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1.
Circ Heart Fail ; 12(11): e005250, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31718319

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Coxsackie-B-viruses (CVB) are frequent causes of acute myocarditis and dilated cardiomyopathy, but an effective antiviral therapy is still not available. Previously, we and others have demonstrated that treatment with an engineered sCAR-Fc (soluble coxsackievirus-adenovirus receptor fused to the carboxyl-terminus of human IgG) efficiently neutralizes CVB3 and inhibits the development of cardiac dysfunction in mice with acute CVB3-induced myocarditis. In this study, we analyzed the potential of sCAR-Fc for treatment of chronic CVB3-induced myocarditis in an outbred NMRI mouse model. METHODS: NMRI mice were infected with the CVB3 strain 31-1-93 and treated with a sCAR-Fc expressing adeno-associated virus 9 vector 1, 3, and 7 days after CVB3 infection. Chronic myocarditis was analyzed on day 28 after infection. RESULTS: Initial investigations showed that NMRI mice develop pronounced chronic myocarditis between day 18 and day 28 after infection with the CVB3 strain 31-1-93. Chronic cardiac infection was characterized by inflammation and fibrosis as well as persistence of viral genomes in the heart tissue and by cardiac dysfunction. Treatment of NMRI mice resulted in a distinct reduction of cardiac inflammation and fibrosis and almost complete elimination of virus RNA from the heart by day 28 after infection. Moreover, hemodynamic measurement revealed improved cardiac contractility and diastolic relaxation in treated mice compared with mice treated with a control vector (mean±SD; maximal pressure, 81.9±9.2 versus 69.4±8.6 mm Hg, P=0.02; left ventricular ejection fraction, 68.9±8.5 versus 54.2±11.5%, P=0.02; dP/dtmax, 7275.2±1674 versus 4432.6±1107 mm Hg/s, P=0.004; dP/dtmin, -4046.9±776 versus -3146.3±642 mm Hg/s, P=0.046). The therapeutic potential of sCAR-Fc is limited, however, since postponed start of sCAR-Fc treatment either 3 or 7 days after infection could not attenuate myocardial injury. CONCLUSIONS: Early therapeutic employment of sCAR-Fc, initiated at the beginning of the primary viremia, inhibits the development of chronic CVB3-induced myocarditis and improves the cardiac function to a level equivalent to that of uninfected animals.

2.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31740950

RESUMO

AIMS: The aim of this study was to examine the potential usefulness and clinical relevance of a novel left atrial (LA) filling index using 2D speckle-tracking transthoracic echocardiography to estimate left ventricular (LV) filling pressures in patients with preserved LV ejection fraction (LVEF). METHODS AND RESULTS: The LA filling index was calculated as the ratio of the mitral early-diastolic inflow peak velocity (E) over LA reservoir strain (i.e. E/LA strain ratio). This index showed a good diagnostic performance to determine elevated LV filling pressures in a test-cohort (n = 31) using invasive measurements of LV end-diastolic pressure (area under the curve 0.82, cut-off > 3.27 = sensitivity 83.3%, specificity 78.9%), which was confirmed in a validation-cohort (patients with cardiovascular risk factors; n = 486) using the 2016 American Society of Echocardiography/European Association of Cardiovascular Imaging criteria (cut-off > 3.27 = sensitivity 88.1%, specificity 77.6%) and in a specificity-validation cohort (patients free of cardiovascular risk factors, n = 120; cut-off > 3.27 = specificity 98.3%). Regarding the clinical relevance of the LA filling index, an elevated E/LA strain ratio (>3.27) was significantly associated with the risk of heart failure hospitalization at 2 years (odds ratio 4.3, 95% confidence interval 1.8-10.5), even adjusting this analysis by age, sex, renal failure, LV hypertrophy, or abnormal LV global longitudinal systolic strain. CONCLUSION: The findings from this study suggest that a novel LA filling index using 2D speckle-tracking echocardiography could be of potential usefulness and clinical relevance in estimating LV filling pressures in patients with preserved LVEF.

