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1.
Kardiol Pol ; 2020 May 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32431133

RESUMO

Arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy (ARVC) appears in most patients to be an inherited disease characterized by fibrofatty replacement of myocytes extending from epicardium to endocardium in the right ventricle. The disease process results in life-threatening ventricular arrhythmias and ventricular dysfunction. In the absence of a gold standard diagnostic test and despite the progress in imaging techniques, ARVC is often misdiagnosed and earlier detection of the disease is challenging. Pre-procedural identification and localization of the substrate can be determined from the analysis of surface ECG and cardiac MRI. Typically, perivalvular arrhythmogenic substrate, defined by electroanatomic mapping, is present and can be isolated to the epicardium. Ablation targets are further identified with activation, entrainment and local electrogram abnormalities based on detailed electroanatomic mapping. Extensive combined endo/epicardial ablation performed in experienced centers is frequently required to prevent VT. Catheter ablation significantly reduces the recurrences of ventricular tachycardia (VT), appropriate ICD shocks and the use of antiarrhythmic drugs and cardiac transplant as a management strategy for refractory arrhythmias is rarely required. Progression of the disease is poorly understood and may require a distinct triggering mechanism. Biventricular involvement is more common than previously recognized. However, LV involvement leading to significant terminal heart failure is fortunately uncommon and LV VTs are also infrequent. Many questions remain regarding prevention and management of coexisting tricuspid valve regurgitation, atrial arrhythmias and intracardiac thrombosis. Although, data on genotype-phenotype correlations is growing, long-term follow-up studies of families with ARVC are still lacking. Ongoing research will contribute to better understanding of this pathological condition.

2.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32298038

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: In patients with nonischemic cardiomyopathy (NICM) little is known about the clinical impact of catheter ablation (CA) of septal ventricular tachycardia (VT) resulting in the collateral injury of the conduction system (CICS). METHODS AND RESULTS: Ninety-five consecutive patients with NICM underwent CA of septal VT. Outcomes in patients with no baseline conduction abnormalities who developed CICS (group 1, n = 28 [29%]) were compared to patients with no CICS (group 2, n = 17 [18%]) and to patients with preexisting conduction abnormalities or biventricular pacing (group 3, n = 50 [53%]). Group-1 patients were younger, had a higher left ventricular ejection fraction and a lower prevalence of New York Heart Association III/IV class compared to group 3 while no significant differences were observed with group 2. After a median follow-up of 15 months, VT recurred in 14% of patients in group 1, 12% in group 2 (P = .94) and 32% in group 3 (P = .08) while death/transplant occurred in 14% of patients in group 1, 18% in group 2 (P = .69) and 28% in group 3 (P = .15). A worsening of left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) (median LVEF variation, -5%) was observed in group 1 compared to group 2 (median LVEF variation, 0%; P < .01) but not group-3 patients (median LVEF variation, -4%; P = .08) with a consequent higher need for new biventricular pacing in group 1 (43%) compared to group 2 (12%; P = .03) and group 3 (16%; P < .01). CONCLUSIONS: In patients with NICM and septal substrate, sparing the abnormal substrate harboring the conduction system provides acceptable VT control while preventing a worsening of the systolic function.

3.
J Vis Exp ; (157)2020 Mar 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32225140

RESUMO

Ablation of the left atrium using either radiofrequency (RF) or cryothermal energy is an effective treatment for atrial fibrillation (AF) and is the most frequent type of cardiac ablation procedure performed. Although generally safe, collateral injury to surrounding structures, particularly the esophagus, remains a concern. Cooling or warming the esophagus to counteract the heat from RF ablation, or the cold from cryoablation, is a method that is used to reduce thermal esophageal injury, and there are increasing data to support this approach. This protocol describes the use of a commercially available esophageal temperature management device to cool or warm the esophagus to reduce esophageal injury during left atrial ablation. The temperature management device is powered by standard water-blanket heat exchangers, and is shaped like a standard orogastric tube placed for gastric suctioning and decompression. Water circulates through the device in a closed-loop circuit, transferring heat across the silicone walls of the device, through the esophageal wall. Placement of the device is analogous to the placement of a typical orogastric tube, and temperature is adjusted via the external heat-exchanger console.

