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1.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31584451

RESUMO

Since 2014, programmed cell death protein 1 (PD-1)/programmed cell death ligand 1 (PD-L1) checkpoint inhibitors have been approved by various regulatory agencies for the treatment of multiple cancers including melanoma, lung cancer, urothelial carcinoma, renal cell carcinoma, head and neck cancer, classical Hodgkin lymphoma, colorectal cancer, gastroesophageal cancer, hepatocellular cancer, and other solid tumors. Of these approved drug/disease combinations, a subset also has regulatory agency-approved, commercially available companion/complementary diagnostic assays that were clinically validated using data from their corresponding clinical trials. The objective of this document is to provide evidence-based guidance to assist clinical laboratories in establishing fit-for-purpose PD-L1 biomarker assays that can accurately identify patients with specific tumor types who may respond to specific approved immuno-oncology therapies targeting the PD-1/PD-L1 checkpoint. These recommendations are issued as 38 Guideline Statements that address (i) assay development for surgical pathology and cytopathology specimens, (ii) reporting elements, and (iii) quality assurance (including validation/verification, internal quality assurance, and external quality assurance). The intent of this work is to provide recommendations that are relevant to any tumor type, are universally applicable and can be implemented by any clinical immunohistochemistry laboratory performing predictive PD-L1 immunohistochemistry testing.

2.
Oncogene ; 2019 Sep 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31477830

RESUMO

Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) remains one of the most lethal human cancers, with 5-year patient survival rates of <5%. Activating mutations in KRAS are the predominant oncogenic drivers of PDAC but are accompanied by additional lower frequency genetic alterations. Our group previously identified the guanine nucleotide exchange factor ARHGEF10 in a genomic screen for genes with copy number alterations that may synergize with oncogenic KRAS to promote PDAC carcinogenesis. In the present study we show that ARHGEF10 possesses putative tumor suppressor function in PDAC. ARHGEF10 expression is reduced in over 70% of PDAC cell lines, and copy number loss is documented in more than 30% of PDAC patient-derived xenografts. Loss of ARHGEF10 expression enhanced subcutaneous tumor growth in mouse models, while its exogenous expression greatly impaired tumorigenesis. Loss of ARHGEF10 expression also increased in vitro proliferation, invasion, and motility of PDAC cell lines, and enhanced their metastatic spread in orthotopic mouse models. Treatment of ARHGEF10-depleted cells with the inhibitor dasatinib reduced levels of phospho Src kinase and attenuated motility and invasion in vitro. Together, our data indicate that ARHGEF10 may function as a tumor suppressor in PDAC.

3.
Mod Pathol ; 2019 Sep 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31485011

RESUMO

Localized malignant mesotheliomas (LMM) is an uncommon and poorly recognized neoplasm. Its pathologic diagnosis is often surprising in patients with serosal/subserosal based localized tumors that are clinically suspicious for metastatic lesions or primary sarcomas. Once a tumor is diagnosed as "mesothelioma", LMM is often mistaken for diffuse malignant mesothelioma (DMM). Best currently available evidence about LMM was collected from the literature and cases diagnosed by members of the International Mesothelioma Panel (IMP). One hundred and one (101) LMM have been reported in the English literature. Patients had localized tumors with identical histopathologic features to DMM. Patients ranged in age from 6 to 82 years; 75% were men. Most (82%) of the tumors were intrathoracic. Others presented as intrahepatic, mesenteric, gastric, pancreatic, umbilical, splenic, and abdominal wall lesions. Tumors varied in size from 0.6 to 15 cm. Most patients underwent surgical resection and/or chemotherapy or radiation therapy. Median survival in a subset of patients was 29 months. Seventy two additional LMM from IMP institutions ranged in age from 28 to 95 years; 58.3% were men. Sixty tumors (83.3%) were intrathoracic, others presented in intraabdominal sites. Tumors varied in size from 1.2 to 19 cm. Median survival for 51 cases was 134 months. Best evidence was used to formulate guidelines for the diagnosis of LMM. It is important to distinguish LMM from DMM as their treatment and prognosis is different. A multidisciplinary approach is needed for the diagnosis of LMM as it shows identical histopathology and immunophenotype to DMM.

