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1.
Toxicol Lett ; 326: 31-51, 2020 Mar 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32145396

RESUMO

Pesticides are widely-used chemicals commonly applied in agriculture for the protection of crops from pests. Depending on the class of pesticides, the specific substances may have a specific set of adverse effects on humans, especially in cases of acute poisoning. In past years, evidence regarding sequelae of chronic, low-level exposure has been accumulating. Cognitive impairment and dementia heavily affect a person's quality of life and scientific data has been hinting towards an association between them and antecedent chronic pesticide exposure. Here, we reviewed animal and human studies exploring the association between pesticide exposure, cognition and dementia. Additionally, we present potential mechanisms through which pesticides may act neurotoxically and lead to neurodegeneration. Study designs rarely presented homogeneity and the estimation of the exposure to pesticides has been most frequently performed without measuring the synergic effects and the possible interactions between the toxicants within mixtures, and also overlooking low exposures to environmental toxicants. It is possible that a Real-Life Risk Simulation approach would represent a robust alternative for future studies, so that the safe exposure limits and the net risk that pesticides confer to impaired cognitive function can be examined. Previous studies that evaluated the effect of low dose chronic exposure to mixtures of pesticides and other chemicals intending to simulate real life exposure scenarios showed that hormetic neurobehavioral effects can appear after mixture exposure at doses considered safe for individual compounds and these effects can be exacerbated by a coexistence with specific conditions such as vitamin deficiency. However, there is an overall indication, derived from both epidemiologic and laboratory evidence, supporting an association between exposure to neurotoxic pesticides and cognitive dysfunction, dementia and Alzheimer's disease.

2.
Food Chem Toxicol ; 138: 111206, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32113950

RESUMO

Redox biology and toxicology are interrelated fields that have produced valuable evidence regarding the role and clinical significance of reactive species. These issues are analyzed herein by presenting 6 arguments, as follows: Argument 1: There is no direct connection of redox-related pathologies with specific reactive species; Argument 2: The measurement of reactive species concentration is a major challenge due to their very short half lives; Argument 3: There is an interplay between reactive species generation and fundamental biological processes, such as energy metabolism; Argument 4: Reactive species exert beneficial biological action; Argument 5: Reactive species follow the hormesis phenomenon; Argument 6: Oxidative modifications of redox-related molecules are not necessarily interpreted as oxidative damage. We conclude that reactive species do not seem to exert clinical significance, which means that they lack a measurable cause-effect relation with chronic diseases. Unpredictable results could, nevertheless, arise through novel experimental setups applied in the field of toxicology. These are related to the real-life exposure scenario via the regimen of long-term low-dose (far below NOAEL) exposure to mixtures of xenobiotics and can potentially offer perspectives in order to investigate in depth whether or not reactive species can be introduced as clinically significant redox biomarkers.

3.
J Mol Neurosci ; 2020 Feb 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32088842

RESUMO

Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a complex genetic disorder. To date, published data have reported conflicting results on the role of CD33 rs3865444 polymorphism in AD. The present study aimed at evaluating the effect of rs3865444 on AD in a large cohort of Greek native patients with AD. We also conducted a meta-analysis by pooling information from different studies on the same topic. Patients with AD (n = 327) and healthy controls (n = 327) were analyzed and genotyped for rs3865444. Single locus analyses were run to explore possible associations between CD33 rs3865444 polymorphism and AD. Our analysis yielded no significant interaction between AD and the CD33 rs3865444 polymorphism. The lack of interaction between the two variables persisted even after a pooled meta-analysis of 8 studies (with 13 datasets), with 4015 AD cases and 7981 controls. The overall results do not support the hypothesis that CD33 rs3865444 polymorphism increases the risk of AD. The results also suggest that the identification of functional variants in CD33 that are indisputably correlated with AD may be an important factor to investigate in future genetic screening studies.

4.
Ageing Res Rev ; : 101019, 2020 Jan 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31931153

RESUMO

Ginkgo biloba (GB) extracts have been shown to commonly induce biphasic dose responses in a range of cell types and endpoints (e.g., cochlea neural stem cells, cell viability, cell proliferation). The magnitude and width of the low dose stimulation of these biphasic dose responses are similar to those reported for hormetic dose responses. These hormetic dose responses occur within direct stimulatory responses as well as in preconditioning experimental protocols, displaying acquired resistance within an adaptive homeodynamic and temporal framework and repeated measurement protocols. The demonstrated GB dose responses further reflect the general occurrence of hormetic dose responses that consistently appear to be independent of the biological model, endpoint, inducing agent, and/or mechanism. These findings have important implications for consideration(s) of study designs involving dose selection, dose spacing, sample size, and statistical power. This illustrates and strengthens the need to characterize the low dose stimulatory response range and optimal dose in order to explore potential public health and clinical applications of plant-derived agents, such as GB.