4.
Circ Arrhythm Electrophysiol ; 13(1): e007611, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31922914

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Data characterizing structural changes of arrhythmogenic right ventricular (RV) cardiomyopathy are limited. METHODS: Patients presenting with left bundle branch block ventricular tachycardia in the setting of arrhythmogenic RV cardiomyopathy with procedures separated by at least 9 months were included. RESULTS: Nineteen consecutive patients (84% males; mean age 39±15 years [range, 20-76 years]) were included. All 19 patients underwent 2 detailed sinus rhythm electroanatomic endocardial voltage maps (average 385±177 points per map; range, 93-847 points). Time interval between the initial and repeat ablation procedures was mean 50±37 months (range, 9-162). No significant progression of voltage was observed (bipolar: 38 cm2 [interquartile range (IQR), 25-54] versus 53 cm2 [IQR, 25-65], P=0.09; unipolar: 116 cm2 [IQR, 61-209] versus 159 cm2 [IQR, 73-204], P=0.36) for the entire study group. There was a significant increase in RV volumes (percentage increase, 28%; 206 mL [IQR, 170-253] versus 263 mL [IQR, 204-294], P<0.001) for the entire study population. Larger scars at baseline but not changes over time were associated with a significant increase in RV volume (bipolar: Spearman ρ, 0.6965, P=0.006; unipolar: Spearman ρ, 0.5743, P=0.03). Most patients with progressive RV dilatation (8/14, 57%) had moderate (2 patients) or severe (6 patients) tricuspid regurgitation recorded at either initial or repeat ablation procedure. CONCLUSIONS: In patients with arrhythmogenic RV cardiomyopathy presenting with recurrent ventricular tachycardia, >10% increase in RV endocardial surface area of bipolar voltage consistent with scar is uncommon during the intermediate term. Most recurrent ventricular tachycardias are localized to regions of prior defined scar. Voltage indexed scar area at baseline but not changes in scar over time is associated with progressive increase in RV size and is consistent with adverse remodeling but not scar progression. Marked tricuspid regurgitation is frequently present in patients with arrhythmogenic RV cardiomyopathy who have progressive RV dilation.

6.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31758504

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Thermal damage to the esophagus is a risk from radiofrequency (RF) ablation of the left atrium for the treatment of atrial fibrillation (AF). The most extreme type of thermal injury results in atrio-esophageal fistula (AEF) and a correspondingly high mortality rate. Various strategies for reducing esophageal injury have been developed, including power reduction, esophageal deviation, and esophageal cooling. One method of esophageal cooling involves the direct instillation of cold water or saline into the esophagus during RF ablation. Although this method provides limited heat-extraction capacity, studies of it have suggested potential benefit. We sought to perform a meta-analysis of published studies evaluating the use of esophageal cooling via direct liquid instillation for the reduction of thermal injury during RF ablation. METHODS: We searched PubMed for studies that used esophageal cooling to protect the esophagus from thermal injury during RF ablation. We then performed a meta-analysis using a random effects model to calculate estimated effect size with 95% confidence intervals, with an outcome of esophageal lesions stratified by severity, as determined by post-procedure endoscopy. RESULTS: A total of 9 studies were identified and reviewed. After excluding preclinical and mathematical model studies, 3 were included in the meta-analysis, totaling 494 patients. Esophageal cooling showed a tendency to shift lesion severity downward, such that total lesions did not show a statistically significant change (OR 0.6, 95% CI 0.15 to 2.38). For high-grade lesions, a significant OR of 0.39 (95% CI 0.17 to 0.89) in favor of esophageal cooling was found, suggesting that esophageal cooling, even with a low-capacity thermal extraction technique, reduces the severity of lesions resulting from RF ablation. CONCLUSIONS: Esophageal cooling reduces the severity of the lesions that may result from RF ablation, even when relatively low heat extraction methods are used, such as the direct instillation of small volumes of cold liquid. Further investigation of this approach is warranted, particularly with higher heat extraction capacity techniques.

