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1.
J Pharm Biomed Anal ; 186: 113300, 2020 Apr 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32413824

RESUMO

Cancer metastasis is the major cause of death in pancreatic cancer. We have established a pair of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma cell line, PANC1 and invasive PANC1-I5, as a model system toinvestigate the metastatic mechanism as well as potential therapeutic targets in pancreatic cancer. We used proteomic analysis based on two-dimensional differential gel electrophoresis (2D-DIGE) and matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) to examine the global protein expression alterations between PANC1 and PANC1-I5. Proteomic study revealed that 88 proteins are differentially expressed between PANC1-I5 and PANC1 cells, and further functional evaluations through protein expression validation, gene knockout, migration and invasion analysis revealed that galectin-1 is one of the potential players in modulating pancreatic cancer metastasis. To conclude, we have identified numerous proteins might be associated with pancreatic cancer invasiveness in the pancreatic cancer model.

2.
Nutrients ; 12(3)2020 Mar 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32164196

RESUMO

Obesity is associated with metabolic disorders. Thus, obesity prevention and treatment are essential for health. Antrodia cinnamomea (AC) is a multifunctional medicinal fungus used for the treatment of various diseases and for preventing diet-induced obesity. Leptin deficiency causes over-eating and spontaneous obesity. The concomitant metabolic symptoms are more severe than diet-induced obesity. Here, we used leptin-deficient (ob/ob) mice as an animal model for over-feeding to study the effect of AC on obesity. We fed C57BL/6 mice (WT, ob+/+) and ob/ob mice with AC for four weeks before performing qRT-PCR and immunoblot analysis to elaborate AC-modulated mechanisms. Further, we used Caco-2 cells as a human intestinal epithelial barrier model to examine the effect of AC on intestinal permeability. Our results suggested that AC reduces lipid deposits of the liver and epididymal white adipose tissue (EWAT) by promoting lipid metabolism and inhibiting lipogenesis-associated genes and proteins in ob/ob mice. Moreover, AC effectively repaired intestinal-barrier injury caused by leptin deficiency and enhanced intestinal barrier integrity in Caco-2 cells. Interestingly, AC significantly reduced body weight and EWAT with no compromise on food intake in ob/ob mice. Thus, AC effectively reduced obesity caused by leptin-deficiency and can potentially be used as a nutraceutical for treating obesity.

3.
Am J Chin Med ; 48(1): 201-222, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31918564

RESUMO

Aggressive tumor cells mainly rely on glycolysis, and further release vast amounts of lactate and protons by monocarboxylate transporter (MCT), which causes a higher intracellular pH (pHi) and acidic extracellular pH. Isoorientin, a principle flavonoid compound extracted from several plant species, shows various pharmacological activities. However, effects of isoorientin on anticancer and MCT await to explore in human lung cancer cells. Human lung cancer tissues were obtained from cancer patients undergoing surgery, while the human lung adenocarcinoma cells (A549) were bought commercially. Change of pHi was detected by microspectrofluorometry method with a pH-sensitive fluorescent dye, BCECF. MTT and wound-healing assay were used to detect the cell viability and migration, respectively. Western blot techniques and immunocytochemistry staining were used to detect the protein expression. Our results indicated that the expression of MCTs1/4 and CD147 were upregulated significantly in human lung tissues. In experiments of A549 cells, under HEPES-buffer, the resting pHi was 7.47, and isoorientin (1-300µM) inhibited functional activity of MCT concentration-dependently (up to -42%). Pretreatment with isoorientin (3-100µM) for 24h, MCT activity and cell migration were significantly inhibited (-25% and -40%, respectively), while the cell viability was not affected. Moreover, the expression of MCTs1/4, CD147, and matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) 2/9 were significantly down regulated. In summary, MCTs1/4 and CD147 are significantly upregulated in human lung adenocarcinoma tissues, and isoorientin inhibits cells-migration by inhibiting activity/expression of MCTs1/4 and MMPs2/9 in human lung cancer cells. These novel findings suggest that isoorientin could be a promising pharmacological agent for lung cancer.