3.
Cardiovasc Res ; 2019 Oct 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31598635

RESUMO

AIMS: The coxsackievirus B3 (CVB3) mouse myocarditis model is the standard model for investigation of virus-induced myocarditis, but the pancreas, rather than the heart, is the most susceptible organ in mouse. The aim of this study was to develop a CVB3 mouse myocarditis model in which animals develop myocarditis while attenuating viral infection of the pancreas and the development of severe pancreatitis. METHODS AND RESULTS: We developed the recombinant CVB3 variant H3N-375TS by inserting target sites (TS) of miR-375, which is specifically expressed in the pancreas, into the 3'UTR of the genome of the pancreo- and cardiotropic CVB3 variant H3. In vitro evaluation showed that H3N-375TS was suppressed in pancreatic miR-375-expressing EndoC-ßH1 cells more than 5 log10, whereas its replication was not suppressed in isolated primary embryonic mouse cardiomyocytes. In vivo, intraperitoneal (i.p.) administration of H3N-375TS to NMRI mice did not result in pancreatic or cardiac infection. In contrast, intravenous (i.v.) administration of H3N-375TS to NMRI and Balb/C mice resulted in myocardial infection and acute and chronic myocarditis, whereas the virus was not detected in the pancreas and the pancreatic tissue was not damaged. Acute myocarditis was characterized by myocardial injury, inflammation with mononuclear cells, induction of proinflammatory cytokines and detection of replicating H3N-375TS in the heart. Mice with chronic myocarditis showed myocardial fibrosis and persistence of H3N-375TS genomic RNA, but no replicating virus in the heart. Moreover, H3N-375TS infected mice showed distinctly less suffering compared to mice that developed pancreatitis and myocarditis after i.p. or i.v application of control virus. CONCLUSION: Here we demonstrate that by use of the miR-375-sensitive CVB3 variant H3N-375TS, CVB3 myocarditis can be established without the animals developing severe systemic infection and pancreatitis. As the H3N-375TS myocarditis model depends on pancreas-attenuated H3N-375TS, it can easily be used in different mouse strains and for various applications. TRANSLATIONAL PERSPECTIVE: The use of H3N-375TS will allow the investigation of the pathogenesis of CVB3 myocarditis independently of severe systemic CVB3 infection and pancreatitis. It may also be a superior alternative for the study of new treatments in the post-viremia phase of CVB3-induced myocarditis.

4.
Int J Cardiol ; 2019 Sep 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31615650

RESUMO

Inotropes aim at increasing cardiac output by enhancing cardiac contractility. They constitute the third pharmacological pillar in the treatment of patients with decompensated heart failure, the other two being diuretics and vasodilators. Three classes of parenterally administered inotropes are currently indicated for decompensated heart failure, (i) the beta adrenergic agonists, including dopamine and dobutamine and also the catecholamines epinephrine and norepinephrine, (ii) the phosphodiesterase III inhibitor milrinone and (iii) the calcium sensitizer levosimendan. These three families of drugs share some pharmacologic traits, but differ profoundly in many of their pleiotropic effects. Identifying the patients in need of inotropic support and selecting the proper inotrope in each case remain challenging. The present consensus, derived by a panel meeting of experts from 21 countries, aims at addressing this very issue in the setting of both acute and advanced heart failure.

6.
Heart Fail Rev ; 2019 Sep 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31489515

RESUMO

In recent years, several studies have shown the usefulness and clinical relevance of left ventricular global longitudinal systolic strain (GLS) in different cardiovascular diseases. In line with this, the role of GLS in patients with heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF) has achieved great importance in this predominant form of heart failure in the last years. In this regard, GLS has shown to be not only a sensitive parameter to detect subtle myocardial abnormalities but also a parameter of clinical and prognostic relevance in patients with HFpEF. In this review, we analyze the current evidence concerning the clinical relevance of GLS in patients with HFpEF and we discuss the potential usefulness of GLS in this complex and heterogeneous condition for which so far no effective therapy exists.