4.
J Thorac Oncol ; 2019 Sep 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31546041

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Molecular and immunologic breakthroughs are transforming the management of thoracic cancer, although advances have not been as marked for malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM) where pathologic diagnosis has been essentially limited to three histologic subtypes. METHODS: A multidisciplinary group (pathologists, molecular biologists, surgeons, radiologists and oncologists), sponsored by EURACAN/IASLC met in 2018, to critically review the current classification. RESULTS: Recommendations include: 1) classification should be updated to include architectural patterns, and stromal and cytologic features that refine prognostication 2) subject to data accrual, malignant mesothelioma in situ could be an additional category, 3) grading of epithelioid MPMs should be routinely undertaken, 4) favorable/unfavorable histologic characteristics should be routinely reported, 5) clinically relevant molecular data (PD-L1, BAP1, CDKN2A) should be incorporated into reports, if undertaken, 6) other molecular data should be accrued as part of future trials 7) resection specimens (i.e. extended pleurectomy/decortication and extrapleural pneumonectomy) should be pathologically staged with smaller specimens being clinically staged, 8) ideally, at least 3 separate areas should be sampled from the pleural cavity, including areas of interest identified on pre-surgical imaging, 9) image-acquisition protocols/imaging terminology should be standardized to aid research/refine clinical staging, 10) multidisciplinary tumor boards should include pathologists to ensure appropriate treatment options are considered, 11) all histologic subtypes should be considered potential candidates for chemotherapy, 12) patients with sarcomatoid or biphasic mesothelioma should not be excluded from first line clinical trials unless there is a compelling reason, 13) tumor subtyping should be further assessed in relation to duration of response to immunotherapy, 14) systematic screening of all patients for germline mutations is not recommended, in the absence of a family history suspicious for BAP1 syndrome. CONCLUSION: These multidisciplinary recommendations for pathology classification and application will allow more informative pathologic reporting and potential risk stratification, to support clinical practice, research investigation and clinical trials.

5.
Invest New Drugs ; 2019 Sep 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31506897

RESUMO

Background Resistance to Epidermal Growth Factor inhibition (EGFRi) in patients with KRAS wild-type (wt) Colorectal Cancer (CRC) may occur as a result of PI3K/AKT/mTOR signaling. We conducted a study to establish the recommended phase II dose (RP2D) and response rate of panitumumab, an EGFRi, plus BKM120, a PI3K inhibitor, in advanced CRC. Methods Patients with chemotherapy refractory KRAS wt CRC, who were EGFRi naive were enrolled. A 3 + 3 dose escalation design was utilized. The starting dose of panitumumab was 6 mg/kg iv every 2 weeks with BKM120 at 60 mg oral daily. Results Nineteen patients were treated and 17 were evaluable for response. The starting dose was not tolerable (mucositis, fatigue). At dose level (DL) 1, three of six patients discontinued treatment due to toxicity, DL - 1 had no significant toxicity. Panitumumab 6 mg/kg iv q 2 weeks with BKM120 60 mg given 5 out of 7 days per week was declared the RP2D. One patient (5.9%) who was PTEN and PIK3CA negative by IHC had a partial response, seven had stable disease, and nine had disease progression. Conclusion Panitumumab (6 mg/kg iv q 2 weeks) with BKM120 60 mg given 5 out of 7 days per week was declared the RP2D. Toxicities including fatigue, rash and mucositis. There was little evidence of activity in this biomarker unselected cohort.

6.
Sci Rep ; 9(1): 12437, 2019 Aug 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31455821

RESUMO

Chemotherapy resistance is a major problem in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) treatment. A major mechanism of chemoresistance involves stabilization of the NRF2 transcription factor. NRF2 levels are normally tightly regulated through interaction with KEAP1, an adaptor that targets NRF2 to the CUL3 E3 ubiquitin ligase for proteolysis. In NSCLC, aberrant NRF2 stabilization is best understood through mutations in NRF2, KEAP1, or CUL3 that disrupt their interaction. Biochemical studies, however, have revealed that NRF2 can also be stabilized through expression of KEAP1-interacting proteins that competitively sequester KEAP1 away from NRF2. Here, we have identified PIDD, as a novel KEAP1-interactor in NSCLC that regulates NRF2. We show that this interaction allows PIDD to reduce NRF2 ubiquitination and increase its stability. We also demonstrate that PIDD promotes chemoresistance in NSCLC cells both in vitro and in vivo, and that this effect is dependent on NRF2. Finally, we report that NRF2 protein expression in a NSCLC cohort exceeds the typical incidence of combined NRF2, KEAP1, and CUL3 mutations, and that NRF2 expression in this cohort is correlated with PIDD levels. Our data identify PIDD as a new NRF2 regulator, and suggest that variations in PIDD levels contribute to differential chemosensitivities among NSCLC patients.

