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1.
Nat Rev Cardiol ; 2020 Oct 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33046850

RESUMO

Inflammatory cardiomyopathy, characterized by inflammatory cell infiltration into the myocardium and a high risk of deteriorating cardiac function, has a heterogeneous aetiology. Inflammatory cardiomyopathy is predominantly mediated by viral infection, but can also be induced by bacterial, protozoal or fungal infections as well as a wide variety of toxic substances and drugs and systemic immune-mediated diseases. Despite extensive research, inflammatory cardiomyopathy complicated by left ventricular dysfunction, heart failure or arrhythmia is associated with a poor prognosis. At present, the reason why some patients recover without residual myocardial injury whereas others develop dilated cardiomyopathy is unclear. The relative roles of the pathogen, host genomics and environmental factors in disease progression and healing are still under discussion, including which viruses are active inducers and which are only bystanders. As a consequence, treatment strategies are not well established. In this Review, we summarize and evaluate the available evidence on the pathogenesis, diagnosis and treatment of myocarditis and inflammatory cardiomyopathy, with a special focus on virus-induced and virus-associated myocarditis. Furthermore, we identify knowledge gaps, appraise the available experimental models and propose future directions for the field. The current knowledge and open questions regarding the cardiovascular effects associated with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection are also discussed. This Review is the result of scientific cooperation of members of the Heart Failure Association of the ESC, the Heart Failure Society of America and the Japanese Heart Failure Society.

2.
Proteomics Clin Appl ; : e2000050, 2020 Oct 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33068073

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Mesenchymal stromal cells (MSC) are an attractive tool for treatment of diabetic cardiomyopathy. Syndecan-2/CD362 has been identified as a functional marker for MSC isolation. Imaging mass spectrometry (IMS) allows for the characterization of therapeutic responses in the left ventricle. This study aimed to investigate whether IMS can assess the therapeutic effect of CD362+ -selected MSC on early onset experimental diabetic cardiomyopathy. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: 1 × 106 wild-type (WT), CD362- , or CD362+ MSC were intravenously injected into db/db mice. Four weeks later, mice were hemodynamically characterized and subsequently sacrificed for IMS combined with bottom-up mass spectrometry, and isoform and phosphorylation analyses of cardiac titin. RESULTS: Overall alterations of the cardiac proteome signatures, especially titin, were observed in db/db compared to control mice. Interestingly, only CD362+ MSC could overcome the reduced titin intensity distribution and shifted the isoform ratio towards the more compliant N2BA form. In contrast, WT and CD362- MSC improved all-titin phosphorylation and protein kinase G activity, which was reflected in an improvement in diastolic performance. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE: IMS enables the characterization of differences in titin intensity distribution following MSC application. However, further analysis of titin phosphorylation is needed to allow for the assessment of the therapeutic efficacy of MSC. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

3.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32879947

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Short-term mechanical circulatory support is a life-saving treatment for acute cardiogenic shock (CS). This multicentre study investigates the preoperative predictors of 30-day mortality in CS patients treated with Impella 5.0 and 5.5 short-term left ventricular assist devices. METHODS: Data of patients in CS (n = 70) treated with the Impella 5 (n = 63) and 5.5 (n = 7) in 2 centres in Berlin between October 2016 and October 2019 were collected retrospectively. RESULTS: CS was caused by acute myocardial infarction (n = 16), decompensated chronic heart failure (n = 41), postcardiotomy syndrome (n = 5) and acute myocarditis (n = 8). Before implantation 12 (17%) patients underwent cardiopulmonary resuscitation and 32 (46%) patients were ventilated. INTERMACS level 1, 2 and 3 was established in 35 (50%), 29 (41%) and 6 (9%) of patients, respectively. The mean preoperative lactate level was 4.05 mmol/l. The median support time was 7 days (IR= 4-15). In 18 cases, the pump was removed for myocardial recovery, in 22 cases, durable left ventricular assist devices were implanted, and 30 patients died on support. The overall 30-day survival was 51%. Statistical analysis showed that an increase in lactate per mmol/l [odds ratio (OR) 1.217; P = 0.015] and cardiopulmonary resuscitation before implantation (OR 16.74; P = 0.009) are predictors of 30-day survival. Based on these data, an algorithm for optimal short-term mechanical circulatory support selection is proposed. CONCLUSIONS: Impella treatment is feasible in severe CS. Severe organ dysfunction, as well as the level and duration of shock predict early mortality. An algorithm based on these parameters may help identify patients who would benefit from Impella 5+ support.

