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1.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34200176

RESUMO

Prenatal exposure to bisphenol A (BPA) may increase the risk of abnormal birth outcomes, and DNA methylation might mediate these adverse effects. This study aimed to investigate the effects of maternal BPA exposure on maternal and fetal DNA methylation levels and explore whether epigenetic changes are related to the associations between BPA and low birth weight. We collected urine and blood samples originating from 162 mother-infant pairs in a Taiwanese cohort study. We measured DNA methylation using the Illumina Infinium HumanMethylation 450 BeadChip in 34 maternal blood samples with high and low BPA levels based on the 75th percentile level (9.5 µg/g creatinine). Eighty-seven CpGs with the most differentially methylated probes possibly interacting with BPA exposure or birth weight were selected using two multiple regression models. Ingenuity pathway analysis (IPA) was utilized to narrow down 18 candidate CpGs related to disease categories, including developmental disorders, skeletal and muscular disorders, skeletal and muscular system development, metabolic diseases, and lipid metabolism. We then validated these genes by pyrosequencing, and 8 CpGs met the primer design score requirements in 82 cord blood samples. The associations among low birth weight, BPA exposure, and DNA methylation were analyzed. Exposure to BPA was associated with low birth weight. Analysis of the epigenome-wide findings did not show significant associations between BPA and DNA methylation in cord blood of the 8 CpGs. However, the adjusted odds ratio for the dehydrogenase/reductase member 9 (DHRS9) gene, at the 2nd CG site, in the hypermethylated group was significantly associated with low birth weight. These results support a role of BPA, and possibly DHRS9 methylation, in fetal growth. However, additional studies with larger sample sizes are warranted.


Assuntos
Metilação de DNA , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal , Compostos Benzidrílicos/toxicidade , Peso ao Nascer , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Recém-Nascido de Baixo Peso , Recém-Nascido , Exposição Materna/efeitos adversos , Fenóis , Projetos Piloto , Gravidez , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal/genética , Taiwan/epidemiologia
2.
Sci Total Environ ; 737: 139833, 2020 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32526583

RESUMO

The present study assessed the association between phthalate exposure and mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) polymerase γ (POLG) methylation along with the potential effect on the characteristics of body fat in children. A total of 152 children were enrolled. The urinary concentrations of phthalate metabolites were measured using ultraperformance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Genomic DNA was extracted from the buffy coat, and bisulfite-treated DNA was subjected to a pyrosequencing assay. In total, 17 CpG sites in the exon 2 region of POLG were included in the analysis. A multivariable regression model was applied to determine whether characteristics of body fat were associated with phthalate exposure and methylation of POLG. After adjustment for covariates, male children with a ten-fold increase in mono-methyl phthalate (MMP) or mono-benzyl phthalate (MBzP) concentrations had significantly higher measurements for total body fat (MMP: ß = 6.47%; MBzP: ß = 3.54%), and trunk fat (MMP: ß = 6.67%; MBzP: ß = 3.90%). Male children who had hypermethylation at the 2nd CpG site in exon 2 of POLG also had high measurements for BMI (ß = 1.66 kg/m2), waist (ß = 4.49 cm) and hip (ß = 4.81 cm) circumference, total body fat (ß = 5.48%), and trunk fat (ß = 6.21%). A dose-response relationship existed between methylation at the 2nd CpG site in exon 2 of POLG and characteristics of body fat (p for trend<0.01). This study suggested that male children who are exposed to phthalic acid esters have high body weight, BMI, and body and trunk fat percentages. Methylation of the exon 2 region of POLG is a possible mechanism behind the causal effect of endocrine-disrupting substances.


