increased incidence of HI. These prospective results add to evidence that age-related HI is a multifactorial preventable disorder. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: 2b Laryngoscope, 2019.

10.
JACC Heart Fail ; 7(8): 651-661, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31302044

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to determine if plasma eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) abundance (%EPA) is associated with reduced hazard for primary heart failure (HF) events in the MESA (Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis) trial. BACKGROUND: Clinical trials suggest that omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (ω3 PUFAs) prevent sudden death in coronary heart disease and HF, but this is controversial. In mice, the authors demonstrated that the ω3 PUFA EPA prevents contractile dysfunction and fibrosis in an HF model, but whether this extends to humans is unclear. METHODS: In the MESA cohort, the authors tested if plasma phospholipid EPA predicts primary HF incidence, including HF with reduced ejection fraction (EF) (EF <45%) and HF with preserved EF (EF ≥45%) using Cox proportional hazards modeling. RESULTS: A total of 6,562 participants 45 to 84 years of age had EPA measured at baseline (1,794 black, 794 Chinese, 1,442 Hispanic, and 2,532 white; 52% women). Over a median follow-up period of 13.0 years, 292 HF events occurred: 128 HF with reduced EF, 110 HF with preserved EF, and 54 with unknown EF status. %EPA in HF-free participants was 0.76% (0.75% to 0.77%) but was lower in participants with HF at 0.69% (0.64% to 0.74%) (p = 0.005). Log %EPA was associated with lower HF incidence (hazard ratio: 0.73 [95% confidence interval: 0.60 to 0.91] per log-unit difference in %EPA; p = 0.001). Adjusting for age, sex, race, body mass index, smoking, diabetes mellitus, blood pressure, lipids and lipid-lowering drugs, albuminuria, and the lead fatty acid for each cluster did not change this relationship. Sensitivity analyses showed no dependence on HF type. CONCLUSIONS: Higher plasma EPA was significantly associated with reduced risk for HF, with both reduced and preserved EF. (Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis [MESA]; NCT00005487).

11.
Am Heart J ; 213: 30-34, 2019 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31085382

RESUMO

Hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) is associated with subclinical and clinical atherosclerosis. However, the significance of change in HGF and development of atherosclerotic disease is unknown. In a large and diverse population-based cohort, we report that change in the biomarker HGF is an independent predictor of incident CHD.

12.
Am J Clin Nutr ; 109(4): 1216-1223, 2019 04 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30982858

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Saturated fatty acids (SFAs) of different chain lengths have unique metabolic and biological effects, and a small number of recent studies suggest that higher circulating concentrations of the very-long-chain SFAs (VLSFAs) arachidic acid (20:0), behenic acid (22:0), and lignoceric acid (24:0) are associated with a lower risk of diabetes. Confirmation of these findings in a large and diverse population is needed. OBJECTIVE: We investigated the associations of circulating VLSFAs 20:0, 22:0, and 24:0 with incident type 2 diabetes in prospective studies. METHODS: Twelve studies that are part of the Fatty Acids and Outcomes Research Consortium participated in the analysis. Using Cox or logistic regression within studies and an inverse-variance-weighted meta-analysis across studies, we examined the associations of VLSFAs 20:0, 22:0, and 24:0 with incident diabetes among 51,431 participants. RESULTS: There were 14,276 cases of incident diabetes across participating studies. Higher circulating concentrations of 20:0, 22:0, and 24:0 were each associated with a lower risk of incident diabetes. Pooling across cohorts, the RR (95% CI) for incident diabetes comparing the 90th percentile to the 10th percentile was 0.78 (0.70, 0.87) for 20:0, 0.84 (0.77, 0.91) for 22:0, and 0.75 (0.69, 0.83) for 24:0 after adjustment for demographic, lifestyle, adiposity, and other health factors. Results were fully attenuated in exploratory models that adjusted for circulating 16:0 and triglycerides. CONCLUSIONS: Results from this pooled analysis indicate that higher concentrations of circulating VLSFAs 20:0, 22:0, and 24:0 are each associated with a lower risk of diabetes.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/sangue , Ácidos Eicosanoicos/sangue , Ácidos Graxos/sangue , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos
13.
Diabetologia ; 62(6): 981-992, 2019 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30949716

