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1.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34652888

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Mutations in the colony-stimulating factor 1 receptor gene (CSF1R) were identified as a cause of adult-onset inherited leukoencephalopathy. The present study aims at investigating the frequency, clinical characteristics, and functional effects of CSF1R mutations in Taiwanese patients with adult-onset leukoencephalopathy. METHODS: Mutational analysis of CSF1R was performed in 149 unrelated individuals with leukoencephalopathy by a targeted resequencing panel covering the entire coding regions of CSF1R. In vitro analysis of the CSF1-induced autophosphorylation activities of mutant CSF1R proteins was conducted to assess the pathogenicity of the CSF1R mutations. RESULTS: Among the eight CSF1R variants identified in this study, five mutations led to a loss of CSF1-induced autophosphorylation of CSF1R proteins. Four mutations (p.K586*, p.G589R, p.R777Q, and p.R782C) located within the tyrosine kinase domain of CSF1R, whereas the p.T79M mutation resided in the immunoglobulin-like domain. The five patients carrying the CSF1R mutations developed cognitive decline at age 41, 43, 50, 79, and 86 years, respectively. Psychiatric symptoms and behavior changes were observed in four of the five patients. The executive function and processing speed were severely impaired at an early stage, and their cognitive function deteriorated rapidly within 3-4 years. Diffusion-restricted lesions at the subcortical regions and bilateral corticospinal tracts were found in three patients. INTERPRETATION: CSF1R mutations account for 3.5% (5/149) of the adult-onset leukoencephalopathy in Taiwan. CSF1R mutations outside the tyrosine kinase domain may also disturb the CSF1R function and lead to the clinical phenotype. Molecular functional validation is important to determine the pathogenicity of novel CSF1R variants.

2.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 5618, 2021 09 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34584077

RESUMO

Monozygotic (MZ) twins and higher-order multiples arise when a zygote splits during pre-implantation stages of development. The mechanisms underpinning this event have remained a mystery. Because MZ twinning rarely runs in families, the leading hypothesis is that it occurs at random. Here, we show that MZ twinning is strongly associated with a stable DNA methylation signature in adult somatic tissues. This signature spans regions near telomeres and centromeres, Polycomb-repressed regions and heterochromatin, genes involved in cell-adhesion, WNT signaling, cell fate, and putative human metastable epialleles. Our study also demonstrates a never-anticipated corollary: because identical twins keep a lifelong molecular signature, we can retrospectively diagnose if a person was conceived as monozygotic twin.

3.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34333150

RESUMO

BACKGROUND & AIMS: Sofosbuvir is approved for chronic hepatitis C (CHC) patients with severe chronic kidney disease (CKD). The impact of sofosbuvir-based therapy on renal function augmentation on a real-world nationwide basis is elusive. METHODS: The 12,995 CHC patients treated with sofosbuvir-based (n = 6802) or non-sofosbuvir-based (n = 6193) regimens were retrieved from the Taiwan nationwide real-world HCV Registry Program. Serial estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) levels were measured at baseline, end of treatment (EOT), and end of follow-up (EOF) (3 months after EOT). RESULTS: The eGFR decreased from baseline (91.4 mL/min/1.73 m2) to EOT (88.4 mL/min/1.73 m2; P < .001) and substantially recovered at EOF (88.8 mL/min/1.73 m2) but did not return to pretreatment levels (P < .001). Notably, a significant decrease in eGFR was observed only in patients with baseline eGFR ≥90 mL/min/1.73 m2 (from 112.9 to 106.4 mL/min/1.73 m2; P < .001). In contrast, eGFR increased progressively in patients whose baseline eGFR was <90 mL/min/1.73 m2 (from 70.0 to 71.5 mL/min/1.73 m2; P < .001), and this increase was generalized across different stages of CKD. The trend of eGFR amelioration was consistent irrespective of sofosbuvir usage. Multivariate adjusted analysis demonstrated that baseline eGFR >90 mL/min/1.73 m2 was the only factor independently associated with significant slope coefficient differences of eGFR (-1.98 mL/min/1.73 m2; 95% confidence interval, -2.24 to -1.72; P < .001). The use of sofosbuvir was not an independent factor associated with eGFR change. CONCLUSIONS: Both sofosbuvir and non-sofosbuvir-based regimens restored renal function in CHC patients with CKD, especially in those with significant renal function impairment.

