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1.
Hepatology ; 2019 Oct 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31610027

RESUMO

Survival data among patients with HCV-related HCC after achieving sustained virologic response (SVR) with interferon (IFN)-free direct acting antivirals (DAAs) in both Asian and western countries are limited. Survival rates were compared between HCV-related HCC patients who were untreated for HCV and those who achieved SVR. Using data from two U.S. and six Asian centers from 2005-2017, we categorized 1676 mono-infected HCV-related HCC patients into patients untreated for HCV (untreated group) and DAA-treated patients with SVR (SVR group) and matched by propensity score-matching (PSM); multivariable Cox regression with HCV treatment status as a time-varying covariate was used to determine mortality risk and landmark analysis to avoid immortal time bias. There were 1,239 untreated and 437 SVR patients. After PSM, background risks of the 321 pairs of matched patients were balanced (all P>0.05). After time-varying adjustment for HCV treatment initiation compared to untreated patients, SVR patients had significantly higher 5-year overall survival (87.78% vs. 66.05%, P<0.001). Multivariable Cox regression showed that SVR was independently associated with a 63% lower risk of 5-year all-cause mortality (HR=0.37; 95% CI: 0.16-0.83, P=0.016) and 66% lower risk of 5-year liver-related mortality (HR=0.34; 95% CI: 0.13-0.88, P=0.026) with similar trends after removing liver transplanted patients. Landmark analysis at 90, 180, and 360 days showed consistent results (HRs ranged 0.22 to 0.44, all P<0.05). CONCLUSION: In this multinational consortium, HCV-related HCC patients who obtained SVR achieved a 60-70% improvement in 5-year survival (both all-cause and liver-related) compared to patients untreated for HCV. Patients eligible for HCC therapy should also be considered for DAA therapy.

2.
Am J Gastroenterol ; 2019 10 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31634265

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: It is unclear whether entecavir (ETV) and tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF) differ in their effectiveness for preventing hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) in patients with chronic hepatitis B (CHB). METHODS: This retrospective cohort study analyzed an international consortium that encompassed 19 centers from 6 countries or regions composed of previously untreated CHB patients then treated with either ETV or TDF monotherapy. Those who developed HCC before antiviral treatment or within 1 year of therapy were excluded. The association between antiviral regimen and HCC risk was evaluated using competing-risk survival regression. We also applied propensity score matching (PSM) to 1:1 balance the 2 treatment cohorts. A total of 5,537 patients were eligible (n = 4,837 received ETV and n = 700 received TDF) and observed for HCC occurrence until December 23, 2018. Before PSM, the TDF cohort was significantly younger and had generally less advanced diseases. RESULTS: In the unadjusted analysis, TDF was associated with a lower risk of HCC (subdistribution hazard ratio [SHR], 0.45; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.26-0.79; P = 0.005). The multivariable analysis, however, found that the association between TDF and HCC no longer existed (SHR, 0.81; 95% CI, 0.42-1.56; P = 0.52) after adjustment for age, sex, country, albumin, platelet, α-fetoprotein, cirrhosis, and diabetes mellitus. Furthermore, the PSM analysis (n = 1,040) found no between-cohort differences in HCC incidences (P = 0.51) and no association between regimens (TDF or ETV) and HCC risk in the multivariable-adjusted analysis (adjusted SHR, 0.89; 95% CI, 0.41-1.92; P = 0.77). DISCUSSION: TDF and ETV did not significantly differ in the prevention of HCC in patients with CHB.

3.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31512119

RESUMO

The cement industry generates a substantial amount of gaseous pollutants that cannot be treated efficiently and economically using standard techniques. Microalgae, a promising bioremediation and biodegradation agent used as feedstock for biofuel production, can be used for the biotreatment of cement flue gas. In specific, components of cement flue gas such as carbon dioxide, nitrogen, and sulfur oxides are shown to serve as nutrients for microalgae. Microalgae also have the capacity to sequestrate heavy metals present in cement kiln dust, adding further benefits. This work provides an extensive overview of multiple approaches taken in the inclusion of microalgae biofuel production in the cement sector. In addition, factors influencing the production of microalgal biomass are also described in such an integrated plant. In addition, process limitations such as the adverse impact of flue gas on medium pH, exhaust gas toxicity, and efficient delivery of carbon dioxide to media are also discussed. Finally, the article concludes by proposing the future potential for incorporating the microalgae biofuel plant into the cement sector.