RESUMO

AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: Apolipoprotein C-III (apoC-III) is a small proinflammatory protein that may play a key role in diabetes pathophysiology. However, prior observational studies have been limited to predominantly white populations, and the biological links between apoC-III and diabetes, particularly the role of apoC-III on specific lipoprotein particles, are not yet well understood. We therefore investigated associations of total apoC-III and apoC-III-defined lipoprotein subspecies with incident diabetes and glucose metabolism measures in a multi-ethnic cohort. METHODS: For the current analyses, baseline (2000-2002) plasma total apoC-III and apolipoprotein A-I concentrations of HDL containing or lacking apoC-III were newly measured via sandwich ELISA in 4579 participants from the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis. Multivariable Cox regression was used to examine associations of apolipoproteins with incident diabetes until early 2012 (567 cases), and linear mixed models were used to estimate associations with longitudinally assessed continuous measures of glucose metabolism. Similar exploratory analyses of plasma apolipoprotein B concentrations of LDL and VLDL containing or lacking apoC-III were performed in a subset of participants (LDL, n = 1545; VLDL, n = 1526). RESULTS: In the overall population, elevated total apoC-III concentrations were associated with a higher rate of diabetes (top vs bottom quintile, HR 1.88; 95% CI 1.42, 2.47; ptrend = 0.0002). ApoC-III-defined HDL subspecies displayed opposing associations with incidence of diabetes (p for heterogeneity = 0.02). While HDL lacking apoC-III was inversely associated with incidence of diabetes (top vs bottom quintile, HR 0.66; 95% CI 0.46, 0.93; ptrend = 0.002), HDL containing apoC-III was not associated (HR 1.11; 95% CI 0.78, 1.58; ptrend = 0.61). Similarly, only HDL lacking apoC-III was beneficially associated with plasma glucose (ptrend = 0.003), HbA1c (ptrend = 0.04) and insulin sensitivity (ptrend < 0.0001), and higher HDL containing apoC-III was associated with lower insulin sensitivity (ptrend = 0.04). Neither of the apoC-III-defined LDL subspecies was associated with incident diabetes, while VLDL was more strongly associated with the incidence of diabetes when it lacked apoC-III. Further adjustment for plasma triacylglycerols as a potential intermediate attenuated the associations of total apoC-III and apoC-III-defined lipoprotein subspecies. No statistically significant differences were observed across racial/ethnic groups. CONCLUSIONS/INTERPRETATION: Our findings in a multi-ethnic population support the involvement of apoC-III in the development of diabetes, potentially through its association with circulating triacylglycerols. The presence of apoC-III on HDL also diminished the protective association of HDL with incident diabetes. Further investigation of apoC-III and apoC-III-defined HDL subspecies may inform the development of novel diabetes treatment and prevention strategies.


Assuntos
Apolipoproteína A-I/sangue , Apolipoproteína C-III/sangue , Aterosclerose/sangue , Lipoproteínas/sangue , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática , Feminino , Glucose/metabolismo , Humanos , Modelos Lineares , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Análise Multivariada , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais
14.
J Diabetes ; 11(11): 895-905, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31001915