6.
Neurotoxicology ; 77: 105-113, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31935438

RESUMO

The neurotransmitter dopamine is a neuromodulator in the positive and negative regulation of brain circuits. Dopamine insufficiency or overload has been implicated in aberrant activities of neural circuits that play key roles in the pathogenesis of neurological and psychiatric diseases. Dopaminergic neurons are vulnerable to environmental insults. The neurotoxin methylmercury (MeHg) produces dopaminergic neuron damage in rodent as well as in Caenorhabditis elegans (C. elegans) models. Previous studies have demonstrated the utility of C. elegans as an alternative and complementary experimental model in dissecting out mechanism of MeHg-induced dopaminergic neurodegeneration. However, a sensitive pathological change that marks early events in neurodegeneration induced by environmental level of MeHg, is still lacking. By establishing a chronic exposure C. elegans model, for the first time, we have shown the propensity of MeHg (5 µM, 10 days) to induce bright puncta of dat-1::mCherry aggreagtes in the dendrites of cephalic (2 CEPs) dopaminergic neurons in a dose- and time-dependent manner, while these changes were not found in other dopaminergic neurons: anterior deirids (2 ADEs) and posterior deirids (2 PDEs), cholinergic neurons (2 AIYs) or glutamatergic neurons (2 PVDs). The bright puncta appear as an aggregation of mCherry proteins accumulating in dendrites. Further staining shows that the puncta were not inclusions in lysosome, or amyloid protein aggregates. In addition, features of the puncta including enlarged sphere shape (0.5-2 µm diameters), bright and accompanying with the shrinkage of the dendrite suggest that the puncta are likely composed of homologous mCherry molecules packaged at the dendritic site for exportation. Moreover, in the glutathione S-transferase 4 (gst-4) transcriptional reporter strain and RT-PCR assay, the expression levels of gst-4 and tubulins (tba-1 and tba-2) genes were not significantly modified under this chronic exposure paradigm, but gst-4 did show significant changes in an one day exposure paradigm. Collectively, these results suggest that CEP dopaminergic neurons are a sensitive target of MeHg, and the current exposure paradigm could be used as a model to investigate mechanism of dopaminergic neurotoxicity.

7.
Mater Sci Eng C Mater Biol Appl ; 108: 110382, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31924010

RESUMO

Venous thromboembolism is a frequent complication occurring in patients suffering from neoplastic diseases. Since neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) play an important role both in the development of the tumor growth process and in inducing complications such as thrombosis, indubitably the investigation of the effect of antitumor drugs on the formation of neutrophil extracellular traps and on the ability of such drugs to prevent NETs contribution on carcinogenesis is of great interest. In the present work we studied the effect of 5-fluorouracil (5FU) and its shielded -by amphiphilic poly-N-vinylpyrrolidone (Amph-PVP) nanoparticles-nanoscaled polymeric form on the activation of human neutrophils under ex vivo conditions. Free 5FU at concentrations varying from 0.01 to 10 mg/ml was found to cause a significant (two to three times) and rapid (after 20 min) increase in the total amount of NETs in the blood. Importantly, when 5FU-loaded Amph-PVP nanoparticles were studied under the same conditions, the appearance of NETs in the blood was completely blocked providing strong evidence of their potential as delivery system for 5FU in antitumor therapy.