4.
Neurobiol Aging ; 2021 Jul 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34392981

RESUMO

The GGC repeat expansion in the 5'-untranslated region of NOTCH2NLC was recently identified as the cause of neuronal intranuclear inclusion disease (NIID). To determine if the NIID repeat expansion contributes to amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), we screened 304 unrelated ALS patients and 637 healthy controls for the GGC repeat expansion in NOTCH2NLC using repeat-primed PCR and fragment analysis. None of the ALS patients carried the GGC repeat expansion. The sizes of the GGC repeats ranged from 7 to 36 in the ALS patients and 4 to 46 in the controls. The distribution of the GGC repeat sizes did not differ between the two groups. Our findings indicate that the NOTCH2NLC GGC repeat expansion is absent or extremely rare in Taiwanese patients with ALS.

5.
Hepatol Int ; 15(5): 1109-1121, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34365587

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIM: The long-term outcome of hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection among patients dually infected with HBV and hepatitis C virus (HCV) remains unclear. We aimed to investigate the long-term liver outcomes of HBV/HCV-coinfected patients after antiviral therapy. METHODS: A total of 11,359 chronically HCV-infected patients with interferon-based therapy were registered in a nationwide Taiwanese Chronic Hepatitis C Cohort. A propensity score matched (PSM) cohort of HCV mono-infected (n = 7020) and HBV/HCV (n = 702) co-infected patients by age, sex, and fibrosis was recruited for outcome analysis. The primary outcome was liver-related complications, including hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and liver decompensation during a mean follow-up period of 4.44 years. RESULTS: Among HBV/HCV co-infected patients, patients without HCV-SVR had a significantly higher 10-year cumulative incidence of major liver-related complications than those with HCV-SVR. However, among patients with HCV-SVR in the PSM cohort, the risk of major liver-related complications, both HCC and liver decompensation, did not differ between HBV/HCV co-infected and HCV mono-infected patients. Similar results were observed among those without HCV-SVR. A substantial lower risk of major liver-related complications was found in HBV/HCV co-infected patients with HCV SVR and subsequent anti-HBV nucleot(s)ide analogues treatment. Overall, factors associated with major liver-related complications included age ≥ 65 year-old, BMI ≥ 27 kg/m2, FIB-4 ≥ 3.25, eGFR < 60 ml/min/1.73 m2, and non-HCV SVR, but not HBV co-infection. CONCLUSION: Interferon-based therapy reduced the long-term risk of major liver-related complications among HBV/HCV co-infected patients, as among HCV mono-infected patients. Nevertheless, post-HCV-SVR surveillance for major liver-related complications is mandatory among those high-risk groups.

6.
Hepatol Int ; 15(5): 1136-1147, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34386935

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The efficacy and safety of insulin sensitizer in Asians with non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) remain elusive. AIMS: The double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial was conducted aiming to investigate the efficacy and safety of pioglitazone in NASH patients. METHODS: A total of 90 NASH patients (66 males, age = 44.1 ± 12.7 years) were prospectively randomized into oral pioglitazone 30 mg/day (Arm A) or placebo (Arm B) for 24 weeks. The primary endpoint was the efficacy of pioglitazone in reducing inflammation and liver fat at end-of-treatment (EOT). NASH resolution/improvement without fibrosis worsening was also evaluated. RESULTS: At EOT, there was a significantly decline of alanine aminotransferase (86.9 ± 34.3 to 45.7 ± 35.8 IU/L, p = 0.003) level in Arm A patients. In intention-to-treat analysis among 66 patients who completed paired biopsies, The NAFLD activity score (NAS) of 30 Arm A patients significantly decreased from 4.27 ± 1.14 at baseline to 2.53 ± 1.63 at EOT (p < 0.0001), whereas there was no significant change in patients of Arm B (3.94 ± 1.41 vs 3.94 ± 1.51, p = 1.0). NASH improvement without worsening of fibrosis was achieved in 46.7% (14/30) patients in Arm A, compared to 11.1% (4/36) patients in Arm B (p = 0.002). Liver fat content reduced (20.2 ± 9.0 to 14.3 ± 6.9%, p < 0.0001) on MRI-PDFF in Arm A compared to their counterparts. No significant difference of adverse events occurred between groups. CONCLUSIONS: A 24-week pioglitazone treatment was well-tolerated and effective in improving liver histology and reducing liver steatosis in Asian NASH patients. (ClinicalTrials.gov number: NCT01068444).