Assuntos
Poluentes Ambientais , Ácidos Ftálicos , Tecido Adiposo , Criança , Cromatografia Líquida , Metilação de DNA , Exposição Ambiental/análise , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino
3.
Sci Total Environ ; 618: 635-644, 2018 Mar 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29055577

RESUMO

The contamination of a clouding agent with di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP), a substitute emulsifier-containing compound used in a variety of foods was announced on May 23, 2011. The aims of this study were as follows (1) compare the urine phthalates (PAE) metabolites concentration and estimate the daily intake (DI) of PAEs in pregnant women before and after the tainted food scandal and (2) examine the effect of relatively high PAEs exposure on birth outcome. One-hundred twelve pregnant women in Northern Taiwan participated in this study from March to December 2010, i.e., before the tainted food scandal. After the tainted food scandal, we collected 69, 73, and 180 urine specimens (January 2013 to August 2014) from women whom were in their first, second, and third trimesters of pregnancy, respectively. We measure urinary DEHP metabolite concentrations to estimate the DI of DEHP and the hazard quotient (HQ) of subjects. This was the first study to assess the effects of DEHP-tainted food scandal exposure in pregnant women across the three trimesters of pregnancy. After the tainted food report, the concentrations of urine PAE metabolite were significantly decreased, especially those of DEHP metabolites. Based on different reference limit values, the percentages of pregnant women whose HQDEHP value exceeded the limit ranged from 0.53% to 8.93%. Despite this low frequency, the higher ΣPAE exposure during the second trimester may significantly increase the risk of relatively low birth height compared to the lower exposure group (ß=-0.63 (-1.20 to -0.06)). Our results support the hypothesis that exposure to relatively high concentrations of DEHP in pregnant Taiwanese women may have an adverse effect on birth outcomes. The percentage of subjects whose exposure level exceeded the exposure limit was low; however, high PAEs exposure appears to be significantly associated with birth outcomes. Therefore, we suggest that reference dose for PAEs should be revised.


Assuntos
Exposição Dietética , Dietilexilftalato/análise , Contaminação de Alimentos , Ácidos Ftálicos/urina , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Gravidez , Taiwan
4.
Sci Total Environ ; 612: 1373-1379, 2018 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28898944

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Arsenic exposure is a global health concern. Several studies have focused on chronic arsenic exposure in adults; however, limited data are available regarding the potential adverse effects of prenatal exposure on fetuses and neonates. OBJECTIVES: To assess which time point maternal arsenic exposure may influence the fetus during pregnancy and birth outcomes. METHODS: In this study, total arsenic concentrations were analyzed in urine samples collected from 130 women with singleton pregnancies (22-45years old) in Taiwan from March to December of 2010. All fetal biometric measurements in each trimester period and birth outcomes at delivery were obtained. We applied a generalized estimating equation model and multivariate regression models to evaluate the associations between maternal urinary total arsenic (UtAs) exposure during pregnancy, fetal biometric measurements, and neonatal birth outcomes. RESULTS: We observed statistically significant correlations between maternal UtAs levels and the fetal biparietal diameter over all three trimesters (ß=-1.046mm, p<0.05). Multiple regression analyses showed a negative association between maternal UtAs levels and chest circumference in the first trimester (ß=-0.721cm, p<0.05), and second-trimester UtAs exposure was associated with decreases in birth weight (ß=-173.26g, p<0.01), head circumference (ß=-0.611cm, p<0.05), and chest circumference (ß=-0.654cm, p<0.05). Dose-response relationships were also observed for maternal UtAs exposure and birth outcomes. CONCLUSIONS: We identified a negative relationship between maternal UtAs levels during pregnancy, fetal development, and neonatal birth outcomes. These findings should be confirmed in future studies with large sample sizes.


Assuntos
Arsênio/urina , Desenvolvimento Fetal , Exposição Materna/efeitos adversos , Adulto , Peso ao Nascer , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Análise Multivariada , Gravidez , Análise de Regressão , Taiwan , Adulto Jovem
5.
Sci Total Environ ; 607-608: 1126-1135, 2017 Dec 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28724251