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Women with gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) may be at an increased risk of liver complications because chronic hyperglycemia is a risk factor for liver fat accumulation and potential liver dysfunction. Large prospective studies examining liver fat accumulation following a GDM pregnancy are lacking. METHODS: The Diabetes & Women's Health Study (2012-2014) examined the association between GDM and subsequent fatty liver scores among 607 women with and 619 women without GDM in the Danish National Birth Cohort. Nine to 16 years postpartum, a clinical examination was performed, with measurement of alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), and γ-glutamyl transferase, from which fatty liver scoring indices were calculated to assess liver fat score, fatty liver index, hepatic steatosis index, and liver fat percentage. Relative risks (RR) with 95% confidence intervals (CI) for elevated liver scoring indices by GDM status were assessed adjusting for major risk factors, including prepregnancy body mass index. RESULTS: Women with prior GDM had higher adjusted ALT and AST levels than women without GDM (by 6.7% [95% CI 1.7-12.0] and 4.8% [95% CI 0.6-9.1], respectively). Women with GDM also had adjusted increased risks for elevated liver fat score (RR 2.34; 95% CI 1.68-3.27), fatty liver index (RR 1.59; 95% CI 1.27-1.99), and hepatic steatosis index (RR 1.44; 95% CI 1.21-1.71). CONCLUSIONS: Women with GDM during pregnancy were at an increased risk for fatty liver 9 to 16 years postpartum. Gestational diabetes mellitus may serve as another risk indicator for the early identification and prevention of liver fat accumulation.

15.
Diabetes Obes Metab ; 21(8): 1895-1905, 2019 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30993847

RESUMO

AIM: To prospectively and longitudinally investigate vitamin D status during early to mid-pregnancy in relation to gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) risk. METHODS: In a nested case-control study of 107 GDM cases and 214 controls within the Fetal Growth Studies-Singleton Cohort, plasma levels of 25-hydroxyvitamin D2 and D3 (25(OH)D) and vitamin D binding protein were measured at gestational weeks 10 to 14, 15 to 26, 23 to 31, and 33 to 39; we further calculated total, free, and bioavailable 25(OH)D. Conditional logistic regression models and linear mixed-effects models were used. RESULTS: We observed a threshold effect for the relation of vitamin D biomarkers with GDM risk. Vitamin D deficiency (<50 nmol/L) at 10 to 14 gestational weeks was associated with a 2.82-fold increased risk for GDM [odds ratio (OR) = 2.82, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.15-6.93]. Women with persistent vitamin D deficiency at 10 to 14 and 15 to 26 weeks of gestation had a 4.46-fold elevated risk for GDM compared with women persistently non-deficient (OR = 4.46, 95% CI: 1.15-17.3). CONCLUSIONS: Maternal vitamin D deficiency as early as the first trimester of pregnancy was associated with an elevated risk of GDM. The association was stronger for women who were persistently deficient through the second trimester. Assessment of vitamin D status in early pregnancy may be clinically important and valuable for improving risk stratification and developing effective interventions for the primary prevention of GDM.

16.
J Am Geriatr Soc ; 67(8): 1610-1616, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30934109

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Middle age has been identified as a critical time period for health later in life. Identifying factors associated with worse brain function in middle-aged adults may help identify ways to preserve brain function with aging. Our objective was to evaluate factors associated with a novel measure of brain aging in middle-aged and older adults. DESIGN: Longitudinal cohort study. SETTING: Beaver Dam Offspring Study (BOSS) baseline (2005-2008), 5-year (2010-2013), and 10-year examinations (2015-2017). PARTICIPANTS: A total of 2285 adults, 22 to 84 years of age, with complete sensorineural and neurocognitive data at the 5-year examination. MEASUREMENTS: Principal component analysis (PCA) was performed combining 5-year sensorineural (hearing, vision, olfaction) and cognitive (Trail Making Test A and B, Digit Symbol Substitution Test, Verbal Fluency Test, Auditory Verbal Learning Test) test data. Participants with a standardized PCA score less than -1 were classified as having brain aging. Incident brain aging was defined as a PCA score less than -1 at 10 years among participants who had a PCA score of -1 or higher at 5 years. Logistic regression and Poisson models were used to estimate associations between baseline factors and prevalent or incident brain aging, respectively. RESULTS: Older age, being male, current smoking, larger waist circumference, not consuming alcohol, cardiovascular disease, and interleukin-6 were associated with greater odds of prevalent brain aging, whereas more education and exercise were associated with decreased odds. In addition to age and sex, less than a college education, higher levels of soluble intercellular adhesion molecule-1, diabetes, depressive symptoms, and history of head injury were associated with an increased 5-year risk of incident brain aging. CONCLUSION: In the current study, vascular and inflammatory factors were associated with a new brain aging marker in middle-aged and older adults. Many of these factors are modifiable, highlighting the importance of addressing health and lifestyle factors in midlife to potentially preserve function for better brain health later in life. J Am Geriatr Soc 67:1610-1616, 2019.