7.
Clin Cancer Res ; 2019 Aug 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31383733

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition, the major process by which some cancer cells convert from an epithelial phenotype to a mesenchymal one, has been suggested to drive chemo-resistance and/or metastasis in patients with cancer. However, only a few studies have demonstrated the presence of CD45/CD326 doubly-positive cells (CD45/CD326 DPC) in cancer. We deployed a combination of cell surface markers to elucidate the phenotypic heterogeneity in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cells and identified a new subpopulation that is doubly-positive for epithelial and non-epithelial cell-surface markers in both NSCLC cells and patients' malignant pleural effusions. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: We procured a total of 39 patients' samples, solid fresh lung cancer tissues from 21 patients and malignant pleural effusion samples from 18 others, and used FACS and fluorescence microscopy to check their surface markers. We also examined the EGFR mutations in patients with known acquired EGFR mutations. RESULTS: Our data revealed that 0.4% to 17.9% of the solid tumor tissue cells and a higher percentage of malignant pleural effusion cells harbored CD45/CD326 DPC expressing both epithelial and nonepithelial surface markers. We selected 3 EGFR mutation patients and genetically confirmed that the newly identified cell population really originated from cancer cells. We also found that higher proportions of CD45/CD326 DPC are significantly associated with poor prognosis. CONCLUSIONS: In conclusion, varying percentages of CD45/CD326 DPC exist in both solid cancer tissue and malignant pleural effusion in patients with NSCLC. This CD45/CD326 doubly-positive subpopulation can be an important key to clinical management of patients with NSCLC.

8.
Cancer ; 125(22): 4043-4051, 2019 Nov 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31390053

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The presence of anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) rearrangement predicts response to ALK tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI) therapy. Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) was the initial reference standard to detect ALK rearrangement, but immunohistochemistry (IHC) using D5F3 has gained acceptance as an alternative diagnostic method. ALK IHC assays using other ALK antibodies have also been used as screening methods, but data supporting their utility as diagnostic tests have not been widely reported. METHODS: Data from reflexive clinical ALK IHC test using the 5A4 clone concurrent with epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) mutation testing were analyzed. ALK IHC results were reported as negative (-), equivocal, or positive (+), with equivocal or positive staining validated by FISH break-apart probe testing. Treatment outcomes were reviewed for ALK IHC+ patients. RESULTS: Between 2012 and 2015, 146 (2.5%) cases were reported as ALK IHC+, 188 (3.2%) were reported as equivocal, and 5624 (94.4%) were reported as ALK IHC-. Of the ALK IHC+ cases, 131/143(91.6%) were ALK FISH+. Excluding 6 cases in which FISH was inconclusive or not performed, the positive predictive value was 95.6%, and the negative predictive value was 100%. Most specimens (n = 5352 [89.6%]) were also successfully tested for EGFR. Clinical responses to ALK TKIs were noted in 49 ALK IHC+ patients, with a median progression-free survival of 9.9 months. CONCLUSIONS: ALK 5A4 IHC can serve as a robust diagnostic test for ALK-rearranged lung cancer and is associated with treatment response and survival. Optimized tissue allocation resulted in high success rates of combined reflex EGFR and ALK testing.