RESUMO

Prenatal exposure to phenols, phthalates (PAEs), and organophosphate (OP) pesticides may increase the risk of abnormal birth outcomes. However, many previous studies have examined exposure to a limited number of chemical classes or exposure profiles limited to a specific stage of pregnancy. This study aims to characterize the concurrent exposure scenario throughout pregnancy by simultaneously monitoring internal doses of several endocrine-disrupting compounds (EDCs), including 2 phenols (nonylphenol (NP) and bisphenol A (BPA)), 9 PAEs, and 6 OP pesticide metabolites and to assess the relationships between concurrent exposure to EDCs and infant birth weight, length, and head and chest circumference. One hundred and sixty two women provided three spot urine samples at approximately 11 and 26weeks gestation and at delivery. We applied multivariable linear regression and ridge regression models to estimate the effects of separate and correlated exposures. Multivariable linear regression models revealed that women with short birth-length infants had significantly higher urinary second-trimester NP levels (50th percentile, 5.03µg/g creatinine) (ß=-0.47cm; 95% CI=-0.93 to -0.01). Similarly significant relationships were observed between second-trimester mono-methyl phthalate (MMP) exposure and short birth length, second-trimester ΣPAEs and short birth length, second-trimester ΣPAEs exposure and reduced head and chest circumference, second-trimester diethylphosphate (DEP) exposure and reduced birth weight and length, and second-trimester ΣDEPs exposure and short birth length. Women with urinary BPA above the 75th percentile or ΣPAEs levels above the 50th percentile in the third trimester had infants with significantly reduced head circumference. These observations suggest that the second trimester may be the critical stage of susceptibility for fetal development. In ridge regression models, for which women with fewer measures for exposure to NP, BPA, MMP, ΣPAEs, DEP and ΣDEPs simultaneously were available, no relationships were found with infant size at birth. Additional studies with larger sample sizes are warranted.


Assuntos
Compostos Benzidrílicos/efeitos adversos , Exposição Materna/efeitos adversos , Organofosfatos/efeitos adversos , Fenóis/efeitos adversos , Ácidos Ftálicos/efeitos adversos , Peso ao Nascer , Estatura , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Desenvolvimento Fetal/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Gravidez , Segundo Trimestre da Gravidez , Terceiro Trimestre da Gravidez , Taiwan
6.
Environ Res ; 149: 197-205, 2016 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27209343

RESUMO

On May 23, 2011, a major scandal involving the illegal use of phthalates as clouding agents in food products was reported. Specifically, di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) was purposefully added to foods as a substitute emulsifier. The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of DEHP exposure on the growth characteristics of the child victims of this scandal. Eighty-eight victims, originating from northern, central, and southern Taiwan and ranging in age from 6.0 to 10.5 years, were invited to participate in this study during clinic visits. The participants underwent follow-up health examinations from August 2012 to February 2013. We collected information on each participant's history of exposure to tainted food products using a questionnaire, and we analyzed their urinary concentrations of DEHP metabolites using high-performance liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry. These data were then used to estimate their daily DEHP intake (DIAll) during the scandal. We also measured physical development parameters (height, weight, and bone age) and hormone levels (thyroid, sex and growth hormones) to evaluate their overall growth characteristics. The average (SD) duration of DEHP intake from tainted nutrition supplements was 1.39 (1.01) years. The median DIAll values were 19.93 and 20.69µg/kg bw/day for boys and girls, respectively. Among the enrolled children, the DIAll values of 46.9% of boys and 51.3% of girls exceeded the reference dose (RfD) of 20µg/kg bw/day established by the US Environmental Protection Agency. Our results demonstrate that DIAll is negatively associated with the height percentile, weight percentile, bone age/chronological age, and insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) levels but not with IGF binding protein 3 (IGF-BP3) level, IGF-1/IGF-BP3, sex hormones, or thyroid hormone levels. The DEHP DIAll value exceeded the RfD at high rates among children of both genders. Our results suggest that high levels of DEHP exposure due to the consumption of tainted food products are negatively associated with body weight, height, bone age, and IGF-1 levels in children. The likelihood of delayed puberty among the affected children is therefore a reasonable concern, and further follow-up is required.