8.
Int J Oncol ; 56(2): 417-429, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31939615

RESUMO

Orbital and ocular anatomy is quite complex, consisting of several tissues, which can give rise to both benign and malignant tumors, while several primary neoplasms can metastasize to the orbital and ocular space. Early detection, accurate staging and re­staging, efficient monitoring of treatment response, non­invasive differentiation between benign and malignant lesions, and accurate planning of external radiation treatment, are of utmost importance for the optimal and individualized management of ophthalmic oncology patients. Addressing these challenges requires the employment of several diagnostic imaging techniques, such as high­definition digital fundus photography, ultrasound imaging, optical coherence tomography, optical coherence tomography (OCT)­angiography, computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). In recent years, technological advances have enabled the development of hybrid positron emission tomography (PET)/CT and PET/MRI systems, setting new standards in cancer diagnosis and treatment. The capability of simultaneously targeting several cancer­related biochemical procedures using positron emitting­radiopharmaceuticals, while morphologically characterizing lesions by CT or MRI, together with the intrinsic quantitative capabilities of PET­imaging, provide incremental diagnostic information, enabling accurate, highly efficient and personalized treatment strategies. Aim of the current review is to discuss the current applications of hybrid PET/CT and PET/MRI imaging in the management of patients presenting with the most commonly encountered orbital and ocular tumors.

10.
Environ Toxicol Pharmacol ; 73: 103279, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31704585

RESUMO

Persistent organic pollutants are synthetic chemicals highly resistant to degradation with strong tendency to bioaccumulation. Assessment of human exposure to these compounds is crucial for public health protection, especially during vulnerable periods. The aim of the present cohort study was to evaluate the level of contamination to PCBs, o,p'- and p,p'-DDE, o,p' and p,p'-DDD, o,p' and p,p'-DDT and HCB in pregnant women. Hair, amniotic fluid and serum samples were collected and analyzed by HS-SPME-GCMS. The most detected analytes in amniotic fluids were p,p'-DDE, p,p'-DDD, o,p'-DDE and PCB101, in serum p,p'-DDE, HCB and PCB101 and in hair p,p'-DDE, HCB and PCB101. The levels of HCB and PCB101 in amniotic fluids were positively correlated with those in hair. Higher levels of DDDs and DDTs in hair samples and PCB28 in amniotic fluids were observed in smoker pregnant women. Gestation age was inversely proportional with the detected levels of PCB101 in all tested samples.

11.
Sci Total Environ ; 712: 135651, 2020 Apr 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31810691

RESUMO

Phthalates, bisphenols A and S (BPA, BPS) are used as plasticizers and many of them are documented or suspected of being endocrine disruptors. Several studies indicate that exposure during pregnancy may affect the newborn's health and development. The aim of this cross-sectional study is the biomonitoring of seven phthalate metabolites, BPA and BPS in hair from 100 pregnant women in Crete. The most frequently detected compounds were monoethylhexyl phthalate (mEHP) (68%), mono isobutyl phthalate (miBP) (40%), BPA (37%), BPS (34%) and mono-n-butyl phthalate (mnBP) (28%). Phthalate metabolites were detected at medians from 19.5 to 44.4 pg/mg, BPA at 69.9 pg/mg and BPS at 3.5 pg/mg. Significant positive correlations between phthalate metabolites were found which indicated their common sources of exposure. The frequent use of plastics for food storage was strongly associated with mEHP (p = .013) and a weaker association was found for miBP (p = .063). The frequent use of cosmetics during or before pregnancy was associated with levels of phthalate metabolites in hair. More specifically, the use of hair spray before pregnancy was significantly correlated with monobenzyl phthalate (mBzP) (p = .041) and a trend was found for miBP (p = .066). The use of makeup products during pregnancy was strongly associated with miBP (p = .015) and the use of deodorant during pregnancy was inversely associated with mEHP (p = .021). Strong associations came up between mEHP and lower birth weight (Spearman correlation coefficient, r = -0.302, p = .021) and exposure to BPS was associated with increased body mass index of the participants (p = .036). Although data in literature on biomonitoring of the compounds in hair are limited, the findings of this study are promising and in agreement with existing data in hair or urine.

12.
Cartilage ; 11(1): 88-97, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29808705

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Cetylated fatty acids are a group of naturally occurring fats of plant and/or animal origin. Cetyl myristoleate, in particular, was initially involved in osteoarthritis related research as its therapeutic administration prevented experimentally induced arthritis in Swiss Albino mice. In this context, the aim of our study was to investigate the possible mechanisms of Celadrin cetylated fatty acids action at the cellular level inflammation related pain relief and chondrogenesis. DESIGN: For this, we tested the effects of the cetylated fatty acids mixture from Celadrin on an in vitro scaffold-free 3-dimensional mesenchymal stem cells culture model of chondrogenesis. Furthermore, we treated stimulated mouse macrophage cells with the cetylated fatty acids mixture to investigate the expression profile of secreted inflammatory cytokines. RESULTS: The cetylated fatty acids mixture from Celadrin significantly decreased the production of IL-6, MCP-1, and TNF, key regulators of the inflammatory process, in stimulated RAW264.7 mouse macrophage cells. The treatment with cetylated fatty acids mixture initiated and propagated the process of chondrogenesis as demonstrated by the increased expression and deposition of chondrogenic markers by the differentiating mesenchymal cells. CONCLUSION: The cetylated fatty acids mixture from Celadrin reduces inflammation in vitro by significantly decreasing the expression of IL-6, MCP-1, and TNF in stimulated RAW264.7 mouse macrophage cells. These compounds facilitate the chondrogenic differentiation process of human adipose-derived stem cells by stimulating the expression of chondrogenic markers under chondrogenic induction conditions.