17.
Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol ; 39(3): 523-529, 2019 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30727753

RESUMO

Objective- Lp(a) [lipoprotein(a)] is a well-described risk factor for atherosclerosis, but Lp(a)-associated risk may vary by race/ethnicity. We aimed to determine whether race/ethnicity modifies Lp(a)-related risk of carotid atherosclerotic plaque outcomes among black, white, Chinese, and Hispanic individuals. Approach and Results- Carotid plaque presence and score were assessed by ultrasonography at baseline (n=5155) and following a median 9.4 year period (n=3380) in MESA (Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis) participants. Lp(a) concentrations were measured by immunoassay and examined as a continuous and categorical variable using clinically-based cutoffs, 30 and 50 mg/dL. Lp(a) was related to greater risk of prevalent carotid plaque at baseline in whites alone (all P<0.001): per log unit (relative risk, 1.05); Lp(a)≥30 mg/dL (relative risk, 1.16); and Lp(a)≥50 mg/dL (relative risk, 1.20). Lp(a) levels over 50 mg/dL were associated with a higher plaque score at baseline in whites (all P<0.001) and Hispanics ( P=0.04). In prospective analyses, whites with Lp(a) ≥50 mg/dL were found to have greater risk of plaque progression (relative risk, 1.12; P=0.03) and higher plaque scores (all P<0.001) over the 9.4-year follow-up. Race-based differences between whites and black participants were significant for cross-sectional associations and for carotid plaque score following the 9.4 year study period. Conclusions- Race was found to be a modifying variable in Lp(a)-related risk of carotid plaque, and Lp(a) levels may have greater influence on plaque burden in whites than in black individuals. Borderline results in Hispanics suggest that elevated Lp(a) may increase the risk of carotid plaque, but follow-up studies are needed.


Assuntos
Doenças das Artérias Carótidas/etnologia , Grupos de Populações Continentais , Lipoproteína(a)/sangue , Placa Aterosclerótica/etnologia , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Africano , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Antropometria , Americanos Asiáticos , Doenças das Artérias Carótidas/sangue , Comorbidade , Estudos Transversais , Diabetes Mellitus/etnologia , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu , Feminino , Seguimentos , Hispano-Americanos , Humanos , Hipertensão/etnologia , Lipídeos/sangue , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Placa Aterosclerótica/sangue , Prevalência , Risco , Fumar/etnologia , Fatores Socioeconômicos
18.
Am J Cardiol ; 123(6): 919-921, 2019 03 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30626499

RESUMO

We sought to report the distribution of Lp(a) levels in the Mediators of Atherosclerosis among South Asians Living in America cohort of participants who were free from clinical atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD) at baseline and to evaluate the cross-sectional association with atherosclerosis measured by coronary artery calcification (CAC) and carotid intima media thickness. Among 886 participants (mean [SD] age: 55.4 [9.4] years, 54% male), median lipoprotein (a) level was 17 (9, 33) mg/dl. Compared with the lowest quartile (9 mg/dl), subjects in the highest Lp(a) quartile (33 to 178 mg/dl) were more likely to be women (51% vs 37%, p <0.01) and had a higher mean (SD) total cholesterol (193 [37] mg/dl vs 181 [35] mg/dl, p <0.01). CAC was present in 42% and both the presence and degree of CAC was similar across Lp(a) quartiles (p = 0.58). Median Interquartile range (IQR) common and internal carotid intima-media thickness (IMT) thicknesses were 0.84 (0.73, 0.98) mm and 1.12 (0.95, 1.34) mm, respectively, and were also similar across Lp(a) quartiles. After adjustment for cardiovascular risk factors, Lp(a) quartile had no association with prevalent CAC (p = 0.98), internal carotid IMT (p = 0.46), or common carotid IMT (p = 0.97). Among South Asian Americans, mean Lp(a) levels were higher than previous reports among Whites, Hispanic/Latino, and Chinese-Americans but lower than in Blacks. Unlike findings from other race/ethnic groups, Lp(a) levels were not associated with atherosclerosis among South Asian Americans.