4.
Dtsch Med Wochenschr ; 145(19): 1377-1383, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Alemão | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32971552

RESUMO

Heart Failure causes an enormous individual and societal burden of disease with severe symptoms, a reduction in activities of daily life, frequent hospitalizations and poor prognosis. The field of heart failure with reduced ejection fraction has seen substantial innovation in the past years. Novel and successful treatment regimens were established, the pharmaceutical treatment options for heart failure with preserved ejection fraction remains limited to date. Yet, promising concepts are emerging. Today we have only symptoms and risk factors-based therapeutic options, and include basically diuretics, RAAsi, and antidiabetics, respectively. A causal therapy is still missing.

6.
Cardiovasc Res ; 2020 Sep 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32966582

RESUMO

AIMS: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) and has emerged as a global pandemic. SARS-CoV-2 infection can lead to elevated markers of cardiac injury associated with higher risk of mortality. It is unclear whether cardiac injury is caused by direct infection of cardiomyocytes or is mainly secondary to lung injury and inflammation. Here, we investigate whether cardiomyocytes are permissive for SARS-CoV-2 infection. METHODS AND RESULTS: Two strains of SARS-CoV-2 infected human induced pluripotent stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes (iPS-CMs) as demonstrated by detection of intracellular double-stranded viral RNA and viral spike glycoprotein expression. Increasing concentrations of viral RNA are detected in supernatants of infected cardiomyocytes, which induced infections in Caco-2 cell lines, documenting productive infections. SARS-COV-2 infection and induced cytotoxic and proapoptotic effects associated with it abolished cardiomyocyte beating. RNA sequencing confirmed a transcriptional response to viral infection as demonstrated by the up-regulation of genes associated with pathways related to viral response and interferon signalling, apoptosis, and reactive oxygen stress. SARS-CoV-2 infection and cardiotoxicity was confirmed in a 3D cardiosphere tissue model. Importantly, viral spike protein and viral particles were detected in living human heart slices after infection with SARS-CoV-2. Coronavirus particles were further observed in cardiomyocytes of a patient with COVID-19. Infection of iPS-CMs was dependent on cathepsins and angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2), and was blocked by remdesivir. CONCLUSIONS: This study demonstrates that SARS-CoV-2 infects cardiomyocytes in vitro in an ACE2- and cathepsin-dependent manner. SARS-CoV-2 infection of cardiomyocytes is inhibited by the antiviral drug remdesivir. TRANSLATIONAL PERSPECTIVE: Although this study cannot address whether cardiac injury and dysfunction in COVID-19 patients is caused by direct infection of cardiomyocytes, the demonstration of direct cardiotoxicity in cardiomyocytes, organ mimics, human heart slices and human hearts warrants the further monitoring of cardiotoxic effects in COVID-19 patients.

7.
Biol Sex Differ ; 11(1): 47, 2020 Aug 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32831121

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Many patients with heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF) are women. Exploring mechanisms underlying the sex differences may improve our understanding of the pathophysiology of HFpEF. Studies focusing on sex differences in circulating proteins in HFpEF patients are scarce. METHODS: A total of 415 proteins were analyzed in 392 HFpEF patients included in The Metabolic Road to Diastolic Heart Failure: Diastolic Heart Failure study (MEDIA-DHF). Sex differences in these proteins were assessed using adjusted logistic regression analyses. The associations between candidate proteins and cardiovascular (CV) death or CV hospitalization (with sex interaction) were assessed using Cox regression models. RESULTS: We found 9 proteins to be differentially expressed between female and male patients. Women expressed more LPL and PLIN1, which are markers of lipid metabolism; more LHB, IGFBP3, and IL1RL2 as markers of transcriptional regulation; and more Ep-CAM as marker of hemostasis. Women expressed less MMP-3, which is a marker associated with extracellular matrix organization; less NRP1, which is associated with developmental processes; and less ACE2, which is related to metabolism. Sex was not associated with the study outcomes (adj. HR 1.48, 95% CI 0.83-2.63), p = 0.18. CONCLUSION: In chronic HFpEF, assessing sex differences in a wide range of circulating proteins led to the identification of 9 proteins that were differentially expressed between female and male patients. These findings may help further investigations into potential pathophysiological processes contributing to HFpEF.