7.
PLoS One ; 16(7): e0254028, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34197557

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/AIMS: Hepatitis C Virus (HCV) infection is diagnosed by the presence of antibody to HCV and/or HCV RNA. This study aimed to evaluate the accuracy of anti-HCV titer (S/CO ratio) in predicting HCV viremia in patients with or without hepatitis B virus (HBV) dual infection. METHODS: Anti-HCV seropositive patients who were treatment-naïve consecutively enrolled. Anti-HCV antibodies were detected using a commercially chemiluminescent microparticle immunoassay. HCV RNA was detected by real-time PCR method. RESULTS: A total of 1321 including1196 mono-infected and 125 HBV dually infected patients were analyzed. The best cut-off value of anti-HCV titer in predicting HCV viremia was 9.95 (AUROC 0.99, P<0.0001). Of the entire cohort, the anti-HCV cut-off value of 10 provided the best accuracy, 96.8%, with the sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV) and negative predictive value (NPV) of 96.3%, 98.9%, 99.7% and 87.3% respectively. The best cut-off value of anti-HCV titer in predicting HCV viremia was 9.95 (AUROC 0.99, P<0.0001) and 9.36 (AUROC 1.00, P<0.0001) in patients with HCV mono-infection and HBV dual-infection respectively. Among the HBV dually infected patients, the accuracy of anti-HCV titer in predicting HCV viremia reached up to 100% with the cut-off value of 9. All the patients were HCV-viremic if their anti-HCV titer was greater than 9 (PPV 100%). On the other hand, all the patients were HCV non-viremic if their anti-HCV titer was less than 9 (NPV 100%). CONCLUSIONS: Anti-HCV titer strongly predicted HCV viremia. This excellent performance could be generalized to either HCV mono-infected or HBV dually infected patients.

8.
Cancers (Basel) ; 13(14)2021 Jul 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34298669

RESUMO

The clinical presentation and survival of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) after hepatitis C virus (HCV) eradication as compared to HCC in viremic patients are not well characterized. We aimed to investigate the characteristics and survival between HCV patients with and without viremia at HCC diagnosis.: We retrospectively analyzed overall survival outcomes in 1389 HCV-related HCC patients, including 301 with HCC developed after HCV eradication (post-SVR HCC) and 1088 with HCV viremia at HCC diagnosis (viremic HCC). We also evaluated overall survival in the two groups using propensity score-matching methods.: At HCC diagnosis, post-SVR HCC patients were older, less obese, less likely cirrhotic, with better liver function, lower alfa-fetoprotein levels, earlier BCLC stages, and higher rate of treatment with surgery. Overall, post-SVR HCC patients had higher median survival than viremic patients (153.3 vs. 55.6 months, p < 0.01), but post-SVR HCC was not independently associated with survival on multivariate analysis (adjusted HR: 1.05, 95% CI: 0.76-1.47). However, on sub-analysis, viremic HCC patients who subsequently received anti-viral treatment and achieved SVR had higher median survival than post-SVR HCC patients (p < 0.01). Viremic HCC with subsequent SVR was also significantly associated with lower mortality as compared to post-SVR HCC (adjusted HR: 0.18, 95% CI: 0.11-0.29). In addition, we observed similar findings in our analysis of the propensity score-matched cohorts.: The advantages in clinical and tumor characters at HCC diagnosis determined the better overall survival of post-SVR HCC patients; however, HCV eradication after HCC development was also associated with improved survival.