Assuntos
Estatura/efeitos dos fármacos , Peso Corporal/efeitos dos fármacos , Desenvolvimento Ósseo/efeitos dos fármacos , Dietilexilftalato/toxicidade , Exposição Ambiental , Poluentes Ambientais/toxicidade , Antropometria , Criança , Feminino , Contaminação de Alimentos , Humanos , Masculino , Taiwan
7.
PLoS One ; 10(9): e0138145, 2015.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26367380

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Fetal nuchal translucency (NT) thickness is an important marker for prenatal screening; however, studies focusing on the correlation between maternal trace element levels and NT thickness are limited. The aim of this study was to evaluate maternal trace element levels during the first trimester and to investigate the association between maternal trace element levels and fetal NT thickness. METHODS: In total, 113 samples were obtained from singleton pregnant women. Maternal plasma samples were collected in the first trimester of gestation. Plasma trace element levels were measured using Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS). Nuchal translucency thickness was measured using ultrasonography at 10-14 weeks of gestation. RESULTS: We found that maternal plasma potassium (K) levels had a significant negative correlation with both NT (r = -0.230, p < 0.05) and NT Multiples of the Median (NT MoM) (r = -0.206, p < 0.05). After adjustment for potential confounders, log-transformed maternal plasma potassium levels in the first trimester were significantly associated with fetal NT (NT MoM: ß = -0.68, p < 0.05; NT: ß = -1.20, p < 0.01). Although not statistically significant, the As, Hg and Pb levels in maternal plasma were positively correlated with NT, and the Mg, Cu, Zn, Na and Ca levels were negatively correlated with NT. CONCLUSION: Maternal plasma K levels during the first trimester appeared to be associated with NT thickness. The essential elements tended to decrease NT thickness, and non-essential elements tended to increase it.


Assuntos
Medição da Translucência Nucal , Primeiro Trimestre da Gravidez/sangue , Gravidez/sangue , Oligoelementos/sangue , Feminino , Humanos
8.
Int J Hyg Environ Health ; 218(7): 603-15, 2015 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26163779

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Some phthalic acid esters (PAEs) and nonylphenol (NP) are endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs) that are widely used in consumer products. Consequently, the general population is exposed simultaneously to both groups of chemicals. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the single- and co-exposure effects of PAEs (DMP, DEP, DnBP, DiBP, BBzP, and DEHP) and NP on obesity and pubertal maturity to compare the body sizes of general adolescents with the complainants of the phthalate-tainted foods scandal that occurred in Taiwan. METHODS: This study included 270 general adolescents aged 6.5-15.0 years and 38 complainants aged 6.5-8.5 years. Nine metabolites of the five PAEs and of NP were measured in urine. We used a questionnaire to evaluate pubertal maturity, measured anthropometric indices (APs) to assess body size, and collected urine samples to measure the two groups of chemicals. RESULTS: We found that urinary PAE metabolite concentrations (specifically, metabolites of DEP, DnBP, DiBP, and DEHP) were positively associated with the APs for abdominal obesity (including skinfold thickness, waist circumference, waist-to-height ratio, and waist-to-hip) and indicated a dose-response relationship. Mono-methyl phthalate (MMP) exposure was inversely associated with pubarche among boys. The daily intake of DEHP in general adolescents exceeded the reference doses (RfD-20 µg/kgbw/day) and tolerable daily intake (TDI-50 µg/kgbw/day) by 3.4% and 0.4%, respectively. No associations were observed between NP exposure or co-exposure and the APs or pubertal maturity. No significant differences were observed between general adolescents and the complainants with regard to weight, height, or BMI. CONCLUSIONS: The study suggests that PAE (specifically, DEP, DnBP, DiBP, and DEHP) exposure is associated with abdominal obesity in adolescents and that the APs for abdominal obesity are more sensitive than BMI for measuring obesity among adolescents. We suggest that the RfD and TDI for PAEs should be revised to provide sufficient protection.


Assuntos
Peso Corporal/efeitos dos fármacos , Disruptores Endócrinos/efeitos adversos , Exposição Ambiental/efeitos adversos , Obesidade Pediátrica/etiologia , Fenóis/efeitos adversos , Ácidos Ftálicos/efeitos adversos , Puberdade/efeitos dos fármacos , Adolescente , Antropometria , Tamanho Corporal/efeitos dos fármacos , Criança , Dietilexilftalato/efeitos adversos , Dietilexilftalato/urina , Disruptores Endócrinos/urina , Exposição Ambiental/análise , Poluentes Ambientais/efeitos adversos , Poluentes Ambientais/urina , Feminino , Contaminação de Alimentos , Humanos , Masculino , Obesidade Abdominal/etiologia , Obesidade Abdominal/urina , Obesidade Pediátrica/urina , Fenóis/urina , Ácidos Ftálicos/urina , Valores de Referência , Caracteres Sexuais , Taiwan
9.
Environ Res ; 137: 215-21, 2015 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25575372