4.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31414504

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIM: Hepatitis C virus eradication via the use of antivirals ameliorates metabolic profiles. The changes in serum uric acid (SUA) levels in chronic hepatitis C patients who receive antivirals are not well understood. We aimed to address this issue by comparing the SUA changes before and after the achievement of a sustained virological response (which is defined as hepatitis C virus RNA seronegativity at 12 weeks after the end of treatment). METHODS: Two hundred and thirteen sustained virological response patients who were treated by directly acting antivirals were consecutively enrolled. Pretreatment and post-treatment SUA levels were compared. Hyperuricemia was defined as a uric acid level > 7.0 mg/dL in men and > 6.0 mg/dL in women. RESULTS: The SUA levels significantly decreased after treatment, as compared to the pretreatment levels (5.6 ± 1.5 vs 6.0 ± 1.7 mg/dL, respectively; P < 0.001). The proportion of hyperuricemia incidences significantly decreased after treatment (25.8% vs 35.7%, respectively; P = 0.001). The improvement was only observed in patients with a fibrosis-4 index (FIB-4) < 6.5 (25.7% vs 37.1%, P = 0.001) but not in those patients with a FIB-4 â‰§ 6.5 (26.3% vs 28.9%, P = 1.00). A multivariate analysis revealed that the factor that was associated with significantly decreased SUA levels was FIB-4 < 6.5 (odds ratio [OR]/95% confidence interval [CI]: 3.22/1.04-9.95, P = 0.04) and estimated glomerular filtration rate < 60 mL/min/1.73 m2 (OR/CI: 4.34/1.94-9.73, P < 0.001). There existed a trend of a higher proportion of patients with significant SUA improvement along with the decrement of FIB-4 (29.7%, 25%, and 10.5% in patients with FIB-4 < 3.25, 3.25-6.5, and > 6.5, respectively; trend P = 0.03). CONCLUSIONS: SUA levels were significantly decreased in chronic hepatitis C patients after viral eradication. The improvement was particularly enhanced in patients with mild liver disease.

5.
Aging (Albany NY) ; 11(16): 5895-5923, 2019 Aug 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31422385

RESUMO

Telomere length (TL) is associated with several aging-related diseases. Here, we present a DNA methylation estimator of TL (DNAmTL) based on 140 CpGs. Leukocyte DNAmTL is applicable across the entire age spectrum and is more strongly associated with age than measured leukocyte TL (LTL) (r ~-0.75 for DNAmTL versus r ~ -0.35 for LTL). Leukocyte DNAmTL outperforms LTL in predicting: i) time-to-death (p=2.5E-20), ii) time-to-coronary heart disease (p=6.6E-5), iii) time-to-congestive heart failure (p=3.5E-6), and iv) association with smoking history (p=1.21E-17). These associations are further validated in large scale methylation data (n=10k samples) from the Framingham Heart Study, Women's Health Initiative, Jackson Heart Study, InChianti, Lothian Birth Cohorts, Twins UK, and Bogalusa Heart Study. Leukocyte DNAmTL is also associated with measures of physical fitness/functioning (p=0.029), age-at-menopause (p=0.039), dietary variables (omega 3, fish, vegetable intake), educational attainment (p=3.3E-8) and income (p=3.1E-5). Experiments in cultured somatic cells show that DNAmTL dynamics reflect in part cell replication rather than TL per se. DNAmTL is not only an epigenetic biomarker of replicative history of cells, but a useful marker of age-related pathologies that are associated with it.