7.
J Cardiovasc Magn Reson ; 21(1): 62, 2019 10 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31597563

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Ex-vivo cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) imaging has played an important role in the validation of in-vivo CMR characterization of pathological processes. However, comparison between in-vivo and ex-vivo imaging remains challenging due to shape changes occurring between the two states, which may be non-uniform across the diseased heart. A novel two-step process to facilitate registration between ex-vivo and in-vivo CMR was developed and evaluated in a porcine model of chronic myocardial infarction (MI). METHODS: Seven weeks after ischemia-reperfusion MI, 12 swine underwent in-vivo CMR imaging with late gadolinium enhancement followed by ex-vivo CMR 1 week later. Five animals comprised the control group, in which ex-vivo imaging was undertaken without any support in the LV cavity, 7 animals comprised the experimental group, in which a two-step registration optimization process was undertaken. The first step involved a heart specific flexible 3D printed scaffold generated from in-vivo CMR, which was used to maintain left ventricular (LV) shape during ex-vivo imaging. In the second step, a non-rigid co-registration algorithm was applied to align in-vivo and ex-vivo data. Tissue dimension changes between in-vivo and ex-vivo imaging were compared between the experimental and control group. In the experimental group, tissue compartment volumes and thickness were compared between in-vivo and ex-vivo data before and after non-rigid registration. The effectiveness of the alignment was assessed quantitatively using the DICE similarity coefficient. RESULTS: LV cavity volume changed more in the control group (ratio of cavity volume between ex-vivo and in-vivo imaging in control and experimental group 0.14 vs 0.56, p < 0.0001) and there was a significantly greater change in the short axis dimensions in the control group (ratio of short axis dimensions in control and experimental group 0.38 vs 0.79, p < 0.001). In the experimental group, prior to non-rigid co-registration the LV cavity contracted isotropically in the ex-vivo condition by less than 20% in each dimension. There was a significant proportional change in tissue thickness in the healthy myocardium (change = 29 ± 21%), but not in dense scar (change = - 2 ± 2%, p = 0.034). Following the non-rigid co-registration step of the process, the DICE similarity coefficients for the myocardium, LV cavity and scar were 0.93 (±0.02), 0.89 (±0.01) and 0.77 (±0.07) respectively and the myocardial tissue and LV cavity volumes had a ratio of 1.03 and 1.00 respectively. CONCLUSIONS: The pattern of the morphological changes seen between the in-vivo and the ex-vivo LV differs between scar and healthy myocardium. A 3D printed flexible scaffold based on the in-vivo shape of the LV cavity is an effective strategy to minimize morphological changes in the ex-vivo LV. The subsequent non-rigid registration step further improved the co-registration and local comparison between in-vivo and ex-vivo data.

9.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31440875

RESUMO

PURPOSE: In arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy (ARVC), abnormal electroanatomic mapping (EAM) areas are proportional to extent of T-wave inversion on 12-lead ECG. We aimed to evaluate local repolarization changes and their relationship to EAM substrate in ARVC. METHODS: Using unipolar recordings, we analyzed the proportion of negative T waves ≥ 1 mV in depth (NegT), NegT area, Q-Tpeak (QTP), Tpeak-Tend (TPE) intervals and their relationship to bipolar (< 1.5 mV ENDO, < 1.0 mV EPI) and unipolar (< 5.5 mV) endocardial (ENDO) and epicardial (EPI) low-voltage area (LVA) in 21 pts. (15 men, mean age 39 ± 14) with ARVC. Control group included 5 pts. with normal hearts and idiopathic PVCs. RESULTS: On ENDO, the % of NegT (7 ± 5% vs 30 ± 20%, p = 0.004) and the NegT area (12.9 ± 9.7 c m2 vs 61.4 ± 30.0 cm2, p = 0.001) were smaller in ARVC compared to controls. On EPI, the % of NegT was similar (5 ± 7% vs 3 ± 4%, p = 0.323) and the NegT area, larger (11.0 ± 8.4 cm2 vs 2.7 ± 0.9 cm2, p = 0.027) in ARVC group. In ARVC group, the % of NegT area inside LVA was larger on EPI compared to ENDO for both bipolar (81 ± 27% vs 31 ± 33%, p < 0.001) and unipolar (90 ± 19% vs 73 ± 28%, p = 0.036) recordings. Compared to normal voltage regions, QTP inside ENDO abnormal LVA was on average 58 ± 26 ms shorter and TPE, 25 ± 56 ms longer (97 ± 26 ms and 56 ± 86 ms on EPI, respectively). CONCLUSIONS: In ARVC, NegT areas are more closely associated with abnormal depolarization LVA on the EPI and QTP is shorter and TPE longer inside ENDO and EPI abnormal LVA compared to normal voltage regions. The results add to our understanding of ARVC arrhythmia substrate.