7.
Eur Heart J ; 40(40): 3297-3317, 2019 Oct 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31504452

RESUMO

Making a firm diagnosis of chronic heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF) remains a challenge. We recommend a new stepwise diagnostic process, the 'HFA-PEFF diagnostic algorithm'. Step 1 (P=Pre-test assessment) is typically performed in the ambulatory setting and includes assessment for HF symptoms and signs, typical clinical demographics (obesity, hypertension, diabetes mellitus, elderly, atrial fibrillation), and diagnostic laboratory tests, electrocardiogram, and echocardiography. In the absence of overt non-cardiac causes of breathlessness, HFpEF can be suspected if there is a normal left ventricular ejection fraction, no significant heart valve disease or cardiac ischaemia, and at least one typical risk factor. Elevated natriuretic peptides support, but normal levels do not exclude a diagnosis of HFpEF. The second step (E: Echocardiography and Natriuretic Peptide Score) requires comprehensive echocardiography and is typically performed by a cardiologist. Measures include mitral annular early diastolic velocity (e'), left ventricular (LV) filling pressure estimated using E/e', left atrial volume index, LV mass index, LV relative wall thickness, tricuspid regurgitation velocity, LV global longitudinal systolic strain, and serum natriuretic peptide levels. Major (2 points) and Minor (1 point) criteria were defined from these measures. A score ≥5 points implies definite HFpEF; ≤1 point makes HFpEF unlikely. An intermediate score (2-4 points) implies diagnostic uncertainty, in which case Step 3 (F1: Functional testing) is recommended with echocardiographic or invasive haemodynamic exercise stress tests. Step 4 (F2: Final aetiology) is recommended to establish a possible specific cause of HFpEF or alternative explanations. Further research is needed for a better classification of HFpEF.

9.
Clin Pharmacol Ther ; 106(6): 1198-1208, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31544235

RESUMO

Intensive research over the last 3 decades has unequivocally demonstrated the relevance of inflammation in heart failure (HF). Despite our current and ever increasing knowledge about inflammation, the clinical success of antiinflammatory and immunomodulatory therapies in HF is still limited. This review outlines the complexity and diversity of inflammation, its reciprocal interaction with HF, and addresses future perspectives, calling for immunomodulatory therapies that are specific for factors that activate the immune system without the risk of nonspecific immune suppression.

10.
Eur Heart J Case Rep ; 2019 Jul 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31365055

RESUMO

BACKGROUND : The aetiology of dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM) is highly heterogeneous including genetic and/or acquired (infective, toxic, immune, endocrine, and nutritional) factors. The major part of acquired DCM in developed countries is caused by either viral or autoimmune myocarditis. It is believed that the activation of the T-lymphocyte cell system is the major pathomechanism underlying autoimmune myocarditis and inflammatory DCM (DCMi). However, in the hearts of a subset of patients, a significant number of CD20+ B-lymphocytes can be detected too. Limited information exists on the role of B-cell-dependent mechanisms in the progression of DCMi. Particularly CD20+ B-lymphocytes, which can be targeted by anti-CD20+ B-lymphocytes antibodies or inhibitors, might contribute to the pathogenesis of myocardial damage beyond antibody production. CASE SUMMARY : Here, we present a case series of six patients with subacute and chronic endomyocardial biopsy-proven CD20+ B-lymphocyte-associated DCMi, where symptomatic heart failure therapy, with or without combined immunosuppressive therapy with steroid-based treatment regime, was insufficient to improve cardiac function. Five patients improved clinically several weeks after a standard infusion protocol with rituximab, a chimeric monoclonal antibody against the pan-B-cell surface molecule CD20. DISCUSSION : Our case series shows that CD20+ B-lymphocyte persistence can play a pathophysiologic role in a subset of DCMi patients and highlights the potential of targeting CD20+ B cells in patients with prominent CD20+ B-lymphocyte persistence.

11.
Clin Res Cardiol ; 2019 Aug 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31401672

RESUMO

AIMS: In the placebo-controlled, double-blind BOne marrOw transfer to enhance ST-elevation infarct regeneration (BOOST) 2 trial, intracoronary autologous bone marrow cell (BMC) transfer did not improve recovery of left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) at 6 months in patients with ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) and moderately reduced LVEF. Regional myocardial perfusion as determined by adenosine stress perfusion cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (S-CMR) may be more sensitive than global LVEF in detecting BMC treatment effects. Here, we sought to evaluate (i) the changes of myocardial perfusion in the infarct area over time (ii) the effects of BMC therapy on infarct perfusion, and (iii) the relation of infarct perfusion to LVEF recovery at 6 months. METHODS AND RESULTS: In 51 patients from BOOST-2 (placebo, n = 10; BMC, n = 41), S-CMR was performed 5.1 ± 2.9 days after PCI (before placebo/BMC treatment) and after 6 months. Infarct perfusion improved from baseline to 6 months in the overall patient cohort as reflected by the semi-quantitative parameters, perfusion defect-infarct size ratio (change from 0.54 ± 0.20 to 0.43 ± 0.22; P = 0.006) and perfusion defect-upslope ratio (0.54 ± 0.23 to 0.68 ± 0.22; P < 0.001), irrespective of randomised treatment. Perfusion defect-upslope ratio at baseline correlated with LVEF recovery (r = 0.62; P < 0.001) after 6 months, with a threshold of 0.54 providing the best sensitivity (79%) and specificity (74%) (area under the curve, 0.79; 95% confidence interval, 0.67-0.92). CONCLUSION: Infarct perfusion improves from baseline to 6 months and predicts LVEF recovery in STEMI patients undergoing early PCI. Intracoronary BMC therapy did not enhance infarct perfusion in the BOOST-2 trial.