4.
Arch Biochem Biophys ; 682: 108278, 2020 Mar 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31981541

RESUMO

Oral microbes are a contributing factor to hyperglycemia by inducing an increase in insulin resistance resulting in uncontrolled blood glucose levels. However, the relationship between the distribution of oral flora and hyperglycemia is still controversial. Combining the power of MALDI-Biotyper with anaerobic bacterial culture, this study explores the correlation between anaerobic bacteria in the oral cavity and blood glucose levels. The results demonstrated that altered blood glucose levels contributed to a varied bacterial distribution in the oral cavity. Specifically, Veillonella spp. and Prevotella spp. were identified in a higher proportion in people with elevated blood glucose levels. Six bacterial species identified in this study (Prevotella melaninogenica, Campylobacter rectus, Streptococcus gordonii, Streptococcus mitis, Streptococcus salivarius, and Veillonella parvula) not only demonstrated a positive association with higher blood glucose levels, but also likely contribute to the development of the condition. The data demonstrated MALDI-TOF MS to be a simpler, faster, and more economical clinical identification tool that provides clarity and depth to the research on blood glucose and oral microbiota.

5.
Inorg Chem ; 59(1): 376-385, 2020 Jan 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31823613

RESUMO

Two types of infrared fluoride phosphors, Cr3+-doped K3AlF6 and K3GaF6, were developed in this research. The K3Al1-xF6:xCr3+ and K3Ga1-yF6:yCr3+ fluoride phosphors were proven to be pure phase via X-ray diffraction refinement, which demonstrated that the procedure can be applied to large-scale production. Electron paramagnetic resonance measurements indicated that Cr3+ ions in cubic with respect to noncubic are coupled better with K3GaF6 than with K3AlF6. The main differences between these two phosphors, the site symmetry and pressure behavior of the spectra, were obtained in temperature- and pressure-dependent spectra. According to the calculation results, Cr3+ in fluorine coordination at ambient pressure indicates an intermediate crystal field. For the phosphor-converted light-emitting diodes (LEDs) fabricated from these two phosphors, the spectral range is from 650 to 1000 nm, which resulted in a radiant flux of 7-8 mW with an input power of 1.05 W. The research reveals detailed luminous properties, which will lead to a new way of studying Cr3+-doped fluoride phosphors and their application in LEDs.

6.
Peptides ; 126: 170236, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31874233

RESUMO

The regulation of intracellular pH (pHi) plays a vital role in various cellular functions. We previously demonstrated that three different acid extruders, the Na+-H+ exchanger (NHE), Na+-HCO3- co-transporter (NBC) and H+-linked monocarboxylate transporter (MCT), functioned together in cultured human radial artery smooth muscle cells (HRASMCs). However, the functions of acid-loading transporters in HRASMCs remain poorly understood. Urotensin II (U-II), one of the most potent vasoconstrictors, is highly expressed in many cardiovascular diseases. The aim of this present study was to determine the concentration effect of U-II (3 pM∼100 nM) on the functional activity of pHi regulators in HRASMCs. Cultured HRASMCs were derived from segments of human radial arteries obtained from patients undergoing bypass grafting. Changes in pHi recovery due to intracellular acidification and alkalization induced by NH4Cl prepulse and Na-acetate prepulse, respectively, were detected by microspectrofluorimetry with the pH-sensitive fluorescent dye BCECF. Our present study showed that (a) U-II increased the activity of NHE in a concentration-dependent manner but did not change that of NBC or MCT or resting pHi, (b) the Cl--OH- exchanger (CHE) facilitated base extrusion, and (c) U-II induced a concentration-dependent increase in the activity of CHE. In conclusion, for the first time, our results highlight a concentration-dependent increase in the activity of NHE and CHE, but not NBC and MCT, induced by U-II in HRASMCs.

7.
Crohns Colitis 360 ; 1(3): otz026, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31667468

RESUMO

Background: We hypothesized that elevations of plasma Oncostatin M (OSM) would be associated with infliximab nonresponse. Methods: Plasma OSM was measured in Crohn disease patients pre-infliximab with biochemical response (>50% reduction in fecal calprotectin) as the primary outcome. Results: The median OSM in biochemical responders was 86 (69-148) pg/mL compared with 166 (74-1766) pg/mL in nonresponders (P = 0.03). Plasma OSM > 143.5 pg/mL was 71% sensitive and 78% specific for biochemical nonresponse (area under the curve 0.71). Early biochemical nonremission was also associated with an elevated neutrophil CD64 expression (odds ratio 8.9, P = 0.011). Conclusions: Elevated preinfliximab plasma OSM and nCD64 surface expression were both associated with poor biochemical outcomes.