11.
Sci Rep ; 9(1): 9317, 2019 Jun 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31249352

RESUMO

Geometrical structure of the myocardium plays an important role in understanding the generation of arrhythmias. In particular, a heterogeneous tissue (HT) channel defined in cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) has been suggested to correlate with conduction channels defined in electroanatomic mapping in ventricular tachycardia (VT). Despite the potential of CMR for characterization of the arrhythmogenic substrate, there is currently no standard approach to identify potential conduction channels. Therefore, we sought to develop a workflow to identify HT channel based on the structural 3D modeling of the viable myocardium within areas of dense scar. We focus on macro-level HT channel detection in this work. The proposed technique was tested in high-resolution ex-vivo CMR images in 20 post-infarct swine models who underwent an electrophysiology study for VT inducibility. HT channel was detected in 15 animals with inducible VT, whereas it was only detected in 1 out of 5 animal with non-inducible VT (P < 0.01, Fisher's exact test). The HT channel detected in the non-inducible animal was shorter than those detected in animals with inducible VTs (inducible-VT animals: 35 ± 14 mm vs. non-inducible VT animal: 9.94 mm). Electrophysiology study and histopathological analyses validated the detected HT channels. The proposed technique may provide new insights for understanding the macro-level VT mechanism.

12.
J Cardiovasc Electrophysiol ; 30(6): 865-876, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30834593

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Nonpulmonary vein (non-PV) triggers of atrial fibrillation (AF) are targets for ablation but their localization remains challenging. The aim of this study was to describe P-wave (PW) morphologic characteristics and intra-atrial activation patterns and timing from multipolar coronary sinus (CS) and crista terminalis (CT) catheters that localize non-PV triggers. METHODS AND RESULTS: Selective pacing from six right and nine left atrial common non-PV trigger sites was performed in 30 consecutive patients. We analyzed 12 lead ECG features based on PW duration, amplitude and morphology, and patterns and timing of multipolar activation for all 15 sites. Regionalization and then precise localization required criteria present in at least 70% of assessments at each pacing site. The algorithm was then prospectively evaluated by four blinded observers in a validation cohort of 18 consecutive patients undergoing the same pacing protocol and 60 consecutive patients who underwent successful non-PV trigger ablation. The algorithm for site regionalization included 1) negative PW in V1, ≥30 µV change in PW amplitude across the leads V1-V3, and PW duration ≤100 milliseconds in lead 2 and 2) unique intra-atrial activation patterns and timing noted in the multipolar catheters. Specific ECG and intra-atrial activation timing characteristics included in the algorithm allowed for more precise site localization after regionalization. In the prospective evaluation, the algorithm identified the site of origin for 72% of paced and 70% of spontaneous non-PV trigger sites. CONCLUSION: An algorithm based on PW morphology and intra-atrial multipolar activation pattern and timing can help identify non-PV trigger sites of origin.

13.
J Cardiovasc Electrophysiol ; 30(3): 427-437, 2019 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30614100

RESUMO

Epicardial ablation may be required to eliminate ventricular tachycardia (VT) in patients with underlying structural heart disease. The decision to gain epicardial access is frequently based on the suspicion of an epicardial origin for the VT and/or presence of an arrhythmogenic substrate. Epicardial pathology and VT is frequently present in patients with nonischemic right and/or left cardiomyopathies even in the setting of modest or no endocardial bipolar voltage substrate. In this setting, unipolar voltage mapping from the endocardium serves to help identify midmyocardial and/or epicardial VT substrate. The additional value of endocardial unipolar mapping includes its usefulness to predict the clinical outcome after VT ablation, to determine the irreversibility of myocardial disease, and to guide endomyocardial biopsy procedures to specific areas of intramural scarring. In this review, we aim to provide a guide to the use of endocardial unipolar mapping and its appropriate interpretation in a variety of clinical situations.