9.
J Hazard Mater ; 418: 126267, 2021 09 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34111746

RESUMO

Heavy metal ions (HMIs) pollution is always a serious issue worldwide. Therefore, monitoring HMIs in environmental water is an important and challenging step to ensure environmental health and human safety. In this study, we spotlight an effortless, single-step in-situ electrochemical polymerization deposition technique to fabricate a novel, low-cost, efficient, nano-engineered poly(melamine)/graphitic-carbon nitride nanonetwork (PM/g-C3N4) modified screen-printed carbon electrode (SPE) for sensitive, selective, and simultaneous electrochemical monitoring of toxic HMIs in environmental waters. g-C3N4 nanomaterial was prepared using melamine as a precursor via pyrolysis technique. As-prepared g-C3N4 and melamine monomer were electrochemically in-situ polymerized/deposited over pre-anodized SPE (ASPE) using cyclic voltammetry technique. XRD, XPS, and SEM were engaged to characterize the developed electrode. The fabricated PM/g-C3N4/ASPE was applied as an environmental sensor to selective and simultaneous electrochemical detection of Pb2+ and Cd2+ ions using differential pulse voltammetry technique. The developed sensor displayed excellent selectivity and sensitivity towards Pb2+ and Cd2+ with limit of detections of 0.008 µM and 0.02 µM, respectively. The fabricated PM/g-C3N4/ASPE sensor exhibits superior stability, repeatability, good anti-interference, and applicability for recognition of Pb2+ and Cd2+ ions in real water samples. These results proved that developed environmental sensor is low-cost, efficient, practical platform for rapid, selective, simultaneous monitoring of HMIs in the environment.


Assuntos
Metais Pesados , Nitrilas , Técnicas Eletroquímicas , Eletrodos , Humanos
10.
Genome Biol ; 22(1): 194, 2021 06 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34187551

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Biological aging estimators derived from DNA methylation data are heritable and correlate with morbidity and mortality. Consequently, identification of genetic and environmental contributors to the variation in these measures in populations has become a major goal in the field. RESULTS: Leveraging DNA methylation and SNP data from more than 40,000 individuals, we identify 137 genome-wide significant loci, of which 113 are novel, from genome-wide association study (GWAS) meta-analyses of four epigenetic clocks and epigenetic surrogate markers for granulocyte proportions and plasminogen activator inhibitor 1 levels, respectively. We find evidence for shared genetic loci associated with the Horvath clock and expression of transcripts encoding genes linked to lipid metabolism and immune function. Notably, these loci are independent of those reported to regulate DNA methylation levels at constituent clock CpGs. A polygenic score for GrimAge acceleration showed strong associations with adiposity-related traits, educational attainment, parental longevity, and C-reactive protein levels. CONCLUSION: This study illuminates the genetic architecture underlying epigenetic aging and its shared genetic contributions with lifestyle factors and longevity.

11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34089852

RESUMO

BACKGROUND & AIMS: Antiviral treatment criteria are based on disease progression risk, and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) surveillance recommendations for patients with chronic hepatitis B (CHB) without cirrhosis is based on an annual incidence threshold of 0.2%. However, accurate and precise disease progression estimate data are limited. Thus, we aimed to determine rates of cirrhosis and HCC development stratified by age, sex, treatment status, and disease activity based on the 2018 American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases and 2017 European Association for the Study of the Liver guidelines. METHODS: We analyzed 18,338 patients (8914 treated, 9424 untreated) from 6 centers from the United States and 27 centers from Asia-Pacific countries. The Kaplan-Meier method was used to estimate annual progression rates to cirrhosis or HCC in person-years. RESULTS: The cohort was 63% male, with a mean age of 46.19 years, with baseline cirrhosis of 14.3% and median follow up of 9.60 years. By American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases criteria, depending on age, sex, and disease activity, annual incidence rates ranged from 0.07% to 3.94% for cirrhosis, from 0.04% to 2.19% for HCC in patients without cirrhosis, and from 0.40% to 8.83% for HCC in patients with cirrhosis. Several subgroups of patients without cirrhosis including males younger than 40 years of age and females younger than 50 years of age had annual HCC risk near or exceeding 0.2%. Similar results were found using European Association for the Study of the Liver criteria. CONCLUSION: There is great variability in CHB disease progression rates even among "lower-risk" populations. Future CHB modeling studies, public health planning, and HCC surveillance recommendation should be based on more precise disease progression rates based on sex, age, and disease activity, plus treatment status.