12.
Heart Fail Rev ; 2019 Aug 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31396762

RESUMO

Meta-analysis on immunohistological (IHC) concepts for the detection of inflammatory cardiomyopathy (InfCM) in endomyocardial biopsies (EMB). We included 61 publications, with 10,491 patients (mean age 47.1 years; men 66%) who underwent EMB and IHC evaluation. The 460 control patients were devoid of IHC proof of InfCM. The mean IHC detection rate of InfCM was 50.8% (95% CI 47.7-53.8%; range 18.4-91.7%). A publication bias was excluded (Funnel Plot p = 0.4264). This IHC detection rate was significantly (p < 0.0001) higher compared to the histological detection of myocarditis according to the Dallas criteria (mean 8.04%; 95% CI 5.08-12.5%; subset of 3274 patients in 30 publications). However, 13 different diagnostic IHC criteria were described in the publications, with various thresholds of diverse phenotypes of quantified infiltrates, and endothelial expression of diverse cell adhesion molecules (CAM), quantified either visually or by digital image analysis (DIA). The comparison of IHC with cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) data available in a subset of 13 publications with 1185 patients revealed a sensitivity for CMR of 69% (95% CI 58-79%), a specificity of 73% (95% CI 59-84%), and a ROC-AUC of 0.77 (95% CI 0.73-0.81). This meta-analysis encompassing 10,491 patients confirms a mean detection rate of InfCM in 50.8% of EMB, being significantly more sensitive compared to the histological Dallas criteria. IHC cannot be fully substituted by CMR. However, standardization of the diverse IHC markers and protocols seems pertinent, especially considering the published adverse prognostic impact of IHC-confirmed InfCM and its published suitability for the selection of candidates responding favorably to immunosuppression.

14.
J Am Heart Assoc ; 8(15): e010881, 2019 Aug 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31311438

RESUMO

Background Clinical characteristics and outcomes of takotsubo syndrome (TTS) patients with malignancy have not been fully elucidated. This study sought to explore differences in clinical characteristics and to investigate short- and long-term outcomes in TTS patients with or without malignancy. Methods and Results TTS patients were enrolled from the International Takotsubo Registry. The TTS cohort was divided into patients with and without malignancy to investigate differences in clinical characteristics and to assess short- and long-term mortality. A subanalysis was performed comparing long-term mortality between a subset of TTS patients with or without malignancy and acute coronary syndrome (ACS) patients with or without malignancy. Malignancy was observed in 16.6% of 1604 TTS patients. Patients with malignancy were older and more likely to have physical triggers, but less likely to have emotional triggers compared with those without malignancy. Long-term mortality was higher in patients with malignancy (P<0.001), while short-term outcome was comparable (P=0.17). In a subanalysis, long-term mortality was comparable between TTS patients with malignancies and ACS patients with malignancies (P=0.13). Malignancy emerged as an independent predictor of long-term mortality. Conclusions A substantial number of TTS patients show an association with malignancy. History of malignancy might increase the risk for TTS, and therefore, appropriate screening for malignancy should be considered in these patients. Clinical Trial Registration URL: http://www.clinicaltrial.gov. Unique identifier: NCT01947621.

15.
Circ Res ; 124(11): 1568-1583, 2019 May 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31120823

RESUMO

Myocarditis is generally a mild and self-limited consequence of systemic infection of cardiotropic viruses. However, patients can develop a temporary or permanent impairment of cardiac function including acute cardiomyopathy with hemodynamic compromise or severe arrhythmias. In this setting, specific causes of inflammation are associated with variable risks of death and transplantation. Recent translational studies suggest that treatments tailored to specific causes of myocarditis may impact clinical outcomes when added to guideline-directed medical care. This review summarizes recent advances in translational research that influence the utility of endomyocardial biopsy for the management of inflammatory cardiomyopathies. Emerging therapies for myocarditis based on these mechanistic hypotheses are entering clinical trials and may add to the benefits of established heart failure treatment.