15.
PLoS One ; 13(10): e0205188, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30296291

RESUMO

Visualization of the complex 3D architecture of myocardial scar could improve guidance of radio-frequency ablation in the treatment of ventricular tachycardia (VT). In this study, we sought to develop a framework for 3D holographic visualization of myocardial scar, imaged using late gadolinium enhancement (LGE), on the augmented reality HoloLens. 3D holographic LGE model was built using the high-resolution 3D LGE image. Smooth endo/epicardial surface meshes were generated using Poisson surface reconstruction. For voxel-wise 3D scar model, every scarred voxel was rendered into a cube which carries the actual resolution of the LGE sequence. For surface scar model, scar information was projected on the endocardial surface mesh. Rendered layers were blended with different transparency and color, and visualized on HoloLens. A pilot animal study was performed where 3D holographic visualization of the scar was performed in 5 swines who underwent controlled infarction and electroanatomic mapping to identify VT substrate. 3D holographic visualization enabled assessment of the complex 3D scar architecture with touchless interaction in a sterile environment. Endoscopic view allowed visualization of scar from the ventricular chambers. Upon completion of the animal study, operator and mapping specialist independently completed the perceived usefulness questionnaire in the six-item usefulness scale. Operator and mapping specialist found it useful (usefulness rating: operator, 5.8; mapping specialist, 5.5; 1-7 scale) to have scar information during the intervention. HoloLens 3D LGE provides a true 3D perception of the complex scar architecture with immersive experience to visualize scar in an interactive and interpretable 3D approach, which may facilitate MR-guided VT ablation.


Assuntos
Ablação por Cateter/métodos , Cicatriz/diagnóstico por imagem , Holografia/métodos , Infarto do Miocárdio/complicações , Taquicardia Ventricular/cirurgia , Animais , Cicatriz/etiologia , Cicatriz/cirurgia , Meios de Contraste/administração & dosagem , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Endoscopia/métodos , Mapeamento Epicárdico , Estudos de Viabilidade , Gadolínio/administração & dosagem , Ventrículos do Coração/diagnóstico por imagem , Ventrículos do Coração/patologia , Ventrículos do Coração/cirurgia , Humanos , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética/métodos , Projetos Piloto , Suínos , Taquicardia Ventricular/etiologia , Taquicardia Ventricular/patologia
16.
JACC Clin Electrophysiol ; 4(4): 467-479, 2018 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30067486

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: This study sought to examine the biophysical properties of high-power and short-duration (HP-SD) radiofrequency ablation for pulmonary vein isolation. BACKGROUND: Pulmonary vein isolation is the cornerstone of atrial fibrillation ablation. However, pulmonary vein reconnection is frequent and is often the result of catheter instability, tissue edema, and a reversible nontransmural injury. We postulated that HP-SD ablation increases lesion-to-lesion uniformity and transmurality. METHODS: This study included 20 swine and a novel open-irrigated ablation catheter with a thermocouple system able to record temperature at the catheter-tissue interface (QDOT Micro Catheter). Step 1 compared 3 HP-SD ablation settings: 90 W/4 s, 90 W/6 s, and 70 W/8 s in a thigh muscle preparation. Ablation at 90 W/4 s was identified as the best compromise between lesion size and safety parameters, with no steam-pop or char. In step 2, a total of 174 single ablation applications were performed in the beating heart and resulted in 3 (1.7%) steam-pops, all occurring at catheter-tissue interface temperature ≥85°C. Additional 233 applications at 90 W/4 s and temperature limit of 65°C were applied without steam-pop. Step 3 compared the presence of gaps and lesion transmurality in atrial lines and pulmonary vein isolation between HP-SD (90 W/4 s, T ≤65°C) and standard (25 W/20 s) ablation. RESULTS: HP-SD ablation resulted in 100% contiguous lines with all transmural lesions, whereas standard ablation had linear gaps in 25% and partial thickness lesions in 29%. Ablation with HP-SD produced wider lesions (6.02 ± 0.2 mm vs. 4.43 ± 1.0 mm; p = 0.003) at similar depth (3.58 ± 0.3 mm vs. 3.53 ± 0.6 mm; p = 0.81) and improved lesion-to-lesion uniformity with comparable safety end points. CONCLUSIONS: In a preclinical model, HP-SD ablation (90 W/4 s, T ≤65°C) produced an improved lesion-to-lesion uniformity, linear contiguity, and transmurality at a similar safety profile of conventional ablation.