12.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 2830, 2021 05 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33990564

RESUMO

Coffee and tea are extensively consumed beverages worldwide which have received considerable attention regarding health. Intake of these beverages is consistently linked to, among others, reduced risk of diabetes and liver diseases; however, the mechanisms of action remain elusive. Epigenetics is suggested as a mechanism mediating the effects of dietary and lifestyle factors on disease onset. Here we report the results from epigenome-wide association studies (EWAS) on coffee and tea consumption in 15,789 participants of European and African-American ancestries from 15 cohorts. EWAS meta-analysis of coffee consumption reveals 11 CpGs surpassing the epigenome-wide significance threshold (P-value <1.1×10-7), which annotated to the AHRR, F2RL3, FLJ43663, HDAC4, GFI1 and PHGDH genes. Among them, cg14476101 is significantly associated with expression of the PHGDH and risk of fatty liver disease. Knockdown of PHGDH expression in liver cells shows a correlation with expression levels of genes associated with circulating lipids, suggesting a role of PHGDH in hepatic-lipid metabolism. EWAS meta-analysis on tea consumption reveals no significant association, only two CpGs annotated to CACNA1A and PRDM16 genes show suggestive association (P-value <5.0×10-6). These findings indicate that coffee-associated changes in DNA methylation levels may explain the mechanism of action of coffee consumption in conferring risk of diseases.


Assuntos
Café/efeitos adversos , Metilação de DNA , Epigenoma , Chá/efeitos adversos , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Estudos de Coortes , Ilhas de CpG , Epigênese Genética , Feminino , Técnicas de Silenciamento de Genes , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Fígado/enzimologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fosfoglicerato Desidrogenase/antagonistas & inibidores , Fosfoglicerato Desidrogenase/genética , Fatores de Risco
13.
J Infect Dis ; 2021 May 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33999179

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Long-term incidences and baseline determinants of functional cure (HBsAg seroclearance) during entecavir (ETV) or tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF) treatment are incompletely understood. METHODS: This is an international multicenter cohort study of treatment-naïve chronic hepatitis B (CHB) patients who initiated on ETV or TDF without baseline malignancy. Patients were observed for HBsAg seroclearance until death or loss to follow-up. We calculated the incidences and explored the baseline determinants of HBsAg seroclearance using competing risk regression. RESULTS: The analysis included 4,769 patients (median age, 50 years; 69.05% male), with a median follow-up of 5.16 years (26,614.47 person-years). HBsAg clearance occurred in 58 patients, yielding a 10-year cumulative incidence of 2.11% (95% CI, 1.54 -- 2.88%) and an annual rate of 0.22% (95% CI, 0.17--0.28%). Baseline predictors included low-level viremia with HBV DNA <2,000 IU/mL (adjusted sub-distribution HR [aSHR], 3.14; 95% CI, 1.80--5.49), elevated serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT) >200 U/L (aSHR, 3.68; 95% CI, 2.07--6.53), serum bilirubin (aSHR, 1.11 per mg/dL; 95% CI, 1.06--1.17), and fatty liver (aSHR, 1.84; 95% CI, 1.03--3.29). CONCLUSION: HBsAg seroclearance rarely occurs in CHB patients treated with ETV or TDF and is associated with low-level viremia, ALT flare, bilirubin level, and fatty liver.

14.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(7)2021 Mar 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33810615

RESUMO

Patients with primary mitral regurgitation (MR) may remain asymptomatic for many years. For unknown reasons, some shift from a compensated to a decompensated state and progress to fatal heart failure. To elucidate the genetic determinants of this process, we recruited 28 patients who underwent mitral valve surgery and stratified them into control, compensated MR, and decompensated MR groups. Tissue biopsies were obtained from the patients' left ventricular (LV) lateral wall for a transcriptome-wide profiling of 64,769 probes to identify differentially expressed genes (DEGs). Using cutoff values at the 1% FDR significance level and sex- and age-adjusted regression models, we identified 12 significant DEGs (CTGF, MAP1B, SERPINE1, MYH9, MICAL2, MYO1D, CRY1, AQP7P3, HTRA1, PRSS23, IGFBP2, and FN1). The most significant gene was CTGF (adjusted R2 = 0.74, p = 1.80 × 10-8). We found that the majority of genes expressed in the more advanced decompensated MR group were pro-fibrotic genes associated with cardiac fibrosis. In particular, six pro-fibrotic genes (CTGF, SERPINE1, MYH9, HTRA1, PRSS23, and FN1) were overexpressed and enriched in pathways involved in ECM (extracellular matrix) protein remodeling. Therapeutic interventions that antagonize these six genes may slow the progression toward decompensated MR.