16.
Eur Heart J ; 40(26): 2142-2151, 2019 07 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31098611

RESUMO

AIMS: We aimed to evaluate the frequency, clinical features, and prognostic implications of cardiac arrest (CA) in takotsubo syndrome (TTS). METHODS AND RESULTS: We reviewed the records of patients with CA and known heart rhythm from the International Takotsubo Registry. The main outcomes were 60-day and 5-year mortality. In addition, predictors of mortality and predictors of CA during the acute TTS phase were assessed. Of 2098 patients, 103 patients with CA and known heart rhythm during CA were included. Compared with patients without CA, CA patients were more likely to be younger, male, and have apical TTS, atrial fibrillation (AF), neurologic comorbidities, physical triggers, and longer corrected QT-interval and lower left ventricular ejection fraction on admission. In all, 57.1% of patients with CA at admission had ventricular fibrillation/tachycardia, while 73.7% of patients with CA in the acute phase had asystole/pulseless electrical activity. Patients with CA showed higher 60-day (40.3% vs. 4.0%, P < 0.001) and 5-year mortality (68.9% vs. 16.7%, P < 0.001) than patients without CA. T-wave inversion and intracranial haemorrhage were independently associated with higher 60-day mortality after CA, whereas female gender was associated with lower 60-day mortality. In the acute phase, CA occurred less frequently in females and more frequently in patients with AF, ST-segment elevation, and higher C-reactive protein on admission. CONCLUSIONS: Cardiac arrest is relatively frequent in TTS and is associated with higher short- and long-term mortality. Clinical and electrocardiographic parameters independently predicted mortality after CA.

17.
Cardiovasc Ultrasound ; 17(1): 7, 2019 Apr 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31010431

RESUMO

Echocardiography is the most commonly applied technique for non-invasive assessment of cardiac function in small animals. Manual tracing of endocardial borders is time consuming and varies with operator experience. Therefore, we aimed to evaluate a novel automated two-dimensional software algorithm (Auto2DE) for small animals and compare it to the standard use of manual 2D-echocardiographic assessment (2DE). We hypothesized that novel Auto2DE will provide rapid and robust data sets, which are in agreement with manually assessed data of animals.2DE and Auto2DE were carried out using a high-resolution imaging-system for small animals. First, validation cohorts of mouse and rat cine loops were used to compare Auto2DE against 2DE. These data were stratified for image quality by a blinded expert in small animal imaging. Second, we evaluated 2DE and Auto2DE in four mouse models and four rat models with different cardiac pathologies.Automated assessment of LV function by 2DE was faster than conventional 2DE analysis and independent of operator experience levels. The accuracy of Auto2DE-assessed data in healthy mice was dependent on cine loop quality, with excellent agreement between Auto2DE and 2DE in cine loops with adequate quality. Auto2DE allowed for valid detection of impaired cardiac function in animal models with pronounced cardiac phenotypes, but yielded poor performance in diabetic animal models independent of image quality.Auto2DE represents a novel automated analysis tool for rapid assessment of LV function, which is suitable for data acquisition in studies with good and very good echocardiographic image quality, but presents systematic problems in specific pathologies.

18.
J Mol Cell Cardiol ; 131: 53-65, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31005484

RESUMO

AIMS: Atrial contractile dysfunction is associated with increased mortality in heart failure (HF). We have shown previously that a metabolic syndrome-based model of HFpEF and a model of hypertensive heart disease (HHD) have impaired left atrial (LA) function in vivo (rat). In this study we postulate, that left atrial cardiomyocyte (CM) and cardiac fibroblast (CF) paracrine interaction related to the inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate signalling cascade is pivotal for the manifestation of atrial mechanical dysfunction in HF and that quantitative atrial remodeling is highly disease-dependent. METHODS AND RESULTS: Differential remodeling was observed in HHD and HFpEF as indicated by an increase of atrial size in vivo (HFpEF), unchanged fibrosis (HHD and HFpEF) and a decrease of CM size (HHD). Baseline contractile performance of rat CM in vitro was enhanced in HFpEF. Upon treatment with conditioned medium from their respective stretched CF (CM-SF), CM (at 21 weeks) of WT showed increased Ca2+ transient (CaT) amplitudes related to the paracrine activity of the inotrope endothelin (ET-1) and inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate induced Ca2+ release. Concentration of ET-1 was increased in CM-SF and atrial tissue from WT as compared to HHD and HFpEF. In HHD, CM-SF had no relevant effect on CaT kinetics. However, in HFpEF, CM-SF increased diastolic Ca2+ and slowed Ca2+ removal, potentially contributing to an in-vivo decompensation. During disease progression (i.e. at 27 weeks), HFpEF displayed dysfunctional excitation-contraction-coupling (ECC) due to lower sarcoplasmic-reticulum Ca2+ content unrelated to CF-CM interaction or ET-1, but associated with enhanced nuclear [Ca2+]. In human patients, tissue ET-1 was not related to the presence of arterial hypertension or obesity. CONCLUSIONS: Atrial remodeling is a complex entity that is highly disease and stage dependent. The activity of fibrosis related to paracrine interaction (e.g. ET-1) might contribute to in vitro and in vivo atrial dysfunction. However, during later stages of disease, ECC is impaired unrelated to CF.