8.
Front Pharmacol ; 10: 1074, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31607922

RESUMO

To date, population-based studies on the healthcare service utilization among stable heart, kidney, and liver transplant recipients with different calcineurin inhibitors are still scarce. Therefore, we used the Taiwan National Health Insurance Research Database to conduct a nationwide cross-sectional study to estimate the healthcare utilization of stable transplant recipients with tacrolimus or cyclosporine (n = 3,482). The sampled patients in this study comprised 377 heart, 1,693 kidney, and 1,412 liver transplant recipients between 1 January 2011 and 31 December 2011. Each subject was followed for a 1-year period to evaluate his/her healthcare service utilization. Outcome variables of the healthcare service utilization were stated as below: numbers of outpatient visits, outpatient costs, numbers of inpatient days, inpatients costs, and total costs of all healthcare services. As for all healthcare service utilization, stable transplant recipients on tacrolimus had significantly more outpatient visits (40.7 vs. 38.6), outpatient costs (US$10,383 vs. US$8,155), and total costs (US$12,516 vs. US$10,372) of all healthcare services than those on cyclosporine during the 1-year follow-up period. Additionally, further analysis showed that heart transplant recipients receiving tacrolimus incurred 1.7-fold higher inpatient costs compared to patients receiving cyclosporine. We concluded that transplant recipients using tacrolimus had significantly higher utilization of all healthcare services than those receiving cyclosporine as immunosuppressive therapy.

9.
Methods Mol Biol ; 2045: 337-346, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31250381

RESUMO

Induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) have demonstrated tremendous potential in numerous disease modeling and regenerative medicine-based therapies. The development of innovative gene transduction and editing technologies has further augmented the potential of iPSCs. Cas9-cytidine deaminases, for example, have developed as an alternative strategy to integrate single-base mutations (C â†’ T or G â†’ A transitions) at specific genomic loci. In this chapter, we specifically describe CRISPR (clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats) base editing in iPSCs for editing precise locations in the genome. This state-of-the-art approach enables highly efficient and accurate modifications in genes. Thus, this technique not only has the potential to have biotechnology and therapeutic applications but also the ability to reveal underlying mechanisms regarding pathologies caused by specific mutations.

10.
J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr ; 69(1): 68-74, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31232885

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Subtherapeutic drug concentrations contribute to both primary and secondary nonresponse to infliximab in children with Crohn disease (CD). The aim of this study was to evaluate treatment outcomes and infliximab concentrations at infusions 2 and 3 with an objective to establish infliximab targets during induction for primary responders. METHODS: Single-center, prospective cohort of anti- tumor necrosis factor-alpha naïve CD patients younger than 22 years starting infliximab. Clinical response was defined with the weighted pediatric CD activity index at the fourth infusion. Rates of biological response (>50% improvement in fecal calprotectin) and maintenance concentrations ≥5 µg/mL were secondary outcomes. RESULTS: We enrolled 72 patients with CD with 70 of 72 receiving infliximab monotherapy. Clinical response, biological response, and start of maintenance concentrations ≥5 µg/mL were achieved in 64%, 54%, and 22%, respectively. The median (interquartile range) infliximab concentrations at infusion 2 and 3 in clinical responders were 27.8 µg/mL (19.5-40) and 14 µg/mL (8.3-24) compared to 18.8 µg/mL (9.1-23, P < 0.001) and 7.8 µg/mL (4-13.2, P < 0.01) in nonresponders. Receiver operating characteristic analysis determined that an infliximab concentration ≥15.9 µg/mL at infusion 3 was associated with clinical response (area under the curve [AUC] 0.73), whereas an infusion 3 level ≥18 µg/mL was associated with a start of maintenance concentration >5 µg/mL (AUC 0.85). Independent predictors for infusion 3 levels <18 µg/mL included pretreatment prednisone, low body mass index, elevated erythrocyte sedimentation rate and C-reactive protein, hypoalbuminemia, and an infusion 2 infliximab level <29 µg/mL. CONCLUSIONS: We found that infusion 2 (≥29 µg/mL) and infusion 3 (≥18 µg/mL) infliximab concentrations were strongly associated with improved early outcomes and higher first maintenance dose levels.