Assuntos
Ventrículos do Coração/metabolismo , Insuficiência da Valva Mitral/metabolismo , Insuficiência da Valva Mitral/fisiopatologia , Disfunção Ventricular Esquerda/fisiopatologia , Idoso , Biópsia , Matriz Extracelular/metabolismo , Feminino , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Valva Mitral/patologia , Insuficiência da Valva Mitral/complicações , Análise de Sequência com Séries de Oligonucleotídeos , Análise de Regressão , Volume Sistólico , Transcriptoma , Disfunção Ventricular Esquerda/complicações , Função Ventricular Esquerda , Remodelação Ventricular/genética
15.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 8554, 2021 04 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33879825

RESUMO

The spreading of viral hepatitis among injecting drug users (IDU) is an emerging public health concern. This study explored the prevalence and the risks of hepatitis B virus (HBV), hepatitis C virus (HCV) and hepatitis D virus (HDV) among IDU-dominant prisoners in Taiwan. HBV surface antigen (HBsAg), antibodies to HCV (anti-HCV) and HDV (anti-HDV), viral load and HCV genotypes were measured in 1137(67.0%) of 1697 prisoners. 89.2% of participants were IDUs and none had HIV infection. The prevalence of HBsAg, anti-HCV, dual HBsAg/anti-HCV, HBsAg/anti-HDV, and triple HBsAg/anti-HCV/anti-HDV was 13.6%, 34.8%, 4.9%, 3.4%, and 2.8%, respectively. HBV viremia rate was significantly lower in HBV/HCV-coinfected than HBV mono-infected subjects (66.1% versus 89.9%, adjusted odds ratio/95% confidence intervals [aOR/CI] = 0.27/0.10-0.73). 47.5% anti-HCV-seropositive subjects (n = 396) were non-viremic, including 23.2% subjects were antivirals-induced. The predominant HCV genotypes were genotype 6(40.9%), 1a(24.0%) and 3(11.1%). HBsAg seropositivity was negatively correlated with HCV viremia among the treatment naïve HCV subjects (44.7% versus 72.4%, aOR/CI = 0.27/0.13-0.58). Anti-HCV seropositivity significantly increased the risk of anti-HDV-seropositivity among HBsAg carriers (57.1% versus 7.1%, aOR/CI = 15.73/6.04-40.96). In conclusion, IUDs remain as reservoirs for multiple hepatitis viruses infection among HIV-uninfected prisoners in Taiwan. HCV infection increased the risk of HDV infection but suppressed HBV replication in HBsAg carriers. An effective strategy is mandatory to control the epidemic in this high-risk group.

16.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 8184, 2021 04 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33854160

RESUMO

Hepatitis D virus (HDV) infection increases the risk of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) in the natural course of chronic hepatitis B (CHB) patients. Its role in patients treated with nucleotide/nucleoside analogues (NAs) is unclear. We aimed to study the role of hepatitis D in the development of HCC in CHB patients treated with NAs. Altogether, 1349 CHB patients treated with NAs were tested for anti-HDV antibody and RNA. The incidence and risk factors of HCC development were analyzed. Rates of anti-HDV and HDV RNA positivity were 2.3% and 1.0%, respectively. The annual incidence of HCC was 1.4 per 100 person-years after a follow-up period of over 5409.5 person-years. The strongest factor association with HCC development was liver cirrhosis (hazard ratio [HR]/95% confidence interval [CI] 9.98/5.11-19.46, P < 0.001), followed by HDV RNA positivity (HR/ CI 5.73/1.35-24.29, P = 0.02), age > 50 years old (HR/CI 3.64/2.03-6.54, P < 0.001), male gender (HR/CI 2.69/1.29-5.60, P: 0.01), and body mass index (BMI, HR/CI 1.11/1.03-1.18, P = 0.004). The 5-year cumulative incidence of HCC was 7.3% for patients with HDV RNA negativity compared to that of 22.2% for patients with HDV RNA positivity (P = 0.01). In the subgroup of cirrhotic patients, the factors associated with HCC development were HDV RNA positivity (HR/CI 4.45/1.04-19.09, P = 0.04) and BMI (HR/CI 1.11/1.03-1.19, P = 0.01). HDV viremia played a crucial role in HCC development in CHB patients who underwent NA therapy.