6.
Parkinsonism Relat Disord ; 66: 220-223, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31422002

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Mutations in the PUM1 gene were recently identified to cause spinocerebellar ataxia type 47 (SCA47). However, their role in cerebellar ataxia in various populations remains elusive. The aim of this study was to elucidate the frequency and spectrum of PUM1 mutations in a cohort of Taiwanese patients with molecularly undetermined cerebellar ataxia. METHODS: Mutational analyses of PUM1 were performed by Sanger sequencing in a cohort of 248 unrelated patients with cerebellar ataxia of unknown cause, including 108 with autosomal-dominantly inherited cerebellar ataxia, 45 with autosomal-recessively inherited cerebellar ataxia, and 95 with apparently sporadic cerebellar ataxia. Among them, the genetic causes of ataxia remained unknown after excluding mutations responsible for SCA1, 2, 3, 6, 7, 8, 10, 12, 17, 19/22, 23, 26, 27, 28, 31, 35, 36, dentatorubral-pallidoluysian atrophy and Friedreich's ataxia. RESULTS: Two heterozygous missense PUM1 variants were identified in two patients with apparently sporadic cerebellar ataxia, including a known disease-causing mutation (p.R1139W) and a variant of uncertain significance (p.K151R). The patient carrying the p.R1139W mutation had a slowly progressive, relatively pure cerebellar ataxia, presenting with gait unsteadiness, limb dysmetria, ataxic dysarthria and saccadic pursuit. CONCLUSION: Our findings support the pathogenic role of PUM1 mutations in cerebellar ataxia and emphasize the importance of considering PUM1 mutations as a possible etiology of cerebellar ataxia.

7.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31469446

RESUMO

RATIONALE: Organophosphorus pesticides (OPPs) are most commonly used insecticides around the world among various agricultural and domestic practices, and humans are frequently exposed to these hazardous insecticides and lead to several chronic health effects. Therefore, a fast and sensitive analytical method is required for biomonitoring the markers of OPPs in humans for exposure estimation. In this study, a fast and sensitive analytical procedure was developed for the determination of OPPs' metabolites in human urine samples. METHODS: OPPs' metabolites were extracted from 2 mL of urine sample using a novel vortex-assisted salt-induced liquid-liquid microextraction technique (VA-SI-LLME), and the preconcentrated OPPs' metabolites were analyzed by ultra-high performance liquid chromatography (UHPLC-MS/MS) coupled with a tandem mass spectrometer. Various factors affecting the VA-SI-LLME efficiency were completely investigated. RESULTS: OPPs' metabolites exhibited superior linearity over the concentration range between 0.05 ~ 50 ng mL-1 with coefficient (r2 ) values ranged between 0.9986 ~ 0.9999. The presented method showed excellent sensitivity with the detection limits ranging from 0.01 ~ 0.03 ng mL-1 and the quantification limits between 0.03 ~ 0.05 ng mL-1 . The developed method was applied to the analysis of the real samples, and the recoveries were ranged between 85.0 ~ 114.1% with related standard deviations were <5%. CONCLUSIONS: The VA-SI-LLME/UHPLC-MS/MS method results proven to be a simple, rapid, sensitive, and selective analytical procedure for biomonitoring of OPPs' metabolites in human. This efficient and cost-effective analytical method claims its practical solicitation, and it can be a potential alternative analytical method for the biomonitoring of pesticides' metabolites in human.

8.
BMC Med Genomics ; 12(Suppl 5): 99, 2019 Jul 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31296206

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: CoMut plot is widely used in cancer research publications as a visual summary of mutational landscapes in cancer cohorts. This summary plot can inspect gene mutation rate and sample mutation burden with their relevant clinical details, which is a common first step for analyzing the recurrence and co-occurrence of gene mutations across samples. The cBioPortal and iCoMut are two web-based tools that allow users to create intricate visualizations from pre-loaded TCGA and ICGC data. For custom data analysis, only limited command-line packages are available now, making the production of CoMut plots difficult to achieve, especially for researchers without advanced bioinformatics skills. To address the needs for custom data and TCGA/ICGC data comparison, we have created CoMutPlotter, a web-based tool for the production of publication-quality graphs in an easy-of-use and automatic manner. RESULTS: We introduce a web-based tool named CoMutPlotter to lower the barriers between complex cancer genomic data and researchers, providing intuitive access to mutational profiles from TCGA/ICGC projects as well as custom cohort studies. A wide variety of file formats are supported by CoMutPlotter to translate cancer mutation profiles into biological insights and clinical applications, which include Mutation Annotation Format (MAF), Tab-separated values (TSV) and Variant Call Format (VCF) files. CONCLUSIONS: In summary, CoMutPlotter is the first tool of its kind that supports VCF file, the most widely used file format, as its input material. CoMutPlotter also provides the most-wanted function for comparing mutation patterns between custom cohort and TCGA/ICGC project. Contributions of COSMIC mutational signatures in individual samples are also included in the summary plot, which is a unique feature of our tool. CoMutPlotter is freely available at http://tardis.cgu.edu.tw/comutplotter .