11.
Eur J Vasc Endovasc Surg ; 58(1): 51, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31080001
12.
Cell Mol Life Sci ; 76(18): 3657-3665, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30976840

RESUMO

D190N, a missense mutation in rhodopsin, causes photoreceptor degeneration in patients with autosomal dominant retinitis pigmentosa (adRP). Two competing hypotheses have been developed to explain why D190N rod photoreceptors degenerate: (a) defective rhodopsin trafficking prevents proteins from correctly exiting the endoplasmic reticulum, leading to their accumulation, with deleterious effects or (b) elevated mutant rhodopsin expression and unabated signaling causes excitotoxicity. A knock-in D190N mouse model was engineered to delineate the mechanism of pathogenesis. Wild type (wt) and mutant rhodopsin appeared correctly localized in rod outer segments of D190N heterozygotes. Moreover, the rhodopsin glycosylation state in the mutants appeared similar to that in wt mice. Thus, it seems plausible that the injurious effect of the heterozygous mutation is not related to mistrafficking of the protein, but rather from constitutive rhodopsin activity and a greater propensity for chromophore isomerization even in the absence of light.


Assuntos
Células Fotorreceptoras Retinianas Bastonetes/metabolismo , Retinite Pigmentosa/patologia , Rodopsina/genética , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Animais , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Eletrorretinografia , Técnicas de Introdução de Genes , Glicosilação , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Mutação de Sentido Incorreto , Estrutura Terciária de Proteína , Retina/metabolismo , Retina/patologia , Retinite Pigmentosa/metabolismo , Rodopsina/química , Rodopsina/metabolismo , Alinhamento de Sequência
14.
Transl Res ; 208: 30-46, 2019 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30857762

RESUMO

B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP) was approved by the US Food and Drug Administration in 2001 for the treatment of heart failure. However, the effects of BNP in clinical applications are controversial and uncertain. Recently, study indicated that high BNP levels are associated with an increased risk of developing atrial fibrillation. In this study, we investigated the direct effects of BNP on TNF-α-induced atrial fibrosis mice, as well as its effects on human atrial myofibroblasts. We found that injecting TNF-α-induced mice with recombinant human BNP enhanced atrial fibrosis via matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2) expression and collagen accumulation. Furthermore, we found that BNP stimulated MMP-2 expression in human atrial myofibroblasts. Treatment of human atrial myofibroblasts with cycloheximide had no effect on this outcome; however, treatment of cells with MG132 enhanced BNP-induced MMP-2 expression, indicating that protein stability and inhibition of proteasome-mediated protein degradation pathways are potentially involved. Inhibition of SIRT1 significantly decreased BNP-induced MMP-2 expression. Additionally, confocal and coimmunoprecipitation data indicated that BNP-regulated MMP-2 expression are likely to be mediated through direct interaction with SIRT1, which is thought to deacetylate MMP-2 and to increase its protein stability in human atrial myofibroblasts. Finally, we confirmed that SIRT1 is expressed and cytoplasmically redistributed as well as colocalized with MMP-2 in mouse fibrotic atrial tissue. We suggest a possible fibrosis-promoting role of BNP in the atrium, although the antifibrotic properties of BNP in the ventricle have been reported in previous studies, and that the coordination between MMP-2 and SIRT1 in BNP-induced atrial myofibroblasts participates in atrial fibrosis.


Assuntos
Átrios do Coração/enzimologia , Metaloproteinase 2 da Matriz/metabolismo , Miofibroblastos/metabolismo , Peptídeo Natriurético Encefálico/fisiologia , Acetilação , Animais , Fibrose , Átrios do Coração/patologia , Humanos , Técnicas In Vitro , Camundongos , Miofibroblastos/enzimologia , Sirtuína 1/metabolismo
16.
J Formos Med Assoc ; 118(1 Pt 2): 354-361, 2019 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29936106