9.
Mod Pathol ; 2019 Aug 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31375770

RESUMO

The existence of an in situ phase of malignant mesothelioma has long been postulated but until recently has been impossible to prove. Here we describe ten patients with mesothelioma in situ, defined by a single layer of surface mesothelial cells showing loss of BAP1 nuclear immunostaining, no evidence of tumor by imaging and/or by direct examination of the pleura/peritoneum, and no invasive mesothelioma developing for at least 1 year. Nine cases were pleural and one peritoneal. Most patients were biopsied for repeated effusions of unknown etiology; in two patients mesothelioma in situ was found incidentally in lung cancer resections. In addition to surface mesothelium with BAP1 loss, one case had a surface papillary proliferation with BAP1 loss, and two cases had a small (few millimeter) nodule with BAP1 loss. CDKN2A was deleted by FISH in one of eight cases. Methylthioadenosine phosphorylase showed partial loss in the surface mesothelium by immunohistochemistry in three cases. Invasive malignant mesothelioma developed in seven patients with time between biopsy and invasive disease from 12 to 92 (median 60) months. Invasive mesothelioma has not developed in the other three patients at 12, 57, and 120 months, but the latter patient, who has pleural plaques, still has repeated pleural effusions, probably representing a so-called "benign asbestos effusion." We conclude that mesothelioma in situ, as diagnosed using the criteria outlined above, is associated with a high risk of developing invasive mesothelioma, but typically over a relatively protracted time, so that curable interventions maybe possible.

10.
Mod Pathol ; 2019 Aug 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31383961

RESUMO

Different clones, protocol conditions, instruments, and scoring/readout methods may pose challenges in introducing different PD-L1 assays for immunotherapy. The diagnostic accuracy of using different PD-L1 assays interchangeably for various purposes is unknown. The primary objective of this meta-analysis was to address PD-L1 assay interchangeability based on assay diagnostic accuracy for established clinical uses/purposes. A systematic search of the MEDLINE database using PubMed platform was conducted using "PD-L1" as a search term for 01/01/2015 to 31/08/2018, with limitations "English" and "human". 2,515 abstracts were reviewed to select for original contributions only. 57 studies on comparison of two or more PD-L1 assays were fully reviewed. 22 publications were selected for meta-analysis. Additional data were requested from authors of 20/22 studies in order to enable the meta-analysis. Modified GRADE and QUADAS-2 criteria were used for grading published evidence and designing data abstraction templates for extraction by reviewers. PRISMA was used to guide reporting of systematic review and meta-analysis and STARD 2015 for reporting diagnostic accuracy study. CLSI EP12-A2 was used to guide test comparisons. Data were pooled using random-effects model. The main outcome measure was diagnostic accuracy of various PD-L1 assays. The 22 included studies provided 376 2×2 contingency tables for analyses. Results of our study suggest that, when the testing laboratory is not able to use an Food and Drug Administration-approved companion diagnostic(s) for PD-L1 assessment for its specific clinical purpose(s), it is better to develop a properly validated laboratory developed test for the same purpose(s) as the original PD-L1 Food and Drug Administration-approved immunohistochemistry companion diagnostic, than to replace the original PD-L1 Food and Drug Administration-approved immunohistochemistry companion diagnostic with a another PD-L1 Food and Drug Administration-approved companion diagnostic that was developed for a different purpose.

11.
J Thorac Oncol ; 14(10): 1704-1717, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31260832

RESUMO

The accurate diagnosis of mesothelioma is critical for the appropriate clinical management of this cancer. Many issues complicate making the diagnosis of mesothelioma including the presence of reactive mesothelial cells in benign pleural effusions, the heterogeneity of mesothelioma histopathology, the relatively high incidence of other epithelial malignancies that metastasize to the pleura, and primary sarcomas that arise within the pleura. Given the rapidly evolving field of molecular profiling and the need for translational correlates in mesothelioma clinical trials, the National Cancer Institute (NCI)-International Association for the Study of Lung Cancer-Mesothelioma Applied Research Foundation Clinical Trials Planning Meeting was convened in March 2017 to develop a consensus on standard pathology guidelines for future NCI-sponsored clinical trials in mesothelioma. This consensus statement covers recommendations for specimen handling, pathologic classification and diagnosis, biobanking, and tissue correlative studies.