13.
Mol Med Rep ; 20(6): 4749-4762, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31702817

RESUMO

Transposases are ubiquitous mobile genetic elements responsible for genome development, driving rearrangements, such as insertions, deletions and translocations. Across species evolution, some transposases are tamed by their host and are made part of complex cellular systems. The proliferation of retroviruses is also dependent on transposase related enzymes termed integrases. Recombination­activating gene protein (RAG)1 and metnase are just two examples of transposase domestication and together with retroviral integrases (INs), they belong to the DDE polynucleotidyl transferases superfamily. They share mechanistic and structural features linked to the RNase H­like fold, harboring a DDE(D) metal dependent catalytic motif. Recent antiretroviral compounds target the catalytic domain of integrase, but they also have the potential of inhibiting other related enzymes. In this review, we report the activity of different classes of integrase inhibitors on various DDE transposases. Computational simulations are useful to predict the extent of off­target activity and have been employed to study the interactions between RAG1 recombinase and compounds from three different pharmacologic classes. We demonstrate that strand­transfer inhibitors display a higher affinity towards the RAG1 RNase H domain, as suggested by experimental data compared to allosteric inhibitors. While interference with RAG1 and 2 recombination is associated with a negative impact on immune function, the inhibition of metnase or HTLV­1 integrase opens the way for the development of novel therapies for refractory cancers.

14.
Environ Res ; 179(Pt B): 108818, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31678725

RESUMO

Welding fumes are a major source of metal oxide particles, ozone, carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, nitrogen oxides, and many other toxic substances. Hazardous properties and the level of toxicity of welding fumes depend mostly on the welding electrode type and the welding regime parameters. The specific objective of this study was to evaluate the aquatic toxicity of metal welding fume particles in vivo on microalga Heterosigma akashiwo. The quantity and size of particles were measured by flow cytometry using a scattering laser light with a wavelength of 405 nm. The number of microalgae cells after 72 h and 7 days exposition with welding fume particle suspensions was evaluated by flow cytometry. Morphological changes of the microalga were observed by optical microscopy. The toxic effect was demonstrated as a significant reduction of cell density after exposure of microalgae to welding fume particles. The greatest impact on the growth of microalga was caused by particles with high rutile content. It was shown that the adverse effect of metal oxide particles depends more on the chemical composition of particles in welding fume while the number and dispersity of particles had no noticeable toxic influence on microalgae. The findings of this research confirm the fact that the toxicity of welding fume particles can be significantly reduced by using rutile-cellulose coated electrodes.

15.
Front Mol Biosci ; 6: 120, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31737644

RESUMO

Autoimmune diseases (ADs) are rapidly increasing worldwide and accumulating data support a key role of disrupted metabolism in ADs. This study aimed to identify an improved combination of Total Fatty Acids (TFAs) biomarkers as a predictive factor for the presence of autoimmune diseases. A retrospective nested case-control study was conducted in 403 individuals. In the case group, 240 patients diagnosed with rheumatoid arthritis, thyroid disease, multiple sclerosis, vitiligo, psoriasis, inflammatory bowel disease, and other AD were included and compared to 163 healthy individuals. Targeted metabolomic analysis of serum TFAs was performed using GC-MS, and 28 variables were used as input for the predictive models. The primary analysis identified 12 variables that were statistically significantly different between the two groups, and metabolite-metabolite correlation analysis revealed 653 significant correlation coefficients with 90% level of significance (p < 0.05). Three predictive models were developed, namely (a) a logistic regression based on Principal Component Analysis (PCA), (b) a straightforward logistic regression model and (c) an Artificial Neural Network (ANN) model. PCA and straightforward logistic regression analysis, indicated reasonably well adequacy (74.7 and 78.9%, respectively). For the ANN, a model using two hidden layers and 11 variables was developed, resulting in 76.2% total predictive accuracy. The models identified important biomarkers: lauric acid (C12:0), myristic acid (C14:0), stearic acid (C18:0), lignoceric acid (C24:0), palmitic acid (C16:0) and heptadecanoic acid (C17:0) among saturated fatty acids, Cis-10-pentadecanoic acid (C15:1), Cis-11-eicosenoic acid (C20:1n9), and erucic acid (C22:1n9) among monounsaturated fatty acids and the Gamma-linolenic acid (C18:3n6) polyunsaturated fatty acid. The metabolic pathways of the candidate biomarkers are discussed in relation to ADs. The findings indicate that the metabolic profile of serum TFAs is associated with the presence of ADs and can be an adjunct tool for the early diagnosis of ADs.

