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Int J Mol Sci ; 22(15)2021 Jul 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34361041


Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a leading cause of disability and mortality worldwide. It can instigate immediate cell death, followed by a time-dependent secondary injury that results from disproportionate microglial and astrocyte activation, excessive inflammation and oxidative stress in brain tissue, culminating in both short- and long-term cognitive dysfunction and behavioral deficits. Within the brain, the hippocampus is particularly vulnerable to a TBI. We studied a new pomalidomide (Pom) analog, namely, 3,6'-dithioPom (DP), and Pom as immunomodulatory imide drugs (IMiD) for mitigating TBI-induced hippocampal neurodegeneration, microgliosis, astrogliosis and behavioral impairments in a controlled cortical impact (CCI) model of TBI in rats. Both agents were administered as a single intravenous dose (0.5 mg/kg) at 5 h post injury so that the efficacies could be compared. Pom and DP significantly reduced the contusion volume evaluated at 24 h and 7 days post injury. Both agents ameliorated short-term memory deficits and anxiety behavior at 7 days after a TBI. The number of degenerating neurons in the CA1 and dentate gyrus (DG) regions of the hippocampus after a TBI was reduced by Pom and DP. DP, but not Pom, significantly attenuated the TBI-induced microgliosis and DP was more efficacious than Pom at attenuating the TBI-induced astrogliosis in CA1 and DG at 7D after a TBI. In summary, a single intravenous injection of Pom or DP, given 5 h post TBI, significantly reduced hippocampal neurodegeneration and prevented cognitive deficits with a concomitant attenuation of the neuroinflammation in the hippocampus.

Lesões Encefálicas Traumáticas/tratamento farmacológico , Gliose/tratamento farmacológico , Hipocampo/efeitos dos fármacos , Fatores Imunológicos/uso terapêutico , Fármacos Neuroprotetores/uso terapêutico , Talidomida/análogos & derivados , Animais , Lesões Encefálicas Traumáticas/complicações , Cognição , Gliose/etiologia , Hipocampo/metabolismo , Fatores Imunológicos/farmacologia , Masculino , Memória , Fármacos Neuroprotetores/farmacologia , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Talidomida/farmacologia , Talidomida/uso terapêutico
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 16940, 2021 Aug 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34417481


Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) is an FDA-approved therapy in major depressive disorder. However, its treatment efficacy on depression after traumatic brain injury (TBI) remains inconclusive. We conducted a meta-analysis to assess the effectiveness of executing rTMS over dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) on depression, cognitive impairment and post-concussion syndrome in individuals with traumatic brain injury. This study contained seven randomized controlled trials that published before April 5, 2020 in PubMed, Embase, Scopus, Cochrane, and Web of Science databases. The rTMS had significant anti-depressant effect (SMD = 1.03, p = 0.02), but the effects dissipated at 1-month follow-up (SMD = 0.39, p = 0.62). In the subgroup analysis, only applying rTMS to left DLPFC area of post-TBI patients showed significant anti-depressant effect (SMD = 0.98, p = 0.04). Moreover, current data observed that rTMS on post-TBI patients possessed substantial improvement in visuospatial memory (SMD = 0.39, p < 0.0001), but wasn't in processing speed (SMD = - 0.18, p = 0.32) and selective attention (SMD = 0.21, p = 0.31). In addition, the effect of rTMS is not superior to sham on postconcussion syndrome. In conclusion, the short-term antidepressant effect of left DLPFC rTMS in patients with TBI was significant. However, the effectiveness of rTMS on cognition and postconcussion syndrome in patients with post-TBI depression was limited.

J Plast Reconstr Aesthet Surg ; 65(6): e141-5, 2012 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22361119


INTRODUCTION: Double eyelidplasty is one of the most common cosmetic surgeries in Asia. Subjective enlargement of the ocular surface area (OSA) after double eyelidplasty was appreciated by patients. Objective measurement of the OSA provides a more scientific result. We introduce a relatively precise method, using iris as a scale combined with the digital photography and software calculation, to measure the OSA before and after double eyelidplasty. MATERIALS AND METHODS: One hundred and nineteen patients (108 females and 11 males) were enrolled in this study. Ninety-two patients received minimally invasive double eyelidplasty without other procedures and 27 patients received medial epicanthoplasty with modified Z-plasty besides double eyelidplasty. Digital photographs of the operative eyes in all patients were obtained preoperatively and postoperatively. The image processing software we used was ImageJ (v1.43, National Institutes of Health, United States). Preoperative and postoperative OSAs were measured. The percentage of difference of the OSA between two eyes in same patient before and after the operation was calculated and compared. RESULTS: The average increase of the OSA among 238 operative eyes was 12.5 ± 8.2%. Preoperative and postoperative OSA differences between two eyes in same patients were significantly decreased after surgery. CONCLUSION: Digital photography using iris as a scale combined with software calculation is an easy and convenient method to measure the OSA; it provides quantitative information for both preoperative and postoperative evaluation. Our study revealed that double eyelidplasty not only increased OSA but also improved ocular asymmetry after surgery.

Segmento Anterior do Olho/anatomia & histologia , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Asiático , Blefaroplastia/métodos , Blefaroptose/etnologia , Pálpebras/cirurgia , Adulto , Blefaroptose/cirurgia , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Satisfação do Paciente , Fotografação , Estudos Retrospectivos , Técnicas de Sutura , Taiwan , Resultado do Tratamento , Adulto Jovem