RESUMO

Prenatal exposure and the health effects of that exposure have been intensively studied for a variety of environmental pollutants and trace elements. However, few studies have compared susceptibilities among the three trimesters of gestation. Manganese (Mn) is a naturally occurring and abundant trace element in the environment. Although the effects of Mn on animals are well documented, knowledge of the effects of Mn exposure on pregnant women and fetuses remains limited. A longitudinal study was conducted by collecting blood samples during all three trimesters, and Mn exposure was completely characterized during gestation. The aims of this study were to examine the effects of maternal Mn exposure on neonatal birth outcomes and to explore the critical stage of these effects. In total, 38, 76 and 76 samples were obtained from singleton pregnant women in their first, second and third trimesters, respectively. The cohort of pregnant women was selected at a medical center in northern Taiwan. Erythrocyte samples were collected during the first, second and third trimesters of gestation. Erythrocyte Mn concentrations were measured by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Neonatal birth outcomes were evaluated immediately after delivery. A multivariate regression model was used to determine the associations between maternal Mn levels in erythrocytes in each trimester and neonatal birth outcomes. The geometric mean concentrations of Mn were 2.93 µg/dL, 3.96 µg/dL and 4.41 µg/dL in the first, second and third trimesters, respectively. After adjusting for potential confounders, a consistently negative association was found between maternal Mn levels throughout the three trimesters and birth outcomes. Log-transformed Mn levels in maternal erythrocytes in the second trimester were significantly associated with neonatal birth weight, head and chest circumferences, respectively (ß=-556.98 g, p=0.038; ß=-1.87 cm, p=0.045; ß=-2.74 cm, p=0.024). Despite the limited sample size in the first trimester, negative effects of maternal Mn levels on birth weight (ß=-1108.95 g, p<0.01) and chest circumference (ß=-4.40 cm, p=0.019) were also observed.


Assuntos
Poluentes Ambientais/sangue , Feto/metabolismo , Manganês/sangue , Exposição Materna , Resultado da Gravidez/epidemiologia , Adulto , Antropometria , Índice de Apgar , Eritrócitos/química , Feminino , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Espectrometria de Massas , Gravidez , Trimestres da Gravidez , Análise de Regressão , Taiwan/epidemiologia
10.
PLoS One ; 9(8): e104245, 2014.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25148048

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Nonylphenol (NP) has been proven as an endocrine disrupter and had the ability to interfere with the endocrine system. Though the health effects of NP on pregnant women and their fetuses are sustained, these negative associations related to the mechanisms of regulation for estrogen during pregnancy need to be further clarified. The objective of this study is to explore the association between maternal NP and hormonal levels, such as estradiol, testosterone, luteinizing hormone (LH) and follicle stimulating hormone (FSH), and progesterone. METHODS: A pregnant women cohort was established in North Taiwan between March and December 2010. Maternal urine and blood samples from the first, second, and third trimesters of gestation were collected. Urinary NP concentration was measured by high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with fluorescent detection. A mixed-effects model using a generalised estimating equation (GEE) was applied to assess the associations between maternal NP concentration and plasma hormones throughout the three trimesters. RESULTS: In total, 162 singleton pregnant women completed this study through delivery. The geometric mean of creatinine-adjusted urinary NP concentrations were 4.27, 4.21, and 4.10 µg/g cre. in the first, second, and third trimesters respectively. A natural log-transformation of urinary NP concentrations were significantly associated with LH in the GEE model (ß = -0.23 mIU/ml, p<0.01). CONCLUSION: This perspective cohort study demonstrates that negative association occurs between maternal NP exposure and plasma LH levels. The estrogen-mimic effect of NP might influence the negative feedback on LH during pregnancy.