9.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 2581, 2019 06 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31197173

RESUMO

Despite existing reports on differential DNA methylation in type 2 diabetes (T2D) and obesity, our understanding of its functional relevance remains limited. Here we show the effect of differential methylation in the early phases of T2D pathology by a blood-based epigenome-wide association study of 4808 non-diabetic Europeans in the discovery phase and 11,750 individuals in the replication. We identify CpGs in LETM1, RBM20, IRS2, MAN2A2 and the 1q25.3 region associated with fasting insulin, and in FCRL6, SLAMF1, APOBEC3H and the 15q26.1 region with fasting glucose. In silico cross-omics analyses highlight the role of differential methylation in the crosstalk between the adaptive immune system and glucose homeostasis. The differential methylation explains at least 16.9% of the association between obesity and insulin. Our study sheds light on the biological interactions between genetic variants driving differential methylation and gene expression in the early pathogenesis of T2D.


Assuntos
Metilação de DNA/fisiologia , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/genética , Glucose/metabolismo , Insulina/metabolismo , Obesidade/genética , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Simulação por Computador , Ilhas de CpG/genética , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/metabolismo , Epigênese Genética/fisiologia , Epigenômica/métodos , Feminino , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica/métodos , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/genética , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla/métodos , Homeostase/genética , Humanos , Masculino , Redes e Vias Metabólicas/genética , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Obesidade/metabolismo , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/fisiologia , Adulto Jovem
10.
Am J Clin Nutr ; 110(2): 437-450, 2019 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31165884

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Folate and vitamin B-12 are essential micronutrients involved in the donation of methyl groups in cellular metabolism. However, associations between intake of these nutrients and genome-wide DNA methylation levels have not been studied comprehensively in humans. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to assess whether folate and/or vitamin B-12 intake are asssociated with genome-wide changes in DNA methylation in leukocytes. METHODS: A large-scale epigenome-wide association study of folate and vitamin B-12 intake was performed on DNA from 5841 participants from 10 cohorts using Illumina 450k arrays. Folate and vitamin B-12 intakes were calculated from food-frequency questionnaires (FFQs). Continuous and categorical (low compared with high intake) linear regression mixed models were applied per cohort, controlling for confounders. A meta-analysis was performed to identify significant differentially methylated positions (DMPs) and regions (DMRs), and a pathway analysis was performed on the DMR annotated genes. RESULTS: The categorical model resulted in 6 DMPs, which are all negatively associated with folate intake, annotated to FAM64A, WRAP73, FRMD8, CUX1, and LCN8 genes, which have a role in cellular processes including centrosome localization, cell proliferation, and tumorigenesis. Regional analysis showed 74 folate-associated DMRs, of which 73 were negatively associated with folate intake. The most significant folate-associated DMR was a 400-base pair (bp) spanning region annotated to the LGALS3BP gene. In the categorical model, vitamin B-12 intake was associated with 29 DMRs annotated to 48 genes, of which the most significant was a 1100-bp spanning region annotated to the calcium-binding tyrosine phosphorylation-regulated gene (CABYR). Vitamin B-12 intake was not associated with DMPs. CONCLUSIONS: We identified novel epigenetic loci that are associated with folate and vitamin B-12 intake. Interestingly, we found a negative association between folate and DNA methylation. Replication of these methylation loci is necessary in future studies.