Assuntos
Ablação por Cateter/instrumentação , Ablação por Cateter/métodos , Veias Pulmonares/cirurgia , Animais , Desenho de Equipamento , Átrios do Coração/efeitos da radiação , Humanos , Segurança do Paciente , Suínos , Temperatura
17.
Nat Nanotechnol ; 13(11): 1048-1056, 2018 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30104619

RESUMO

Wearable and implantable devices require conductive, stretchable and biocompatible materials. However, obtaining composites that simultaneously fulfil these requirements is challenging due to a trade-off between conductivity and stretchability. Here, we report on Ag-Au nanocomposites composed of ultralong gold-coated silver nanowires in an elastomeric block-copolymer matrix. Owing to the high aspect ratio and percolation network of the Ag-Au nanowires, the nanocomposites exhibit an optimized conductivity of 41,850 S cm-1 (maximum of 72,600 S cm-1). Phase separation in the Ag-Au nanocomposite during the solvent-drying process generates a microstructure that yields an optimized stretchability of 266% (maximum of 840%). The thick gold sheath deposited on the silver nanowire surface prevents oxidation and silver ion leaching, making the composite biocompatible and highly conductive. Using the nanocomposite, we successfully fabricate wearable and implantable soft bioelectronic devices that can be conformally integrated with human skin and swine heart for continuous electrophysiological recording, and electrical and thermal stimulation.

18.
JACC Clin Electrophysiol ; 4(8): 1033-1048, 2018 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30139485

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: In this study, the scientific objective was to characterize the electrophysiological substrate of the ventricular tachycardia (VT) isthmus during sinus rhythm. BACKGROUND: The authors have recently described the electrophysiological characteristics of the VT isthmus using a novel in vivo high-resolution mapping technology. METHODS: Sixteen swine with healed infarction were studied using high-resolution mapping technology (Rhythmia, Boston Scientific, Cambridge, Massachusetts) in a closed-chest model. The left ventricle was mapped during sinus rhythm and analyzed for activation, conduction velocity, electrogram shape, and amplitude. Twenty-four VTs allowed detailed mapping of the common-channel "isthmus," including the "critical zone." This was defined as the zone of maximal conduction velocity slowing in the circuit, often occurring at entrance and exit from the isthmus caused by rapid angular change in activation vectors. RESULTS: The VT isthmus corresponded to sites displaying steep activation gradient (SAG) during sinus rhythm with conduction velocity slowing of 58.5 ± 22.4% (positive predictive value [PPV] 60%). The VT critical zone displayed SAG with greater conduction velocity slowing of 68.6 ± 18.2% (PPV 70%). Critical-zone sites were consistently localized in areas with bipolar voltage ≤0.55 mV, whereas isthmus sites were localized in areas with variable voltage amplitude (1.05 ± 0.80 mV [0.03 to 2.88 mV]). Importantly, critical zones served as common-site "anchors" for multiple VT configurations and cycle lengths. Isthmus and critical-zone sites occupied only 18.0 ± 7.0% of the low-voltage area (≤1.50 mV). Isolated late potentials were present in both isthmus and nonisthmus sites, including dead-end pathways (PPV 36%; 95% confidence interval: 34.2% to 39.6%). CONCLUSIONS: The VT critical zone corresponds to a location characterized by SAG and very low voltage amplitude during sinus rhythm. Thus, it allows identification of a re-entry anchor with high sensitivity and specificity. By contrast, voltage and electrogram characteristics during sinus rhythm have limited specificity for identifying the VT isthmus.


Assuntos
Infarto do Miocárdio , Taquicardia Ventricular , Animais , Ablação por Cateter , Técnicas Eletrofisiológicas Cardíacas , Sistema de Condução Cardíaco/fisiopatologia , Masculino , Infarto do Miocárdio/complicações , Infarto do Miocárdio/diagnóstico , Infarto do Miocárdio/fisiopatologia , Suínos , Taquicardia Ventricular/diagnóstico , Taquicardia Ventricular/etiologia , Taquicardia Ventricular/fisiopatologia
19.
Circ Arrhythm Electrophysiol ; 11(3): e005553, 2018 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29545358