19.
Eur J Heart Fail ; 21(5): 553-576, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30989768

RESUMO

Cardiomyopathies are a heterogeneous group of heart muscle diseases and an important cause of heart failure (HF). Current knowledge on incidence, pathophysiology and natural history of HF in cardiomyopathies is limited, and distinct features of their therapeutic responses have not been systematically addressed. Therefore, this position paper focuses on epidemiology, pathophysiology, natural history and latest developments in treatment of HF in patients with dilated (DCM), hypertrophic (HCM) and restrictive (RCM) cardiomyopathies. In DCM, HF with reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF) has high incidence and prevalence and represents the most frequent cause of death, despite improvements in treatment. In addition, advanced HF in DCM is one of the leading indications for heart transplantation. In HCM, HF with preserved ejection (HFpEF) affects most patients with obstructive, and ∼10% of patients with non-obstructive HCM. A timely treatment is important, since development of advanced HF, although rare in HCM, portends a poor prognosis. In RCM, HFpEF is common, while HFrEF occurs later and more frequently in amyloidosis or iron overload/haemochromatosis. Irrespective of RCM aetiology, HF is a harbinger of a poor outcome. Recent advances in our understanding of the mechanisms underlying the development of HF in cardiomyopathies have significant implications for therapeutic decision-making. In addition, new aetiology-specific treatment options (e.g. enzyme replacement therapy, transthyretin stabilizers, immunoadsorption, immunotherapy, etc.) have shown a potential to improve outcomes. Still, causative therapies of many cardiomyopathies are lacking, highlighting the need for the development of effective strategies to prevent and treat HF in cardiomyopathies.

20.
Eur Heart J ; 40(40): 3318-3332, 2019 Oct 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31004144

RESUMO

AIMS: Heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF) and pathological cardiac aging share a complex pathophysiology, including extracellular matrix remodelling (EMR). Protease-activated receptor 2 (PAR2) deficiency is associated with EMR. The roles of PAR1 and PAR2 have not been studied in HFpEF, age-dependent cardiac fibrosis, or diastolic dysfunction (DD). METHODS AND RESULTS: Evaluation of endomyocardial biopsies from patients with HFpEF (n = 14) revealed that a reduced cardiac PAR2 expression was associated with aggravated DD and increased myocardial fibrosis (r = -0.7336, P = 0.0028). In line, 1-year-old PAR2-knockout (PAR2ko) mice suffered from DD with preserved systolic function, associated with an increased age-dependent α-smooth muscle actin expression, collagen deposition (1.7-fold increase, P = 0.0003), lysyl oxidase activity, collagen cross-linking (2.2-fold increase, P = 0.0008), endothelial activation, and inflammation. In the absence of PAR2, the receptor-regulating protein caveolin-1 was down-regulated, contributing to an augmented profibrotic PAR1 and transforming growth factor beta (TGF-ß)-dependent signalling. This enhanced TGF-ß/PAR1 signalling caused N-proteinase (ADAMTS3) and C-proteinase (BMP1)-related increased collagen I production from cardiac fibroblasts (CFs). PAR2 overexpression in PAR2ko CFs reversed these effects. The treatment with the PAR1 antagonist, vorapaxar, reduced cardiac fibrosis by 44% (P = 0.03) and reduced inflammation in a metabolic disease model (apolipoprotein E-ko mice). Patients with HFpEF with upstream PAR inhibition via FXa inhibitors (n = 40) also exhibited reduced circulating markers of fibrosis and DD compared with patients treated with vitamin K antagonists (n = 20). CONCLUSIONS: Protease-activated receptor 2 is an important regulator of profibrotic PAR1 and TGF-ß signalling in the heart. Modulation of the FXa/FIIa-PAR1/PAR2/TGF-ß-axis might be a promising therapeutic approach to reduce HFpEF.

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