8.
ESC Heart Fail ; 2020 Jul 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32662949

RESUMO

AIMS: Left ventricular (LV) dysfunction in viral myocarditis is attributed to myocardial inflammation and fibrosis, inducing acute and long-time cardiac damage. Interventions are not established. On the basis of the link between inflammation, fibrosis, aldosterone, and extracellular matrix regulation, we aimed to investigate the effect of an early intervention with the mineralocorticoid receptor antagonist (MRA) eplerenone on cardiac remodelling in a murine model of persistent coxsackievirus B3 (CVB3)-induced myocarditis. METHODS AND RESULTS: SWR/J mice were infected with 5 × 104 plaque-forming units of CVB3 (Nancy strain) and daily treated either with eplerenone (200 mg/kg body weight) or with placebo starting from Day 1. At Day 8 or 28 post infection, mice were haemodynamically characterized and subsequently sacrificed for immunohistological and molecular biology analyses. Eplerenone did not influence CVB3 load. Already at Day 8, 1.8-fold (P < 0.05), 1.4-fold (P < 0.05), 3.2-fold (P < 0.01), and 2.1-fold (P < 0.001) reduction in LV intercellular adhesion molecule 1 expression, presence of monocytes/macrophages, oxidative stress, and apoptosis, respectively, was observed in eplerenone-treated vs. untreated CVB3-infected mice. In vitro, eplerenone led to 1.4-fold (P < 0.01) and 1.2-fold (P < 0.01) less CVB3-induced cardiomyocyte oxidative stress and apoptosis. Furthermore, collagen production was 1.1-fold (P < 0.05) decreased in cardiac fibroblasts cultured with medium of eplerenone-treated vs. untreated CVB3-infected HL-1 cardiomyocytes. These ameliorations were in vivo translated into prevention of cardiac fibrosis, as shown by 1.4-fold (P < 0.01) and 2.1-fold (P < 0.001) lower collagen content in the LV of eplerenone-treated vs. untreated CVB3-infected mice at Days 8 and 28, respectively. This resulted in an early and long-lasting improvement of LV dimension and function, as indicated by reduced LV end-systolic volume and end-diastolic volume, and an increase in LV contractility (dP/dtmax ) and LV relaxation (dP/dtmin ), respectively (P < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Early intervention with the MRA eplerenone modulates the acute host and defence reaction and prevents cardiac disease progression in experimental CVB3-induced myocarditis without aggravation of viral load. The findings advocate for an initiation of therapy of viral myocarditis as early as possible, even before the onset of inflammation-induced myocardial dysfunction. This may also have implications for coronavirus disease-19 therapy.

9.
J Cardiovasc Pharmacol ; 76(1): 4-22, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32639325

RESUMO

Levosimendan was first approved for clinical use in 2000, when authorization was granted by Swedish regulatory authorities for the hemodynamic stabilization of patients with acutely decompensated chronic heart failure (HF). In the ensuing 20 years, this distinctive inodilator, which enhances cardiac contractility through calcium sensitization and promotes vasodilatation through the opening of adenosine triphosphate-dependent potassium channels on vascular smooth muscle cells, has been approved in more than 60 jurisdictions, including most of the countries of the European Union and Latin America. Areas of clinical application have expanded considerably and now include cardiogenic shock, takotsubo cardiomyopathy, advanced HF, right ventricular failure, pulmonary hypertension, cardiac surgery, critical care, and emergency medicine. Levosimendan is currently in active clinical evaluation in the United States. Levosimendan in IV formulation is being used as a research tool in the exploration of a wide range of cardiac and noncardiac disease states. A levosimendan oral form is at present under evaluation in the management of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. To mark the 20 years since the advent of levosimendan in clinical use, 51 experts from 23 European countries (Austria, Belgium, Croatia, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Italy, the Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Russia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, the United Kingdom, and Ukraine) contributed to this essay, which evaluates one of the relatively few drugs to have been successfully introduced into the acute HF arena in recent times and charts a possible development trajectory for the next 20 years.