12.
Cancer Res ; 79(17): 4539-4550, 2019 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31142512

RESUMO

Identifying robust biomarkers of drug response constitutes a key challenge in precision medicine. Patient-derived tumor xenografts (PDX) have emerged as reliable preclinical models that more accurately recapitulate tumor response to chemo- and targeted therapies. However, the lack of computational tools makes it difficult to analyze high-throughput molecular and pharmacologic profiles of PDX. We have developed Xenograft Visualization & Analysis (Xeva), an open-source software package for in vivo pharmacogenomic datasets that allows for quantification of variability in gene expression and pathway activity across PDX passages. We found that only a few genes and pathways exhibited passage-specific alterations and were therefore not suitable for biomarker discovery. Using the largest PDX pharmacogenomic dataset to date, we identified 87 pathways that are significantly associated with response to 51 drugs (FDR < 0.05). We found novel biomarkers based on gene expressions, copy number aberrations, and mutations predictive of drug response (concordance index > 0.60; FDR < 0.05). Our study demonstrates that Xeva provides a flexible platform for integrative analysis of preclinical in vivo pharmacogenomics data to identify biomarkers predictive of drug response, representing a major step forward in precision oncology. SIGNIFICANCE: A computational platform for PDX data analysis reveals consistent gene and pathway activity across passages and confirms drug response prediction biomarkers in PDX.See related commentary by Meehan, p. 4324.


Assuntos
Neoplasias , Farmacogenética , Animais , Xenoenxertos , Humanos , Medicina de Precisão , Ensaios Antitumorais Modelo de Xenoenxerto
13.
Oncologist ; 2019 May 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31138727

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Lung cancer is one of the most common types of cancer, resulting in approximately 1.8 million deaths worldwide. Immunotherapy using checkpoint inhibitors has become standard of care in advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), and there is increasing interest in further improving outcomes through combination with other therapeutics. This systematic review evaluates emerging phase III data on the efficacy and safety of checkpoint inhibitor combinations as first-line treatment for advanced NSCLC. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Published and presented literature was searched using the key search terms "non-small cell lung cancer" AND "checkpoint-inhibitors" (OR respective aliases) AND phase III trials. Seven randomized phase III clinical trials reporting outcomes on checkpoint inhibitor combinations in first-line advanced NSCLC were identified. RESULTS: Four first-line trials reported outcomes for checkpoint inhibitor combinations in nonsquamous NSCLC. Pembrolizumab-chemotherapy, atezolizumab-chemotherapy, and atezolizumab-bevacizumab-chemotherapy showed significantly improved overall survival compared with controls in patients with advanced nonsquamous epidermal growth factor receptor-negative (EGFR-)/ anaplastic lymphoma kinase gene (ALK)- NSCLC. Two trials reported outcomes for squamous NSCLC, with pembrolizumab-chemotherapy reporting significantly improved overall survival (OS) compared with chemotherapy. The combination of nivolumab-ipilimumab in all-comer histology failed to improve OS compared with histology appropriate chemotherapy in patients regardless of their tumor mutational burden status. Based on improved survival and safety, either pembrolizumab monotherapy or pembrolizumab-chemotherapy administered based on PD-L1 status and histology is a preferred treatment option. Outcomes for atezolizumab-bevacizumab-chemotherapy in EGFR+/ALK+ patients are promising and require further exploration. CONCLUSION: First-line checkpoint inhibitors added to standard therapies improve overall survival for nonsquamous EGFR-/ALK- and squamous advanced NSCLC. IMPLICATIONS FOR PRACTICE: Single-agent immune checkpoint inhibitors are now standard of care for advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), and emerging data show that combining these agents with established chemotherapy further improves outcomes. The phase III KEYNOTE-189 and IMPower-130 trials showed significantly improved survival using this strategy for nonsquamous NSCLC, and the phase III KEYNOTE-407 trial showed similar results in squamous disease. Checkpoint inhibitor combinations are therefore an important new treatment option for first-line NSCLC. Programmed death ligand-1 expression may inform the use of checkpoint inhibitor combination therapy, and overall tumor mutation burden is also an emerging biomarker for this new treatment strategy.