11.
J Formos Med Assoc ; 2019 Apr 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30952479

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The features and risk analysis of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) in a community-based setting remain elusive. The predictors between obese and lean subjects need further clarification. We aimed to assess the characteristics of NAFLD during a community screening. The associated metabolic abnormalities and cardiovascular risk assessment were also analyzed. METHODS: A total of 2483 subjects receiving multi-purpose health screening at 10 primary care centers were recruited. They received clinical assessment, including demographic data, laboratory examination, and abdominal sonography. RESULTS: The prevalence of NAFLD and metabolic syndrome were 44.5%, and 15.8%, respectively. Among those NAFLD subjects, 1212 (48.8%) subjects were obese (BMI≥ 24 kg/m2). There was an increasing trend of NAFLD according to age, ranging from 25.8% of those aged <30 years to 54.4% of those aged 50-70 years (P for trend< 0.0001). High insulin resistance (IR) was the significant predictive factor for NAFLD in both obese (odds ratio [OR] = 3.85, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.87-8.36, P = 0.0002) and lean subjects (OR = 2.52, 95% CI = 1.13-5.54, p = 0.02). The prevalence of high Framingham Risk Score (≥7.5%) was 56.7% (211/372) among the male subjects, which was significantly higher than that (26%, 191/734) of the females (P < 0.001). There was a significant increase of high Framingham Risk Score according to BMI, ranging from 23.1% of BMI<24 kg/m2 to 45% of BMI>27 kg/m2 (P for trend< 0.0001). CONCLUSION: IR is predictive of NAFLD irrespective of BMI. The cardiovascular risk may exist in lean NAFLD subjects.

12.
Clin Epigenetics ; 11(1): 27, 2019 02 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30760334

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Genetic and environmental risk factors contribute to periodontal disease, but the underlying susceptibility pathways are not fully understood. Epigenetic mechanisms are malleable regulators of gene function that can change in response to genetic and environmental stimuli, thereby providing a potential mechanism for mediating risk effects in periodontitis. The aim of this study is to identify epigenetic changes across tissues that are associated with periodontal disease. METHODS: Self-reported gingival bleeding and history of gum disease, or tooth mobility, were used as indicators of periodontal disease. DNA methylation profiles were generated using the Infinium HumanMethylation450 BeadChip in whole blood, buccal, and adipose tissue samples from predominantly older female twins (mean age 58) from the TwinsUK cohort. Epigenome-wide association scans (EWAS) of gingival bleeding and tooth mobility were conducted in whole blood in 528 and 492 twins, respectively. Subsequently, targeted candidate gene analysis at 28 genomic regions was carried out testing for phenotype-methylation associations in 41 (tooth mobility) and 43 (gingival bleeding) buccal, and 501 (tooth mobility) and 556 (gingival bleeding) adipose DNA samples. RESULTS: Epigenome-wide analyses in blood identified one CpG-site (cg21245277 in ZNF804A) associated with gingival bleeding (FDR = 0.03, nominal p value = 7.17e-8) and 58 sites associated with tooth mobility (FDR < 0.05) with the top signals in IQCE and XKR6. Epigenetic variation at 28 candidate regions (247 CpG-sites) for chronic periodontitis showed an enrichment for association with periodontal traits, and signals in eight genes (VDR, IL6ST, TMCO6, IL1RN, CD44, IL1B, WHAMM, and CXCL1) were significant in both traits. The methylation-phenotype association signals validated in buccal samples, and a subset (25%) also validated in adipose tissue. CONCLUSIONS: Epigenome-wide analyses in adult female twins identified specific DNA methylation changes linked to self-reported periodontal disease. Future work will explore the environmental basis and functional impact of these results to infer potential for strategic personalized treatments and prevention of chronic periodontitis.