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Repolarization abnormalities in arrhythmogenic right ventricular (RV) cardiomyopathy and their relationship to ventricular tachycardia substrate are incompletely understood. METHODS AND RESULTS: In 40 patients (29 men, mean age 38 years) with arrhythmogenic RV cardiomyopathy, we compared the extent and location of abnormal T (NegT) waves ≥1 mm in depth (n=32) and downsloping elevated ST segment (n=13), in ≥2 adjacent leads, to area and location of endocardial bipolar (<1.5 mV) and unipolar (<5.5 mV) and epicardial bipolar (<1.0 mV) voltage abnormalities. Abnormal unipolar RV endocardial area of 33.4±19.3% was present in 8 patients without NegT waves. Patients with NegT waves extending beyond lead V3 (n=20) had larger low bipolar (31.4±18.9% versus 16.5±14.6%; P=0.008) and unipolar endocardial areas (66.0±19.6% versus 47.4±25.1%; P=0.013) and larger epicardial low bipolar area (56.0±19.3% versus 40.1±24.9%; P=0.030) compared with those with NegT waves limited to leads V1 through V3 (n=20). ECG location of NegT waves regionalized to location of substrate. Patients with downsloping elevated ST segment, all localized to leads V1 and V2, had more unipolar endocardial abnormalities (71.8±18.1% versus 49.4±23.5%; P=0.005) involving outflow and mid-RV, compared with patients without downsloping elevated ST segment. CONCLUSIONS: In arrhythmogenic RV cardiomyopathy, abnormal electroanatomic mapping areas are proportional to extent of T-wave inversion on 12-lead ECG. Marked voltage abnormalities can exist without repolarization change. Downsloping elevated ST-segment pattern in V1 and V2 occurs with more unipolar endocardial voltage abnormality, consistent with more advanced transmural disease.


Assuntos
Displasia Arritmogênica Ventricular Direita/fisiopatologia , Mapeamento Potencial de Superfície Corporal/métodos , Sistema de Condução Cardíaco/fisiopatologia , Ventrículos do Coração/fisiopatologia , Potenciais de Ação , Adulto , Displasia Arritmogênica Ventricular Direita/diagnóstico , Eletrocardiografia/métodos , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Masculino
20.
J Magn Reson Imaging ; 2018 Mar 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29522262

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Myocardial infarction (MI) survivors are at risk of complications including heart failure and malignant arrhythmias. PURPOSE: We undertook serial imaging of swine following MI with the aim of characterizing the longitudinal left ventricular (LV) remodeling in a translational model of ischemia-reperfusion-mediated MI. ANIMAL MODEL: Eight Yorkshire swine underwent mid left anterior descending coronary artery balloon occlusion to create an ischemia-reperfusion experimental model of MI. FIELD STRENGTH/SEQUENCES: 1.5T Philips Achieva scanner. Serial cardiac MRI was performed at 16, 33, and 62 days post-MI, including cine imaging, native and postcontrast T1 , T2 and dark-blood late gadolinium enhanced (DB-LGE) scar imaging. ASSESSMENT: Regions of interest were selected on the parametric maps to assess native T1 and T2 in the infarct and in remote tissue. Volume of enhanced tissue, nonenhanced tissue, and gray zone were assessed from DB-LGE imaging. Volumes, cardiac function, and strain were calculated from cine imaging. STATISTICAL TESTS: Parameters estimated at more than two timepoints were compared with a one-way repeated measures analysis of variance. Parametric mapping data were analyzed using a generalized linear mixed model corrected for multiple observations. A result was considered statistically significant at P < 0.05. RESULTS: All animals developed anteroseptal akinesia and hyperenhancement on DB-LGE with a central core of nonenhancing tissue. Mean hyperenhancement volume did not change during the observation period, while the central core contracted from 2.2 ± 1.8 ml at 16 days to 0.08 ± 0.19 ml at 62 days (P = 0.008). Native T1 of ischemic myocardium increased from 1173 ± 93 msec at 16 days to 1309 ± 97 msec at 62 days (P < 0.001). Mean radial and circumferential strain rate magnitude in remote myocardium increased with time from the infarct (P < 0.05). DATE CONCLUSION: In this swine model of MI, serial quantitative cardiac MR exams allow characterization of LV remodeling and scar formation. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: 2 Technical Efficacy: Stage 2 J. Magn. Reson. Imaging 2018.

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