10.
ESC Heart Fail ; 2020 Jun 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32562382

RESUMO

AIMS: We aim to assess the reproducibility of QRS fragmentation (fQRS) on a multi-centre dataset of patients with acute myocarditis (AM), including a histopathological validation in a subgroup with biopsy-proven disease. Electrocardiogram (ECG) in patients with myocarditis is usually considered aspecific. ST changes and conduction anomalies have been commonly reported so far. We have previously described fQRS in patients with AM. METHODS AND RESULTS: Patients admitted between 2008 and 2019 in two centres with a diagnosis of AM were included. Standard ECG, echocardiography, and cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) findings were recorded at baseline and at follow-up (FU). Eighty patients were analysed, 66 men (82%), with median age of 34 (26-43) years. Twenty-two patients had biopsy-proven AM. At presentation, 61 patients (76%) displayed fQRS. Median ejection fraction (EF) was 55% (43-60). Seventy-two patients (90%) underwent CMR and displayed late gadolinium enhancement (LGE). ECG leads showed that fQRS correlated with distribution of LGE. In patients with positive biopsy, fQRS was present in 18 (81%). Median FU was 419 days (224-956). Complete FU was available for 64 patients (80%), and 33 patients (52%) displayed persistence of fQRS. Median EF was 60% (57-64). Eleven patients underwent a repeated biopsy at FU, eight of whom had persistent inflammation and fQRS. Fifteen patients (23%) had ventricular tachycardia, 14 of whom still showed fQRS. CONCLUSIONS: In this cohort fQRS was confirmed as an additional useful ECG sign. Persistence of fQRS was associated with ongoing inflammation and with a poorer outcome in terms of ventricular function and occurrence of arrhythmias.

12.
Eur J Heart Fail ; 2020 May 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-401833

RESUMO

The Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection is causing considerable morbidity and mortality worldwide. Multiple reports have suggested that patients with heart failure (HF) are at a higher risk of severe disease and mortality with COVID-19. Moreover, evaluating and treating HF patients with comorbid COVID-19 represents a formidable clinical challenge as symptoms of both conditions may overlap and they may potentiate each other. Limited data exist regarding comprehensive management of HF patients with concomitant COVID-19. Since these issues pose serious new challenges for clinicians worldwide, HF specialists must develop a structured approach to the care of patients with COVID-19 and be included early in the care of these patients. Therefore, the Heart Failure Association of the European Society of Cardiology and Chinese Heart Failure Association & National Heart Failure Committee conducted web-based meetings to discuss these unique clinical challenges and reach a consensus opinion to help providers worldwide deliver better patient care. The main objective of this position paper is to outline the management of HF patients with concomitant COVID-19 based on the available data and personal experiences of physicians from Asia, Europe and United States. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

14.
Eur J Heart Fail ; 22(6): 941-956, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32463543

RESUMO

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection is causing considerable morbidity and mortality worldwide. Multiple reports have suggested that patients with heart failure (HF) are at a higher risk of severe disease and mortality with COVID-19. Moreover, evaluating and treating HF patients with comorbid COVID-19 represents a formidable clinical challenge as symptoms of both conditions may overlap and they may potentiate each other. Limited data exist regarding comprehensive management of HF patients with concomitant COVID-19. Since these issues pose serious new challenges for clinicians worldwide, HF specialists must develop a structured approach to the care of patients with COVID-19 and be included early in the care of these patients. Therefore, the Heart Failure Association of the European Society of Cardiology and the Chinese Heart Failure Association & National Heart Failure Committee conducted web-based meetings to discuss these unique clinical challenges and reach a consensus opinion to help providers worldwide deliver better patient care. The main objective of this position paper is to outline the management of HF patients with concomitant COVID-19 based on the available data and personal experiences of physicians from Asia, Europe and the United States.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus , Cardiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Gerenciamento Clínico , Insuficiência Cardíaca/terapia , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Sociedades Médicas , China , Comorbidade , Infecções por Coronavirus/terapia , Europa (Continente) , Insuficiência Cardíaca/epidemiologia , Humanos , Pneumonia Viral/terapia
15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32440911