Assuntos
Metilação de DNA , Doenças em Gêmeos/genética , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla/métodos , Periodontite/genética , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Ilhas de CpG , Estudos Transversais , Epigênese Genética , Feminino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fenótipo , Análise de Sequência de RNA/métodos , Reino Unido
14.
Clin Epigenetics ; 10(1): 126, 2018 Oct 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30342560

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Tobacco smoking is a risk factor for multiple diseases, including cardiovascular disease and diabetes. Many smoking-associated signals have been detected in the blood methylome, but the extent to which these changes are widespread to metabolically relevant tissues, and impact gene expression or metabolic health, remains unclear. METHODS: We investigated smoking-associated DNA methylation and gene expression variation in adipose tissue biopsies from 542 healthy female twins. Replication, tissue specificity, and longitudinal stability of the smoking-associated effects were explored in additional adipose, blood, skin, and lung samples. We characterized the impact of adipose tissue smoking methylation and expression signals on metabolic disease risk phenotypes, including visceral fat. RESULTS: We identified 42 smoking-methylation and 42 smoking-expression signals, where five genes (AHRR, CYP1A1, CYP1B1, CYTL1, F2RL3) were both hypo-methylated and upregulated in current smokers. CYP1A1 gene expression achieved 95% prediction performance of current smoking status. We validated and replicated a proportion of the signals in additional primary tissue samples, identifying tissue-shared effects. Smoking leaves systemic imprints on DNA methylation after smoking cessation, with stronger but shorter-lived effects on gene expression. Metabolic disease risk traits such as visceral fat and android-to-gynoid ratio showed association with methylation at smoking markers with functional impacts on expression, such as CYP1A1, and at tissue-shared smoking signals, such as NOTCH1. At smoking-signals, BHLHE40 and AHRR DNA methylation and gene expression levels in current smokers were predictive of future gain in visceral fat upon smoking cessation. CONCLUSIONS: Our results provide the first comprehensive characterization of coordinated DNA methylation and gene expression markers of smoking in adipose tissue. The findings relate to human metabolic health and give insights into understanding the widespread health consequence of smoking outside of the lung.

16.
Neurobiol Aging ; 72: 188.e1-188.e2, 2018 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30054183

RESUMO

Mutations in the annexin A11 gene (ANXA11) have been recently identified in British patients and Italian patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), and their role in other ALS populations remains unclear. The aim of this study was to investigate the ANXA11 mutations in a Taiwanese ALS cohort. Mutational analysis of ANXA11 was performed in 286 unrelated Taiwanese patients with ALS by Sanger sequencing. Eight ANXA11 missense variants were identified initially, and only one of them was absent from population databases. This missense variant, p.Q362L, was identified in 1 single patient with apparently sporadic ALS, and no further strong evidence was available to support its pathogenicity. Therefore, it is classified as a variant of uncertain significance. Our data indicate that pathogenic ANXA11 mutations are absent or rare in ALS patients in Taiwan.

17.
J Chin Med Assoc ; 81(8): 670-675, 2018 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29861209

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: A direct-acting antiviral (DAA) era in hepatitis C virus (HCV) treatment is fast approaching; unfortunately, the availability and affordability of DAAs in Asia-Pacific areas vary, making it difficult to develop universal HCV practice guidelines appropriate for the all Asian populations. This study aimed to evaluate the real-world cost-effectiveness of IFN-based therapy according to the current strategies with PegIFN/RBV for "easy-to-treat" to provide a reference for application of future DAA development for IFN-eligible, treatment naïve HCV patients. METHODS: A total of 1032 chronic hepatitis C treatment-naïve patients who corresponded to response-guided therapy (RGT) guidelines of PegIFN/RBV regimens were linked to the entire population of expenditures and order in the National Health Insurance Research Database of Taiwan. The average total cost per SVR achieved was calculated as the summation of the total cost for all treated patients/number of SVR cases. RESULTS: Current RGT suggested 24 weeks of PegIFN/RBV for G1 naïve patients with baseline LVL and RVR at treatment week 4 achieved an average treatment cost per SVR of $5090 ± 2400. This was of superior cost-effectiveness compared with those other subgroups of G1 patients. In terms of G2 patients, according to current RGT of 16 weeks of treatment duration, PegIFN/RBV treatment with RVR achieved was of a very competitive cost per SVR ($3237 ± 488). CONCLUSION: For a naïve patient in the new DAA era, the PegIFN/RBV treatment might be conserved for those with all favorable risk parameters, considering the treatment duration and cost per SVR, in the resource-constrained countries.