Assuntos
Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Asiático , Aterosclerose/etnologia , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/etnologia , Vasos Coronários/diagnóstico por imagem , Lipoproteína(a)/sangue , Medição de Risco/métodos , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Ásia Sudeste/etnologia , Aterosclerose/sangue , Aterosclerose/diagnóstico , Biomarcadores/sangue , Espessura Intima-Media Carotídea , Angiografia Coronária , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/sangue , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/diagnóstico , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prognóstico , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Taxa de Sobrevida/tendências , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
19.
Laryngoscope ; 129(9): 2178-2183, 2019 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30698838

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Hearing impairment (HI) is common in aging adults. Aldosterone, insulin-like growth factor (IGF1), and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) have been identified as potentially protective of hearing. The present study aims to investigate these relationships. METHODS: The Epidemiology of Hearing Loss Study is a longitudinal population-based study of aging in Beaver Dam, Wisconsin, that began in 1993. Baseline for the present investigation is the 1998 to 2000 phase. Follow-up exams occurred approximately every 5 years, with the most recent occurring from 2013 to 2016. Hearing was measured by pure-tone audiometry. HI was defined as a pure tone average (PTA) > 25 decibels hearing level in either ear. Change in PTA was the difference between follow-up examinations and baseline. Baseline serum samples were used to measure biomarkers in 2017. Hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated to assess the effect of biomarker levels in the lowest quintile (Q1) versus the highest (Q5) on incident HI and PTA change. RESULTS: There were 1,088 participants (69.3% women) at risk of HI included in analyses. The mean baseline age was 63.8 years (standard deviation = 7.0). The 16-year incidence of HI was 54.9% and was higher in men (61.1%) than women (52.1%). In age- and sex-adjusted models, aldosterone (HR = 1.06, 95% CI = 0.82-1.37), IGF1 (HR = 0.92, 95% CI = 0.71-1.19), and BDNF (HR = 0.86, 95% CI = 0.66-1.12) levels were not associated with risk of HI. PTA change was similarly not affected by biomarker levels. CONCLUSION: Aldosterone, IGF1, and BDNF were not associated with decreased risk of age-related hearing loss in this study. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: 2b Laryngoscope, 129:2178-2183, 2019.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores/sangue , Perda Auditiva/epidemiologia , Idoso , Aldosterona/sangue , Audiometria de Tons Puros , Fator Neurotrófico Derivado do Encéfalo/sangue , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Fator de Crescimento Insulin-Like I/metabolismo , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Wisconsin/epidemiologia
20.
Epigenomics ; 11(2): 187-198, 2019 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30618290

RESUMO

AIM: We examined maternal prepregnancy anthropometry and cord blood DNA methylation. METHODS: Associations between maternal measures (i.e., weight, height, waist circumference, hip circumference, skinfolds, leptin) and methylation ß-values at each CpG (measured by the Infinium MethylationEPIC BeadChip) were estimated among 391 singletons. RESULTS:  Total of 18% of mothers were obese (body mass index ≥ 30) and 27% centrally obese (waist-to-hip ratio ≥ 0.85). One Bonferroni significant CpG with respect to obesity (cg02975187) and two with central obesity (cg12053563, cg12549355) were identified (p < 6 × 10-8). A suggestive association (p < 10-6) was observed at SFRS8 with increasing body mass index. SFRS8 was previously identified with propensity for weight gain in adults. CONCLUSION: While associations identified with multiple measures related to maternal adiposity suggest different pathways, methylation differences were small in magnitude.

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