RESUMO

Myocarditis is a multifactorial disorder, characterized by an inflammatory reaction in the myocardium, predominantly triggered by infectious agents, but also by antigen mimicry or autoimmunity in susceptible individuals. Unless spontaneously resolved, a chronic inflammatory course concludes with cardiac muscle dysfunction portrayed by ventricular dilatation, clinically termed inflammatory cardiomyopathy (Infl-CM). Treatment strategies aim to resolve chronic inflammation and preserve cardiac function. Beside standard heart failure treatments, which only play a supportive role in this condition, systemic immunosuppressants are used to diminish inflammatory cell function at the cost of noxious side effects. To date, the treatment protocols are expert-based without large clinical evidence. This review describes concept and contemporary strategies to alleviate myocardial inflammation and sheds light on potential inflammatory targets in an evidence-based order.

16.
Cardiovasc Res ; 2020 May 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32396609

RESUMO

AIMS: Sodium-glucose-cotransporter-2 (SGLT2) inhibitors showed favourable cardiovascular outcomes, but the underlying mechanisms are still elusive. This study investigated the mechanisms of empagliflozin in human and murine heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF). METHODS AND RESULTS: The acute mechanisms of empagliflozin were investigated in human myocardium from patients with HFpEF and murine ZDF obese rats, which were treated in vivo. As shown with immunoblots and ELISA, empagliflozin significantly suppressed increased levels of ICAM-1,VCAM-1,TNF-α,IL-6 in human and murine HFpEF myocardium and attenuated pathological oxidative parameters (H2O2, 3-nitrotyrosine, GSH, lipid peroxide) in both cardiomyocyte cytosol and mitochondria in addition to improved endothelial vasorelaxation. In HFpEF, we found higher oxidative stress-dependent activation of eNOS leading to PKGIα oxidation. Interestingly, immunofluorescence imaging and electron microscopy revealed that oxidized PKG1α in HFpEF appeared as dimers/polymers localized to the outer-membrane of the cardiomyocyte. Empagliflozin reduced oxidative stress/eNOS-dependent PKGIα oxidation and polymerization resulting in a higher fraction of PKGIα monomers, which translocated back to the cytosol. Consequently, diminished NO-levels, sGC activity, cGMP concentration, and PKGIα activity in HFpEF increased upon empagliflozin leading to improved phosphorylation of myofilament proteins. In skinned HFpEF cardiomyocytes, empagliflozin improved cardiomyocyte stiffness in an antioxidative/PKGIα-dependent manner. Monovariate linear regression-analysis confirmed the correlation of oxidative stress and PKGIα polymerization with increased cardiomyocyte stiffness and diastolic dysfunction of the HFpEF patients. CONCLUSION: Empagliflozin reduces inflammatory and oxidative stress in HFpEF and thereby improves the NO-sGC-cGMP-cascade and PKGIα activity via reduced PKGIα oxidation and polymerization leading to less pathological cardiomyocyte stiffness. TRANSLATIONAL PERSPECTIVE: Sodium-glucose-cotransporter-2 (SGLT2) inhibitors have shown beneficial effects in heart failure (HF) patients with and without diabetes. Clinical trials are recruiting HF patients with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF) to test for SGLT2 inhibitor effects. However, the underlying mechanisms by which these drugs exert their beneficial effects remain elusive. Our study demonstrates that acute empagliflozin in human and rat HFpEF myocardium reduces inflammatory/oxidative stress and improves the NO-sGC-cGMP-cascade and PKGIα activity via reduced PKGIα oxidation. Consequently, leading to improved cardiomyocyte function via PKGIα and its concomitant anti-oxidative effect. This study, therefore, provides mechanistic evidence supporting further clinical investigation of empagliflozin in HFpEF.