17.
Liver Int ; 41(6): 1265-1277, 2021 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33655714

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/AIMS: Direct-acting antivirals (DAAs) are highly effective in treating chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV)-infected patients. The real-world treatment outcome in Taiwanese patients on a nationwide basis is elusive. METHODS: The Taiwan HCV Registry (TACR) programme is a nationwide registry platform including 48 study sites, which is organized and supervised by the Taiwan Association for the Study of the Liver. The primary endpoint was sustained virological response (SVR12, undetectable HCV RNA 12 weeks after end-of-treatment). RESULTS: A total of 13 951 registered patients with SVR12 data available were analysed (mean age, 63.0 years; female, 55.9%; HCV genotype-1 [GT1], 57.9%; cirrhosis, 38.4%; preexisting hepatocellular carcinoma [HCC], 10.6%; and hepatitis B virus coinfection, 7.7%). The overall SVR12 rate was 98.3%, with 98.7%, 98.0%, 98.4% and 97.4% in treatment-naïve noncirrhotic, treatment-naïve cirrhotic, treatment-experienced noncirrhotic and treatment-experienced cirrhotic patients, respectively. The SVR12 rate was > 95% across all subgroups except treatment-experienced cirrhotic patients who received sofosbuvir/ribavirin (88.7%), treatment-naïve noncirrhotic patients (94.8%) and treatment-experienced cirrhotic (94.8%) patients who received daclatasvir/asunaprevir. The most important factor associated with treatment failure was DAA adherence < 60% ( adjusted odds ratio [aOR]/95% confidence interval [CI]: 117.1/52.4-261.3, P < .001), followed by GT3/GT2 (aOR/CI: 5.78/2.25-14.9, P = .0003 and aOR/CI: 1.55/1.05-2.29, P = .03, compared with GT1), active hepatocellular carcinoma (aOR/CI: 4.29/2.57-7.16, P < .001), the use of sofosbuvir/ribavirin (aOR/CI: 2.51/1.67-3.77, P < .001) and daclatasvir/asunaprevir (aOR/CI: 3.29/1.94-5.58, P < .001), decompensated liver cirrhosis (aOR/CI: 2.50/1.20-5.22, P = .02) and high HCV viral loads (aOR/CI: 2.16/1.57-2.97, P < .001). CONCLUSIONS: DAAs are highly effective in treating Taiwanese HCV patients in the real-world setting. Maintaining DAA adherence and selecting highly efficacious regimens are keys to ensure treatment success.


Assuntos
Carcinoma Hepatocelular , Hepatite C Crônica , Hepatite C , Neoplasias Hepáticas , Antivirais/uso terapêutico , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/tratamento farmacológico , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/epidemiologia , Quimioterapia Combinada , Feminino , Hepacivirus/genética , Hepatite C/tratamento farmacológico , Hepatite C Crônica/tratamento farmacológico , Humanos , Neoplasias Hepáticas/tratamento farmacológico , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Sistema de Registros , Sofosbuvir/uso terapêutico , Resposta Viral Sustentada , Taiwan/epidemiologia , Falha de Tratamento , Resultado do Tratamento
18.
Gut ; 2021 Mar 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33741640

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The benefit of direct-acting antivirals (DAAs) against HCV following successful treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) remains controversial. This meta-analysis of individual patient data assessed HCC recurrence risk following DAA administration. DESIGN: We pooled the data of 977 consecutive patients from 21 studies of HCV-related cirrhosis and HCC, who achieved complete radiological response after surgical/locoregional treatments and received DAAs (DAA group). Recurrence or death risk was expressed as HCC recurrence or death per 100 person-years (100PY). Propensity score-matched patients from the ITA.LI.CA. cohort (n=328) served as DAA-unexposed controls (no-DAA group). Risk factors for HCC recurrence were identified using random-effects Poisson. RESULTS: Recurrence rate and death risk per 100PY in DAA-treated patients were 20 (95% CI 13.9 to 29.8, I2=74.6%) and 5.7 (2.5 to 15.3, I2=54.3), respectively. Predictive factors for recurrence were alpha-fetoprotein logarithm (relative risk (RR)=1.11, 95% CI 1.03 to 1.19; p=0.01, per 1 log of ng/mL), HCC recurrence history pre-DAA initiation (RR=1.11, 95% CI 1.07 to 1.16; p<0.001), performance status (2 vs 0, RR=4.35, 95% CI 1.54 to 11.11; 2 vs 1, RR=3.7, 95% CI 1.3 to 11.11; p=0.01) and tumour burden pre-HCC treatment (multifocal vs solitary nodule, RR=1.75, 95% CI 1.25 to 2.43; p<0.001). No significant difference was observed in RR between the DAA-exposed and DAA-unexposed groups in propensity score-matched patients (RR=0.64, 95% CI 0.37 to 1.1; p=0.1). CONCLUSION: Effects of DAA exposure on HCC recurrence risk remain inconclusive. Active clinical and radiological follow-up of patients with HCC after HCV eradication with DAA is justified.