16.
Oncol Rep ; 42(6): 2228-2244, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31578582

RESUMO

Colorectal cancer (CRC) is one of the four leading causes of cancer­related mortality worldwide. Even though over the past few decades the global scientific community has made tremendous efforts to understand this entity, many questions remain to be raised on this issue and even more to be answered. Epidemiological findings have unveiled numerous environmental and genetic risk factors, each one contributing to a certain degree to the final account of new CRC cases. Moreover, different trends have been revealed regarding the age of onset of CRC between the two sexes. That, in addition to newly introduced therapeutic approaches for various diseases based on androgens, anti­androgens and anabolic hormones has raised some concerns regarding their possible carcinogenic effects or their synergistic potential with other substances/risk factors, predisposing the individual to CRC. Notably, despite the intense research on experimental settings and population studies, the conclusions regarding the majority of anabolic substances are ambiguous. Some of these indicate the carcinogenic properties of testosterone, dihydrotestosterone (DHT), growth hormone and insulin­like growth factor (IGF) and others, demonstrating their neutral nature or even their protective one, as in the case of vitamin D. Thus, the synergistic nature of anabolic substances with other CRC risk factors (such as type 2 diabetes mellitus, metabolic syndrome and smoking) has emerged, suggesting a more holistic approach.

17.
Environ Res ; 179(Pt A): 108785, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31606615

RESUMO

Air pollution caused by vehicle emissions remains a serious environmental threat in urban areas. Sedimentation of atmospheric aerosols, surface wash, drainage water, and urbane wastewater can bring vehicle particle emissions into the aquatic environment. However, the level of toxicity and mode of toxic action for this kind of particles are not fully understood. Here we explored the aquatic toxic effects of particulate matter emitted from different types of vehicles on marine microalgae Porphyridium purpureum and Heterosigma akashiwo. We used flow cytometry to evaluate growth rate inhibition, changes in the level of esterase activity, changes in membrane potential and size changes of microalgae cells under the influence of particulate matter emitted by motorcycles, cars and specialized vehicles with different types of engines and powered by different types of fuel. Both microalgae species were highly influenced by the particles emitted by diesel-powered vehicles. These particle samples had the highest impact on survival, esterase activity, and membrane potential of microalgae and caused the most significant increase in microalgae cell size compared to the particles produced by gasoline-powered vehicles. The results of the algae-bioassay strongly correlate with the data of laser granulometry analyses, which indicate that the most toxic samples had a significantly higher percentage of particles in the size range less than 1 µm. Visual observation with an optical microscope showed intensive agglomeration of the particles emitted by diesel-powered vehicles with microalgae cells. Moreover, within the scope of this research, we did not observe the direct influence of metal content in the particles to the level of their aquatic toxicity, and we can conclude that physical damage is the most probable mechanism of toxicity for vehicle emitted particles.