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: During coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) surgery, the residual hemostasis procedures, from weaning cardiopulmonary bypass to closing sternotomy, are always completed by residents and supervised by attending surgeons. We want to evaluate the teaching effectiveness for residents under the supervision of attending surgeons with different levels of seniority. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Between January 1st 2001 and December 31st 2010, 2279 consecutive CABG surgeries were performed in our medical center. In total, 83 patients underwent a reexploration for postoperative bleeding. All causes of bleeding were identified and recorded. Competent attending surgeons were defined as having >3 years' experience and young attending surgeons with ≦3 years' experience. We compared the reexploration rate and aimed to identify the common sources of bleeding by the two groups. We also assessed the impact of attending experience on the outcomes and major complications after reexploration. RESULTS: There were 36 surgical bleeding and 17 non-surgical bleeding in the young group and 16 surgical bleeding and 14 non-surgical bleeding in the competent group. The young group experienced more mediastinal drainage before a reexploration and a longer time interval to a reexploration. However, both are without statistical significance. Furthermore, the young group has a significant longer hospital stay. The most common intra-pericardium surgical bleeding included two-stage cannulation, side branch of the left internal mammary artery (LIMA), and side branch of vein grafts. The most common extra-pericardium surgical bleeding included a puncture hole by sternal wires, LIMA bed, and fragile sternum. CONCLUSION: Young attending surgeons indeed had both higher incidence of reexploration and surgical bleeding after a CABG. However, the supervisor experience only impacted hospital stay, not major complications or mortality after a reexploration. This might imply the competent attending surgeons provide higher teaching effectiveness for the hemostasis procedure after CABG.


Assuntos
Ponte de Artéria Coronária/efeitos adversos , Ponte de Artéria Coronária/educação , Internato e Residência , Hemorragia Pós-Operatória/epidemiologia , Reoperação/estatística & dados numéricos , Idoso , Perda Sanguínea Cirúrgica/estatística & dados numéricos , Competência Clínica , Ponte de Artéria Coronária/mortalidade , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Eletivos , Feminino , Humanos , Tempo de Internação , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Indicadores de Qualidade em Assistência à Saúde , Medição de Risco , Taiwan/epidemiologia
17.
Cell Physiol Biochem ; 51(5): 2250-2261, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30537733

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/AIMS: Diabetes is associated with increased incidence of myocardial dysfunction, which is partly characterized by interstitial and perivascular fibrosis. Cardiac fibroblasts have been identified as an important participant in the development of cardiac fibrosis. Exposure of cultured cardiac fibroblasts to high glucose resulted in increased collagen synthesis. Tanshinone IIA can alleviate the ventricular fibrosis that develops in a number of different experimental conditions. However, whether tanshinone IIA can prevent high glucose-induced collagen synthesis in cardiac fibroblasts remains unknown. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of tanshinone IIA on high glucose-induced collagen synthesis in cardiac fibroblasts. METHODS: Rat cardiac fibroblasts were cultured in high glucose (25 mM) media in the absence or presence of tanshinone IIA and the changes in collagen synthesis, transforming growth factor-ß1 (TGF-ß1) production and related signaling molecules were assessed by 3H-proline incorporation, quantitative polymerase chain reaction, enzyme linked immunosorbent assay, and Western blotting. RESULTS: The results indicate cardiac fibroblasts exposed to high glucose condition show increased cell proliferation and collagen synthesis and these effects were abolished by tanshinone IIA treatment. Furthermore, the inhibitory effect of tanshinone IIA on high glucose induced cell proliferation and collagen synthesis may be associated with its activation of the nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) and the inhibition of TGF-ß1 production and Smad2/3 phosphorylation. CONCLUSION: In summary, our results highlights the critical role tanshinone IIA plays as an antioxidant in attenuating high glucose-mediated collagen synthesis through inhibiting TGF-ß1/Smad signaling in cardiac fibroblasts which provide a mechanistic basis for the clinical application of tanshinone IIA in the treating diabetic-related cardiac fibrosis.


Assuntos
/farmacologia , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Colágeno/metabolismo , Fibroblastos/efeitos dos fármacos , Glucose/metabolismo , Miocárdio/citologia , Fator 2 Relacionado a NF-E2/metabolismo , Animais , Vias Biossintéticas/efeitos dos fármacos , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Células Cultivadas , Fibroblastos/citologia , Fibroblastos/metabolismo , Coração/efeitos dos fármacos , Miocárdio/metabolismo , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley
18.
Am J Transl Res ; 10(10): 3133-3149, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30416656