18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29932235

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIM: Major histocompatibility complex class I chain-related A (MICA) genetic variants and their serum levels (sMICA) were associated with the development of hepatitis C virus-related hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) in untreated cohorts. The dynamic changes in serial sMICA levels and their association with HCC in the post-curative status are elusive. METHODS: Single nucleotide polymorphism rs2596542 of MICA and serial sMICA levels were analyzed in chronic hepatitis C patients with a sustained virologic response after antivirals. Forty-two patients who developed HCC and 84 age-matched, gender-matched, and cirrhosis propensity score-matched non-HCC controls were compared. Serial sMICA levels were measured within 6 months before treatment initiation (pre-sMICA), 6 months after the end of treatment (post-sMICA), and on the last visit before the development (or not) of HCC (last-sMICA). RESULTS: Cox regression analysis revealed that last-sMICA was the only predictive factor of HCC development (hazard ratio/95% confidence interval: 2.27 (per 1 log pg/mL increase)/1.672-3.082, P < 0.001). Patients without HCC development showed a significantly reduced trend of sMICA levels during follow-up (trend P = 0.001), which was observed only in GG genotype (trend P < 0.001) but not A allele carriers (P = 0.88). In contrast, patients with HCC showed an increased trend of sMICA levels (trend P = 0.024). However, only the GG genotype "high expressors" (trend P = 0.06) but not A allele carriers (P = 0.18) showed a correlation of substantially increased trend of sMICA levels and HCC development. CONCLUSIONS: Serial sMICA levels were associated with HCC development in SVR patients. The clinical utility of this finding is restricted to MICA rs2596542 GG genotype carriers.

19.
Nat Genet ; 50(4): 572-580, 2018 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29632379

RESUMO

Individual risk of type 2 diabetes (T2D) is modified by perturbations to the mass, distribution and function of adipose tissue. To investigate the mechanisms underlying these associations, we explored the molecular, cellular and whole-body effects of T2D-associated alleles near KLF14. We show that KLF14 diabetes-risk alleles act in adipose tissue to reduce KLF14 expression and modulate, in trans, the expression of 385 genes. We demonstrate, in human cellular studies, that reduced KLF14 expression increases pre-adipocyte proliferation but disrupts lipogenesis, and in mice, that adipose tissue-specific deletion of Klf14 partially recapitulates the human phenotype of insulin resistance, dyslipidemia and T2D. We show that carriers of the KLF14 T2D risk allele shift body fat from gynoid stores to abdominal stores and display a marked increase in adipocyte cell size, and that these effects on fat distribution, and the T2D association, are female specific. The metabolic risk associated with variation at this imprinted locus depends on the sex both of the subject and of the parent from whom the risk allele derives.

20.
Oncotarget ; 9(13): 11291-11302, 2018 Feb 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29541414

RESUMO

Background/Aims: MicroRNA-125b (miR-125b) has been found to regulate inflammation and acts as an oncogene in many cancers. The mechanisms of miR-125b expression during hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection remain to be clarified. The present study aims to identify the factors that might regulate miR-125b expression in HCV infection. Results: High expression of miR-125b was found to correlate with HCV infection in replicon cells and in sera from HCV-infected patients, whereas the miR-125b inhibitor reduced HCV gene expression. The interleukin 6 (IL-6)/signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) pathway plays an inducible effect on miR-125b gene expression. STAT3 siRNA or inhibitor could reduce HCV replication. Materials and Methods: HCV replicon cells Con1 (type 1b) and Huh7/Ava5 (type 1b) were treated with 17-hydroxy-jolkinolide B (HJB) or STAT3 siRNA. Cell viability assay and Renilla Luciferase Assay were used. Fragments of the miR-125b-1 promoter were constructed for the luciferase reporter assay. PSMB8, PSMB9, miR-125b-1, and miR-125b-2 expression was determined using TaqMan® Gene Expression Assays. Western blot analysis was performed to assess protein abundance. Conclusions: This study elucidates a novel pathway for miR-125b in the pathogenesis of chronic HCV infection and suggests it as a possible target for treating HCV infection.

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