18.
Tob Control ; 2019 Sep 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31519795

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate electronic cigarette (e-cigarette) product compliance with European regulations (Tobacco Products Directive (TPD), Implementing Decisions), with a focus on labelling/packaging practices and technical design/safety features. METHODS: Before the implementation of the TPD, in early 2016, we randomly selected e-cigarette refill liquids from the five top-selling companies in France, Poland, Germany, Netherlands, UK, Spain, Romania, Hungary and Greece. Identical products were purchased after the implementation of the TPD (early 2018) and assessment of compliance was performed on self-matched samples (n=107) using a prospective cohort design. Compliance with the Classification, Labelling and Packaging (CLP) regulations was also evaluated. RESULTS: Following the implementation of the TPD, improvements were noted with regards to the existence of text-only warnings (32.7% pre vs 86.0% post, p<0.001), child-resistant fastenings (93.3% pre vs 100.0% post, p=0.016), tamper-proof vials (58.9% pre vs 86.9%, post p<0.001) and maximum refill volume ≤10 mL in vials (86.9% pre vs 94.4% post, p=0.008). Lower compliance was noted with regards to the inclusion of a leaflet (26.2% pre vs 53.3% post, p<0.001), refilling instructions (28.0% pre vs 51.4% post, p<0.001) and health warnings on the box, vial or leaflet (32.7% pre vs 86.0%, p<0.001). Overall, 86.0% of products had a warning label in the post-TPD phase in comparison to 32.7% of products before the implementation of the TPD (p<0.001). Compliance with the CLP regulations, also increased in the post TPD follow-up phase. CONCLUSIONS: This is the first study to evaluate the level of implementation of the e-cigarette regulations in nine EU member states. Our results indicate that refill liquids had substantial but not full compliance in most of the characteristics evaluated. Further effort is needed to ensure complete compliance.

19.
Arch Toxicol ; 93(10): 2741-2757, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31520250

RESUMO

Humans are exposed to multiple chemicals on a daily basis instead of to just a single chemical, yet the majority of existing toxicity data comes from single-chemical exposure. Multiple factors must be considered such as the route, concentration, duration, and the timing of exposure when determining toxicity to the organism. The need for adequate model systems (in vivo, in vitro, in silico and mathematical) is paramount for better understanding of chemical mixture toxicity. Currently, shortcomings plague each model system as investigators struggle to find the appropriate balance of rigor, reproducibility and appropriateness in mixture toxicity studies. Significant questions exist when comparing single-to mixture-chemical toxicity concerning additivity, synergism, potentiation, or antagonism. Dose/concentration relevance is a major consideration and should be subthreshold for better accuracy in toxicity assessment. Previous work was limited by the technology and methodology of the time, but recent advances have resulted in significant progress in the study of mixture toxicology. Novel technologies have added insight to data obtained from in vivo studies for predictive toxicity testing. These include new in vitro models: omics-related tools, organs-on-a-chip and 3D cell culture, and in silico methods. Taken together, all these modern methodologies improve the understanding of the multiple toxicity pathways associated with adverse outcomes (e.g., adverse outcome pathways), thus allowing investigators to better predict risks linked to exposure to chemical mixtures. As technology and knowledge advance, our ability to harness and integrate separate streams of evidence regarding outcomes associated with chemical mixture exposure improves. As many national and international organizations are currently stressing, studies on chemical mixture toxicity are of primary importance.

20.
Environ Res ; 178: 108692, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31520825

RESUMO

The aim of this study was the monitoring of the levels of parabens (PBs) and triclosan (TCS) in head hair samples of women collected during the first months of their pregnancy. Personal details concerning somatometric and demographic characteristics, dietary habits, use of personal care products and the medical and obstetrical history of the pregnant women as well as infants' somatometric characteristics and health condition were recorded through relevant questionnaires. Ninety five hair samples were collected, extracted by solid-liquid extraction and analysed using a liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry system (LC-MS). Analysis revealed high percentage of positive samples for all tested compounds (90-100% except from BePB (15.8%)). The mean concentration levels were 4501.2 pg/mg (17.6-27,437.0 pg/mg) for MePB; 510.1 pg/mg (11.0-4224.5 pg/mg) for EtPB; 22.9 pg/mg (2.1-66.6 pg/mg) for BePB; 237.1 pg/mg (1.8-2513.7 pg/mg) for BuPB and 245.0 pg/mg (8.8-8070.2 pg/mg) for TCS. Statistical analysis of both analytical results and questionnaires' data showed that the frequent use of personal care and hygiene products, such as makeup, hairspray and sunscreens, is correlated with higher levels of PBs in hair of the pregnant women. Additionally, positive correlation was observed between the BePB levels in hair and the infants' height. Finally, no other correlation was observed between endocrine disruptors' levels in maternal hair and infants' somatometric characteristics or health condition. Our study is the first one that determined PBs and TCS levels in hair samples, simultaneously. At the same time, correlation of the detected levels with the use of personal care products was accomplished, leading to significant association of BePB levels in hair of pregnant women with infants' height.

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