Assuntos
Disruptores Endócrinos/efeitos adversos , Hormônios Esteroides Gonadais/sangue , Exposição Materna/efeitos adversos , Fenóis/efeitos adversos , Adulto , Estudos de Coortes , Disruptores Endócrinos/urina , Feminino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fenóis/urina , Gravidez , Fatores de Risco , Taiwan , Adulto Jovem
11.
Chemosphere ; 93(6): 1145-52, 2013 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23871597

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to explore the association between NP exposure and parity and their effect on neonatal birth weight. METHODS: A cohort of pregnant women was established in a medical center in North Taiwan. Urinary NP concentration was determined by high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with fluorescent detection and adjusted using creatinine. A multivariable regression model was fit to determine the association between the maternal NP level in each trimester and neonatal birth weight. The odds ratios (ORs) of infant birth weight below the 10th, 25th, and 50th percentiles, comparing pregnant women with the different NP exposure levels, was estimated using a logistic regression. RESULTS: Of the 162 pregnant women in the study, 99 were multiparas and 63 were primiparas. After adjusting for other covariates, the NP level in the second trimester had a significant association with birth weight in the primiparas (ß = -182.49 g, p value = 0.02). The OR of low infant birth weight, comparing pregnant women with different NP levels, was increased by decreasing the cutoff percentile for birth weight (OR = 1.18 for the 50th percentile, 2.12 for the 25th percentile, and 7.81 for the 10th percentile). The odds of primiparas with high NP level having a low neonatal birth weight increased to 3.87, 11.77, and 9.40 for the three different percentiles (p value < 0.05). CONCLUSION: Maternal NP exposure level is associated with an increased risk of low neonatal weight. Primiparas are especially at risk, and the second trimester of pregnancy may be the critical stage of exposure.


Assuntos
Peso ao Nascer , Poluentes Ambientais/sangue , Exposição Materna/estatística & dados numéricos , Paridade , Fenóis/sangue , Adulto , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Modelos Logísticos , Razão de Chances , Gravidez , Taiwan
12.
Sci Total Environ ; 458-460: 367-73, 2013 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23680990

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Nonylphenol (NP) is an environmental hormone with proven estrogenic effects. Although its adverse effects on animals are well documented, the effects of NP exposure on humans remain unclear, and those on the human foetus are completely unknown. This study explores the effects of intrauterine NP exposure on neonates. METHODS: A cohort of pregnant women was established in a medical centre in northern Taiwan. Urine samples from the first, second, and third trimesters of gestation were collected. Urinary NP concentration was measured by high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with fluorescent detection. Neonatal outcomes were evaluated immediately after delivery. A mixed-effects model using a generalised estimating equation was applied to assess the association between gestational age, maternal body weight, and maternal NP concentration throughout the three trimesters. A multivariable regression model was used to determine the association between maternal NP level in urine in each trimester and neonatal outcomes. RESULTS: In total, 162 singleton pregnant women completed this study through delivery. The geometric mean of creatinine-adjusted urinary NP concentrations were 4.27 µg/g, 4.21 µg/g, and 4.10 µg/g in the first, second, and third trimesters, respectively. Pregnant women whose urinary NP concentrations were above the median in the second trimester had low maternal weight gain (ß=-1.55 kg, p=0.02) and short neonatal body length (ß=-0.47 cm, p=0.04). Women with an above-median urinary NP concentration had an odds ratio of having a small for gestational age (SGA) neonate of 7.81 (p<0.05). CONCLUSIONS: This study indicates that maternal high NP exposure in the second trimester is associated with SGA, decreased foetal body length at birth, and low maternal weight gain. The effects of this endocrine-disrupting substance on pregnant women and foetuses should be a concern during gestation.


Assuntos
Disruptores Endócrinos/toxicidade , Feto/efeitos dos fármacos , Fenóis/toxicidade , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal/induzido quimicamente , Tamanho Corporal , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Estudos de Coortes , Disruptores Endócrinos/urina , Feminino , Idade Gestacional , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Estudos Longitudinais , Modelos Estatísticos , Fenóis/urina , Gravidez , Análise de Regressão , Taiwan
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