14.
Neoplasia ; 21(5): 482-493, 2019 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30978569

RESUMO

Carcinoma-associated fibroblasts (CAFs) are abundant stromal cells in tumor microenvironment that are critically involved in cancer progression. Contrasting reports have shown that CAFs can have either pro- or antitumorigenic roles, indicating that CAFs are functionally heterogeneous. Therefore, to precisely target the cancer-promoting CAF subsets, it is necessary to identify specific markers to define these subpopulations and understand their functions. We characterized two CAFs subsets from 28 non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patient tumors that were scored and classified based on desmoplasia [mainly characterized by proliferating CAFs; high desmoplastic CAFs (HD-CAF; n = 15) and low desmoplastic CAFs (LD-CAF; n = 13)], which is an independent prognostic factor. Here, for the first time, we demonstrate that HD-CAFs and LD-CAFs show different tumor-promoting abilities. HD-CAFs showed higher rate of collagen matrix remodeling, invasion, and tumor growth compared to LD-CAFs. Transcriptomic analysis identified 13 genes that were differentially significant (fold ≥1.5; adjusted P value < .1) between HD-CAFs and LD-CAFs. The top upregulated differentially expressed gene, ST8SIA2 (11.3 fold; adjusted P value = .02), enhanced NSCLC tumor cell invasion in 3D culture compared to control when it was overexpressed in CAFs, suggesting an important role of ST8SIA2 in cancer cell invasion. We confirmed the protumorigenic role of ST8SIA2, showing that ST8SIA2 was significantly associated with the risk of relapse in three independent NSCLC clinical datasets. In summary, our studies show that functional heterogeneity in CAF plays key role in promoting cancer cell invasion in NSCLC.

15.
Lung Cancer ; 130: 135-142, 2019 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30885334

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: High concordance has been observed between Ventana D5F3 ALK immunohistochemistry (IHC) and fluorescence in-situ hybridization (FISH) in lung adenocarcinoma (LADC). However, whether a similar conclusion can be applied to lung squamous-cell carcinoma (LSCC) has remained unclear. We therefore evaluated the ALK (anaplastic lymphoma kinase) status and the therapeutic effect of an ALK tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI) in IHC- or FISH-positive LSCC. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 2403 LSCC patients from three institutions were screened for ALK aberration by IHC. All IHC-positive cases were subjected to FISH (with an approximately equal number of negative cases as a control group) and next-generation sequencing (NGS). Clinical efficacy was evaluated for the patients who received TKI therapy. RESULTS: In 2403 cases of LSCC, 37 cases were identified as ALK-positive by IHC. After quality control, 28 cases were succeeded by FISH (six with insufficient tissue, three with lack of signals) and 13 by NGS (24 failed due to insufficient samples or poor DNA quality); the percentage of non-diagnostic tests was 24.3% (9/37) and 64.9% (24/37), respectively. Four cases (4/2394, 0.17%) analyzed by FISH were determined as ALK-positive. For the control group (40 ALK IHC), FISH demonstrated no samples with ALK gene fusion. The concordance between ALK IHC- and ALK FISH-positive results was 14.3% (4/28). In the 13 cases studied by NGS, two cases showed ALK-EML4 fusion (consistent with two FISH-positive results), and two cases were interpreted as harboring an ALK-association gene mutation. Among four patients (two FISH-positive and two IHC-positive only cases) receiving TKI therapy, two patients had stable disease and the other two had progressive disease. CONCLUSIONS: The positive concordance rate of ALK IHC and FISH in LSCC is far less than that reported for LADC. Therefore, ALK IHC detection in LSCC cannot be used as a diagnostic method for ALK rearrangement.

16.
J Exp Clin Cancer Res ; 38(1): 123, 2019 Mar 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30857561

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Though immune checkpoint blockade (ICB) against PD-1 has shown success in the treatment of lung cancer, not all patients respond. We have previously shown that adoptive transfer of double negative T (DNT) cells expanded from healthy donors can target leukemia but their role in treating established lung cancer is not clear. Here we explore the role of human DNT cells in targeting late-stage established lung cancer either alone or in combination with Nivolumab (anti-PD-1 antibody) and describe underlying mechanisms. METHODS: DNT cells from resected lung cancer tissue of patients were analyzed by flow cytometry to determine their infiltration and PD-1 expression. Expansion capacity and anti-tumor function of lung cancer patient and healthy donor DNT cells were compared. Late-stage lung cancer xenograft models were developed to determine the anti-tumor effect of DNT cells alone or in combination with anti-PD-1 antibody, and the level of tumor-infiltrating DNT cells was quantified by histology and characterized by flow cytometry. RESULTS: Patient-derived tumor infiltrating lymphocytes contained a lower frequency of DNT cells with a higher expression of PD-1 relative to normal lung tissue. Ex vivo expanded patient- and healthy donor-derived DNT cells showed similar levels of cytotoxicity against lung cancer cells in vitro. Healthy donor-derived DNT cells significantly inhibited the growth of late-stage lung cancer xenografts, which was further augmented by anti-PD-1 through increased DNT cell tumor infiltration. CONCLUSION: This study supports the use of DNT cells for adoptive cellular therapy against lung cancer either alone or in combination with anti-PD-1.