17.
ESC Heart Fail ; 7(4): 1442-1451, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32462801

RESUMO

AIMS: The alarmin S100A8/S100A9 (S100A8/A9) is released by activated monocytes/macrophages and neutrophils in the setting lymphocytic myocarditis (MC). We recently demonstrated its therapeutic potential in experimental acute MC. Now, we investigated the diagnostic relevance of S100A8/A9 serum levels in patients with suspected acute and chronic MC and in patients with heart failure without cardiac inflammation. METHODS AND RESULTS: Serum S100A8/A9 levels were analysed in patients with a recent onset of MC [≤ 30 days, n = 32; ejection fraction (EF): 45.4 ± 12.9%], dilated cardiomyopathy patients with inflammation (n = 112; EF: 29.0 ± 11.4%), or without inflammation (n = 58; EF: 26.6 ± 9.3%), and controls (n = 25; EF: 68.5 ± 4.6%), by using specific ELISAs. Blood samples were collected at Time Point 1 (T1), where also endomyocardial biopsies (EMBs) were withdrawn. Patients with a recent onset of MC showed a 4.6-fold increase in serum S100A8/A9 levels vs. controls (MC: 1948 ± 1670 ng/mL vs. controls: 426 ± 307 ng/mL; P < 0.0001). Serum S100A8/A9 correlated with the disease activity, represented by EMB-derived counts of inflammatory cells (CD3: r = 0.486, P = 0.0047, lymphocyte function-associated antigen-1: r = 0.558, P = 0.0009, macrophage-1 antigen: r = 0.434, P = 0.013), the EMB mRNA levels of S100A8, S100A9 (r = 0.541, P = 0.002), and left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF: r = 0.498, P = 0.0043). EMB immunofluorescence co-stainings display macrophages/monocytes and neutrophils as the main source of S100A8 and S100A9 in recent onset MC. The diagnostic value of serum alarmin levels (cut-off 583 ng/mL) was characterized by a specificity of 92%, a sensitivity of 90.6%, positive predictive value of 93.5%, negative predictive value of 88.5%, and an accuracy of 0.949 (95% confidence interval [0.89-1]). In a subgroup of MC patients, S100A8/A9 serum levels and EMBs at T1 (n = 12) and a follow-up visit (T2, n = 12, mean follow-up 8.5 months) were available. A fall of serum S100A8/A9 (T1: 2208 ± 1843 ng/mL vs. T2: 888.8 ± 513.7 ng/mL; P = 0.00052) was associated with a reduced cardiac inflammation (CD3 T1: 70.02 ± 107.4 cells per square millimetre vs. T2: 59.18 ± 182.5 cells per square millimetre; P = 0.0342, lymphocyte function-associated antigen-1 T1: 133.5 ± 187.1 cells per square millimetre vs. T2: 74.12 ± 190.5 cells per square millimetre; P = 0.0186, and macrophage-1 antigen T1: 132.6 ± 129.5 cells per square millimetre vs. T2: 54.41 ± 65.16 cells per square millimetre; P = 0.0015). Serum S100A8/A9 levels were only slightly increased in patients within the chronic phase of MC and in heart failure patients without inflammation vs. controls. CONCLUSIONS: Serum S100A8/A9 might serve as an additional tool in the diagnostic workup of suspected acute MC patients.

18.
Clin Res Cardiol ; 109(9): 1079-1098, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32236720

RESUMO

In contrast to the wealth of proven therapies for heart failure with reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF), therapeutic efforts in the past have failed to improve outcomes in heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF). Moreover, to this day, diagnosis of HFpEF remains controversial. However, there is growing appreciation that HFpEF represents a heterogeneous syndrome with various phenotypes and comorbidities which are hardly to differentiate solely by LVEF and might benefit from individually tailored approaches. These hypotheses are supported by the recently presented PARAGON-HF trial. Although treatment with LCZ696 did not result in a significantly lower rate of total hospitalizations for heart failure and death from cardiovascular causes among HFpEF patients, subanalyses suggest beneficial effects in female patients and those with an LVEF between 45 and 57%. In the future, prospective randomized trials should focus on dedicated, well-defined subgroups based on various information such as clinical characteristics, biomarker levels, and imaging modalities. These could clarify the role of LCZ696 in selected individuals. Furthermore, sodium-glucose cotransporter-2 inhibitors have just proven efficient in HFrEF patients and are currently also studied in large prospective clinical trials enrolling HFpEF patients. In addition, several novel disease-modifying drugs that pursue different strategies such as targeting cardiac inflammation and fibrosis have delivered preliminary optimistic results and are subject of further research. Moreover, innovative device therapies may enhance management of HFpEF, but need prospective adequately powered clinical trials to confirm safety and efficacy regarding clinical outcomes. This review highlights the past, present, and future therapeutic approaches in HFpEF.