RESUMO

Cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) induces cytokine production and causes postoperative monocytic inflammatory responses, which are associated with patient outcomes. In fact, monocytes regulate immunity through dynamic networks of survival and cellular apoptosis as well as thrombomodulin (TM)-associated differenciiation. Whether CPB affects the plasma level of eotaxin-2, a potent chemoattractant, or stimulates monocyte apoptosis among patients undergoing elective coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) surgery is also unknown. Thus, we aimed to investigate this subject and explored the feasible roles of TM in the phenomena. Firstly, clinical data showed that after CABG surgery, patients with lower plasma eotaxin-2 levels and higher TM expression levels exhibited reduced monocytic apoptosis, compared with that in patients with lower TM expression levels. Subsequently, to explore the hypothesis that eotaxin-2 induces monocytic apoptosis mediation by TM expression, we used in vitro monocytic THP-1 cells. The results indicated that treatment of THP-1 cells with eotaxin-2 markedly increased apoptosis. Knockdown of TM significantly increased, and overexpression of TM significantly reversed eotaxin-2-induced monocyte apoptosis, which was compared with that of only eotaxin-2-treated THP-1 cells. TM may regulate mitochondria-mediated apoptosis by its PI3K/Akt axis signaling pathway, which acts as an extinguisher for p53 and BAX activation, as well as limit further downstream release of cytochrome c and cleavage of caspases 8 and 3; we suggest that TM interacts with the cofilin cytoskeleton, which further supports a role for TM in eotaxin-induced THP-1 cell apoptosis. Based on clinical observation and in vitro study, we conclude that TM expression on monocytes is associated with their apoptosis. The above mechanisms may be relevant to clinical phenomena in which patients exhibiting more monocytic apoptosis are complicated by higher plasma levels of eotaxin-2 and lower TM expression on monocytes after CABG surgery.

19.
J Immunol ; 201(9): 2683-2699, 2018 11 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30249809

RESUMO

We have produced Csf1r-deficient rats by homologous recombination in embryonic stem cells. Consistent with the role of Csf1r in macrophage differentiation, there was a loss of peripheral blood monocytes, microglia in the brain, epidermal Langerhans cells, splenic marginal zone macrophages, bone-associated macrophages and osteoclasts, and peritoneal macrophages. Macrophages of splenic red pulp, liver, lung, and gut were less affected. The pleiotropic impacts of the loss of macrophages on development of multiple organ systems in rats were distinct from those reported in mice. Csf1r-/- rats survived well into adulthood with postnatal growth retardation, distinct skeletal and bone marrow abnormalities, infertility, and loss of visceral adipose tissue. Gene expression analysis in spleen revealed selective loss of transcripts associated with the marginal zone and, in brain regions, the loss of known and candidate novel microglia-associated transcripts. Despite the complete absence of microglia, there was little overt phenotype in brain, aside from reduced myelination and increased expression of dopamine receptor-associated transcripts in striatum. The results highlight the redundant and nonredundant functions of CSF1R signaling and of macrophages in development, organogenesis, and homeostasis.


Assuntos
Macrófagos , Microglia , Organogênese/genética , Ratos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Receptores de Fator Estimulador das Colônias de Granulócitos e Macrófagos/deficiência , Animais , Modelos Animais , Mutação , Ratos/genética
20.
Oncoimmunology ; 7(9): e1477459, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30228946

RESUMO

Immunotherapies have shown promising results in certain cancer patients. For hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), the multiplicity of an immunotolerant microenvironment within both the tumor, and the liver per se may limit the efficacy of cancer immunotherapies. Since radiation induces immunogenic cell death and inflammatory reactions within the tumor microenvironment, we hypothesized that a combination therapy of radiation and lasting local immunostimulating agents, achieved by intratumoral injection of an adenoviral vector encoding interleukin 12, may reverse the immunotolerant microenvironment within a well-established orthotopic HCC toward a state favorable for inducing antitumor immunities. Our data showed that radiation and IL-12 combination therapy (RT/IL-12) led to dramatic tumor regression in animals bearing large subcutaneous or orthotopic HCC, induced systemic effect against distant tumor, and significantly prolonged survival. Radiation monotherapy induced tumor regression at early times but afterwards most tumors regained exponential growth, while IL-12 monotherapy only delayed tumor growth. Mechanistic studies revealed that RT/IL-12 increased expression of MHC class II and co-stimulatory molecules CD40 and CD86 on tumor-infiltrating dendritic cells, suggesting an improvement of their antigen presentation activity. RT/IL-12 also significantly reduced accumulation of tumor-infiltrating myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs) and impaired their suppressive functions by reducing production of reactive oxygen species. Accordingly, tumor-infiltrating CD8+ T cells and NK cells were significantly activated toward the antitumor phenotype, as revealed by increased expression of CD107a and TNF-α. Together, our data showed that RT/IL-12 treatment could reset the intratumoral immunotolerant state and stimulate activation of antitumor cellular immunity that is capable of eliminating large established HCC tumors.

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