Assuntos
Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/terapia , Terapia Baseada em Transplante de Células e Tecidos , Imunoterapia , Receptor de Morte Celular Programada 1/imunologia , Linfócitos T/imunologia , Animais , Antígeno B7-H1/imunologia , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/imunologia , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/patologia , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Citometria de Fluxo , Humanos , Pulmão/efeitos dos fármacos , Pulmão/imunologia , Pulmão/patologia , Linfócitos do Interstício Tumoral/imunologia , Linfócitos do Interstício Tumoral/patologia , Camundongos , Nivolumabe/administração & dosagem , Receptor de Morte Celular Programada 1/antagonistas & inibidores , Linfócitos T/transplante , Ensaios Antitumorais Modelo de Xenoenxerto
17.
J Thorac Oncol ; 14(6): 1003-1011, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30771523

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: We hypothesize that the incidence of screen-detected lung cancer (LC), in participants with previously negative scans, will be highest in the cohort with the highest baseline risk score. METHODS: Individuals with negative baseline screening results from the Princess Margaret International Early Lung Cancer Action Program before 2009 underwent low-dose computed tomography rescreening from 2015 to 2018. Individuals were contacted in order of descending risk, as determined by the Prostate, Lung, Colorectal, and Ovarian Cancer Screening Trial's PLCOM2012 6-year LC risk-prediction model, and then categorized into three risk cohorts according to their baseline risks. The incidence of LC in each risk cohort was determined and compared. Chi-square testing was used for categorical variables and one-way analysis of variance on ranks was used for continuous variables. RESULTS: Of the 1261 participants we attempted to re-contact, 359 participants returned for a rescreening scan (mean of 7.6 years between scans). Participants were divided into low (<2%), moderate (≥2% to <3.5%), and high baseline risk (≥3.5%) cohorts. On average, those in the high-risk cohort compared to the moderate- and low-risk cohorts were older (66 years versus 62 and 59 years) and had a greater smoking history (54 pack-years versus 47 and 29 pack-years). The incidence of cancer in the high-risk cohort was significantly higher than in the moderate-risk cohort (11% versus 1.7%, p = 0.002). CONCLUSIONS: There was a significantly higher incidence of LC in the high-risk cohort than in the moderate-risk cohort. The cut-point between the high- and moderate-risk was determined to be greater than or equal to 3.5% of the 6-year baseline risk.

18.
Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev ; 28(5): 935-942, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30700444

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Platelets are a critical element in coagulation and inflammation, and activated platelets are linked to cancer risk through diverse mechanisms. However, a causal relationship between platelets and risk of lung cancer remains unclear. METHODS: We performed single and combined multiple instrumental variable Mendelian randomization analysis by an inverse-weighted method, in addition to a series of sensitivity analyses. Summary data for associations between SNPs and platelet count are from a recent publication that included 48,666 Caucasian Europeans, and the International Lung Cancer Consortium and Transdisciplinary Research in Cancer of the Lung data consisting of 29,266 cases and 56,450 controls to analyze associations between candidate SNPs and lung cancer risk. RESULTS: Multiple instrumental variable analysis incorporating six SNPs showed a 62% increased risk of overall non-small cell lung cancer [NSCLC; OR, 1.62; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.15-2.27; P = 0.005] and a 200% increased risk for small-cell lung cancer (OR, 3.00; 95% CI, 1.27-7.06; P = 0.01). Results showed only a trending association with NSCLC histologic subtypes, which may be due to insufficient sample size and/or weak effect size. A series of sensitivity analysis retained these findings. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings suggest a causal relationship between elevated platelet count and increased risk of lung cancer and provide evidence of possible antiplatelet interventions for lung cancer prevention. IMPACT: These findings provide a better understanding of lung cancer etiology and potential evidence for antiplatelet interventions for lung cancer prevention.