19.
J Am Coll Cardiol ; 75(16): 1869-1877, 2020 Apr 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32327096

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Takotsubo syndrome (TTS) occurs predominantly in post-menopausal women but is also found in younger patients. OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to investigate age-related differences in TTS. METHODS: Patients diagnosed with TTS and enrolled in the International Takotsubo Registry between January 2011 and February 2017 were included in this analysis and were stratified by age (younger: ≤50 years, middle-age: 51 to 74 years, elderly: ≥75 years). Baseline characteristics, hospital course, as well as short- and long-term mortality were compared among groups. RESULTS: Of 2,098 TTS patients, 242 (11.5%) patients were ≤50 years of age, 1,194 (56.9%) were 51 to 74 years of age, and 662 (31.6%) were ≥75 years of age. Younger patients were more often men (12.4% vs. 10.9% vs. 6.3%; p = 0.002) and had an increased prevalence of acute neurological (16.3% vs. 8.4% vs. 8.8%; p = 0.001) or psychiatric disorders (14.1% vs. 10.3% vs. 5.6%; p < 0.001) compared with middle-aged and elderly TTS patients. Furthermore, younger patients had more often cardiogenic shock (15.3% vs. 9.1% vs. 8.1%; p = 0.004) and had a numerically higher in-hospital mortality (6.6% vs. 3.6% vs. 5.1%; p = 0.07). At multivariable analysis, younger (odds ratio: 1.60; 95% confidence interval: 0.86 to 3.01; p = 0.14) and older age (odds ratio: 1.09; 95% confidence interval: 0.66 to 1.80; p = 0.75) were not independently associated with in-hospital mortality using the middle-aged group as a reference. There were no differences in 60-day mortality rates among groups. CONCLUSIONS: A substantial proportion of TTS patients are younger than 50 years of age. TTS is associated with severe complications requiring intensive care, particularly in younger patients.

20.
Eur J Heart Fail ; 22(3): 391-412, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32133741

RESUMO

Making a firm diagnosis of chronic heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF) remains a challenge. We recommend a new stepwise diagnostic process, the 'HFA-PEFF diagnostic algorithm'. Step 1 (P=Pre-test assessment) is typically performed in the ambulatory setting and includes assessment for heart failure symptoms and signs, typical clinical demographics (obesity, hypertension, diabetes mellitus, elderly, atrial fibrillation), and diagnostic laboratory tests, electrocardiogram, and echocardiography. In the absence of overt non-cardiac causes of breathlessness, HFpEF can be suspected if there is a normal left ventricular (LV) ejection fraction, no significant heart valve disease or cardiac ischaemia, and at least one typical risk factor. Elevated natriuretic peptides support, but normal levels do not exclude a diagnosis of HFpEF. The second step (E: Echocardiography and Natriuretic Peptide Score) requires comprehensive echocardiography and is typically performed by a cardiologist. Measures include mitral annular early diastolic velocity (e'), LV filling pressure estimated using E/e', left atrial volume index, LV mass index, LV relative wall thickness, tricuspid regurgitation velocity, LV global longitudinal systolic strain, and serum natriuretic peptide levels. Major (2 points) and Minor (1 point) criteria were defined from these measures. A score ≥5 points implies definite HFpEF; ≤1 point makes HFpEF unlikely. An intermediate score (2-4 points) implies diagnostic uncertainty, in which case Step 3 (F1 : Functional testing) is recommended with echocardiographic or invasive haemodynamic exercise stress tests. Step 4 (F2 : Final aetiology) is recommended to establish a possible specific cause of HFpEF or alternative explanations. Further research is needed for a better classification of HFpEF.

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