19.
BMJ Open ; 11(3): e042861, 2021 03 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33722868

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is the leading cause of cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma worldwide. Tzukuan, located in the southwestern area of Taiwan, is an HCV hyperendemic area (>30%). This study aimed to assess the changing epidemiological characteristics of HCV infection and to evaluate the long-term outcomes after the implementation of public health strategies for two decades. DESIGN: A population-based retrospective cohort study. SETTING: A comprehensive care programme was implemented, namely COMPACT Study, in Tzukuan since 1997. PARTICIPANTS: A total of 10 714 residents participated the screening. OUTCOME MEASURES: The HCV status, demographic and clinical profiles of the participants were recorded and validated annually from 2000 through 2019. RESULTS: The HCV infection prevalence rates were 21.1% (1076/5099) in 2000-2004, 18.8% (239/1269) in 2005-2009, 14.1% (292/2071) in 2010-2014 and 10.3% (234/2275) in 2015-2019 (p for trend test <0.0001). Among them, 1614 underwent repeated tests during the follow-up period. The annual incidence rates were 0.54% in 2005-2009, 0.4% in 2010-2014 and 0.22% in 2015-2019, respectively (p=0.01). In addition to old age, lower education level was a major risk factor for HCV infection across different periods. HCV infection prevalence rate among those illiterates reached 40.9%, followed by 28.5% in those with elementary school level, and <10% in those with high school or higher levels. The major risk factor has shifted from iatrogenic exposure in 2000-2009 to household transmission after 2010. CONCLUSIONS: HCV infection has been decreasing and the epidemiological features are changing in the hyperendemic area by continuing education, prevention and treatment strategies.


Assuntos
Hepatite C , Neoplasias Hepáticas , Hepacivirus , Hepatite C/epidemiologia , Humanos , Prevalência , Estudos Retrospectivos , Taiwan/epidemiologia
20.
Chemosphere ; 276: 130031, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33690040

RESUMO

In this work, a new semi-automated syringe infusion-pump assisted graphene nanosheets (GNSs) based pipette-tip micro-solid phase extraction (PT-µSPE) as a green sample preparation technique was demonstrated for the sensitive analysis of emerging environmental pollutant in environmental waters using HPLC-UV. Microwave-assisted synthesized GNSs powder was packed into a 100 µL pipette-tip (as PT-µSPE cartridge) connected with a commercial plastic syringe (contains water sample). This setup was attached to a programmable auto-syringe infusion pump for the GNSs-PT-µSPE process. Triclosan (TCS) is an emerging environmental pollutant chosen as a target analyte to examine the extraction capacity and feasibility of GNSs as a sorbent material for PT-µSPE. Parameters affecting the extraction capability were systematically evaluated and thoroughly optimized. At optimized experimental parameters, excellent linearity (r2 = 0.9979) was achieved over the concentration range of 2-250 ng mL-1 for TCS, with a detection limit of 0.5 ng mL-1. Applicability of the presented method was examined with real water samples, and extraction recoveries obtained were ranged between 94.6-102.4% with RSD less than 7.8%. The presented protocol is a simple, semi-automated, eco-friendly, low-cost, and efficient sample pretreatment technique for quick analysis of TCS in environmental wastewaters.


Assuntos
Poluentes Ambientais , Grafite , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Extração em Fase Sólida , Águas Residuárias/análise
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