19.
Clin Lung Cancer ; 20(3): e338-e345, 2019 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30770327

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: KRAS and TP53 are common mutations in non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). The Lung Adjuvant Cisplatin Evaluation Biological Program group found adjuvant chemotherapy to be deleterious in patients with coexisting KRAS/TP53 mutations. PATIENTS AND METHODS: To validate these results, patients with NSCLC tested for KRAS and TP53 mutations and receiving chemotherapy for any stage NSCLC were selected. Mutation status was analyzed using next generation sequencing (Illumina) or multiplex recurrent mutation detection (MassARRAY, Agena Biosciences) assays, and was correlated with clinical and demographic data. Disease-free (DFS) or progression-free survival (PFS) was the main endpoint, and overall survival (OS) was the secondary endpoint. RESULTS: Among 218 patients, 28 had coexisting KRAS/TP53 mutations, 77 TP53, 37 KRAS, 76 had neither KRAS nor TP53 mutation (WT/WT). There was no DFS/PFS difference for the KRAS/TP53 group versus all others among 99 patients who received adjuvant chemotherapy (hazard ratio [HR], 1.22; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.61-2.44; P = .57), 27 stage III patients who received chemo-radiation (HR, 0.87; 95% CI, 0.32-2.38; P = .8), and 63 patients who received palliative chemotherapy (HR, 0.68; 95% CI, 0.31-1.48; P = .33). OS was longer in the WT/WT group compared with any other group (KRAS: HR, 1.87; 95% CI, 1.02-3.43; P = .043; TP53: HR, 2.17; 95% CI, 1.3-3.61; P = .0028; KRAS/TP53: HR, 2.06; 95% CI, 1.09-3.88; P = .026). No OS difference was seen for KRAS/TP53 compared with the other groups (HR, 1.26; 95% CI, 0.75-2.13; P = .38). CONCLUSIONS: There was no significant difference in DFS/PFS between the 4 groups. However, OS was longer for patients with TP53 and KRAS wild-type NSCLC who received chemotherapy for any stage compared with patients with KRAS, TP53 mutation, or double mutant tumors.

20.
PLoS Comput Biol ; 15(1): e1006596, 2019 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30629588

RESUMO

Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) has the worst prognosis among solid malignancies and improved therapeutic strategies are needed to improve outcomes. Patient-derived xenografts (PDX) and patient-derived organoids (PDO) serve as promising tools to identify new drugs with therapeutic potential in PDAC. For these preclinical disease models to be effective, they should both recapitulate the molecular heterogeneity of PDAC and validate patient-specific therapeutic sensitivities. To date however, deep characterization of the molecular heterogeneity of PDAC PDX and PDO models and comparison with matched human tumour remains largely unaddressed at the whole genome level. We conducted a comprehensive assessment of the genetic landscape of 16 whole-genome pairs of tumours and matched PDX, from primary PDAC and liver metastasis, including a unique cohort of 5 'trios' of matched primary tumour, PDX, and PDO. We developed a pipeline to score concordance between PDAC models and their paired human tumours for genomic events, including mutations, structural variations, and copy number variations. Tumour-model comparisons of mutations displayed single-gene concordance across major PDAC driver genes, but relatively poor agreement across the greater mutational load. Genome-wide and chromosome-centric analysis of structural variation (SV) events highlights previously unrecognized concordance across chromosomes that demonstrate clustered SV events. We found that polyploidy presented a major challenge when assessing copy number changes; however, ploidy-corrected copy number states suggest good agreement between donor-model pairs. Collectively, our investigations highlight that while PDXs and PDOs may serve as tractable and transplantable systems for probing the molecular properties of PDAC, these models may best serve selective analyses across different levels of genomic complexity.


Assuntos
Carcinoma Ductal Pancreático/genética , Genoma/genética , Modelos Biológicos , Neoplasias Experimentais/genética , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/genética , Animais , Pesquisa Biomédica/normas , Humanos , Pâncreas/patologia
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