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1.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31504225

RESUMO

Research indicates that lifestyle and genetic factors influence the course of cognitive impairment in aging, but their interactions have not been well-examined. This study examined the relationship between physical activity and genotypes related to brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) in predicting cognitive performance in a sample of older adults with over 12 years of follow-up. Physical activity levels (sedentary, light, and moderate/vigorous) were determined for the sample of 3591 participants (57% female) without dementia. The genotypes examined included BDNF gene single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) (rs6265 and rs56164415) and receptor gene SNPs (NTRK2 rs2289656 and NGFR rs2072446). Cognition was assessed triennially using the Modified Mini-Mental State Exam. Unadjusted linear mixed models indicated that sedentary (ß=-5.05) and light (ß=-2.41) groups performed worse than moderate-vigorous (p < .001). Addition of interaction effects showed significant differences in rate of decline between activity levels, particularly among males (p = .006). A three-way interaction with sex, NGFR SNP rs2072446, and physical activity suggested that the C/C allele was associated with better cognitive performance among males engaging in light activity only (p = .004). Physical activity and sex, but not BDNF-related SNPs, predicted rate of cognitive decline in older adults, while NGFR rs2072446 may modify main effects.

2.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31186157

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: There has been considerable progress in identifying early cognitive and biomarker predictors of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Neuropsychiatric symptoms (NPS) are common in AD and appear to predict progression after the onset of mild cognitive impairment or dementia. OBJECTIVES: The objective of the study is to examine the relationship between NPS in clinically normal older adults and subsequent cognitive decline in a population-based sample. METHODS: The Cache County Study on Memory in Aging consists of a population-based sample of 5,092 older adults. We identified 470 clinically normal adults who were followed for an average period of 5.73 years. NPS were evaluated at the baseline clinical assessment using the Neuropsychiatric Inventory (NPI). NPI domain scores were quantified as the product of frequency X severity in individual NPI domains, and then summed for the NPI-Total. Neuropsychological measures were collected at baseline and at each subsequent follow-up wave. Linear mixed-effects models assessed the association of NPI-Total, NPI-Depression, and NPI-Anxiety scores (obtained at baseline) on longitudinal change in neuropsychological performance, controlling for age, sex, and education. RESULTS: Baseline NPI-Total score was associated with a more rapid rate of decline in word list memory, praxis recall, and animal fluency. Baseline NPI-Depression was not associated with later decline on any of the cognitive tests, while baseline NPI-Anxiety was associated with decline in Symbol Digit Modality. CONCLUSION: In conclusion, among clinically normal older adults derived from this population-based study, total burden of NPS was associated with longitudinal cognitive decline. These results add to the evidence that NPS are risk factors for or clinical indicators of preclinical dementia syndrome. Our study was an exploratory study and we did not control for multiple comparisons.

3.
Neurobiol Aging ; 2019 Mar 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30975575

RESUMO

3-Hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase is associated with monitoring cholesterol levels. The presence of the single-nucleotide polymorphism rs3846662 introduces alternative splicing at exon 13; the exclusion of this exon leads to a reduction in total cholesterol levels. Lower cholesterol levels are linked to a reduction in Alzheimer's disease (AD) risk. The major allele of rs3846662, which encourages the splicing of exon 13, has recently been shown to act as a preventative allele for AD, especially in women. The purpose of our research was to replicate and confirm this finding. Using logistic regressions and survival curves, we found a significant association between AD and rs3846662, with a stronger association in individuals who carry the APOE e4 allele, supporting previously published work. The effect of rs3846662 on women is insignificant in our cohort. We confirmed that rs3846662 is associated with reduced risk for AD without gender differences; however, we failed to detect association between rs3846662 and delayed mild cognitive impairment conversion to AD for either of the APOE e4 allelic groups.

4.
Int J Geriatr Psychiatry ; 34(7): 1087-1094, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30945374

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To examine the prevalence of neuropsychiatric symptoms (NPS) and cognitive correlates in severe dementia. METHODS: A population-based sample of 56 individuals with severe dementia (85.7% Alzheimer's type; 67.9% female) were assessed with the Severe Cognitive Impairment Profile (SCIP) and the Neuropsychiatric Inventory (NPI). Descriptive statistics displayed the frequency of NPS and bivariate and multiple regression analyses examined the associations between cognitive domains on the SCIP and NPS total, domain, and cluster scores. RESULTS: NPS were common in severe dementia with 98% of the sample exhibiting at least one symptom. Most common were delusions, apathy, agitation/aggression, and aberrant motor behavior, affecting 50% or more of participants. SCIP comportment was significantly associated with NPI total score and apathy (r = -.350 and -.292, respectively). All SCIP domains except for arithmetic, visuospatial, comportment, and motor behavior were significantly associated with agitation/aggression (r = -.285 to -.350). These associations remained in individual multiple regression models. CONCLUSION: In severe dementia, impairment in specific cognitive domains was associated with more severe NPS. Environmental manipulations to reduce processing demands in persons with severe dementia may be a useful strategy to target agitation and aggressive behaviors.

5.
Am J Geriatr Psychiatry ; 27(4): 349-359, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30616905

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Closer caregiver-care recipient (CG-CR) relationships are associated with better cognitive and functional abilities, activities of daily living (in persons with dementia), and lower informal care costs. METHODS: Due to the difficulty in treating neuropsychiatric symptoms (NPSs) and their detrimental effects on caregivers and care recipients, we examined whether closeness of CG-CR relationships was associated with overall NPS severity or with specific NPS symptom domains in care recipients. In a longitudinal population-based study in Cache County, Utah, the 12-item Neuropsychiatric Inventory (NPI-12) was assessed in 300 CG-CR dyads. Caregivers reported current relationship closeness using the Whitlatch Relationship Closeness Scale. Linear mixed models examined associations between CG-CR closeness and NPI-12 total score or selected symptom domains over time (observation period: 2002-2012). RESULTS: In unadjusted linear mixed models, higher closeness scores were associated with a five-point lower NPI-12 score and a one-point lesser increase in NPI-12 per year. NPI scores also showed lower affective cluster scores (two points) and lesser increase in psychosis cluster (approximately 0.5 points per year) and agitation/aggression (0.16 points per year) for each unit increase in closeness. When controlling for NPI caregiver distress, associations between closeness and NPSs diminished to a 0.5-point lesser increase in total NPI-12 score per year. Adjusted models for NPI domains/clusters showed -0.32 points per year for the psychosis cluster, -0.11 points per year for agitation/aggression, and -0.67 overall for the affective cluster. CONCLUSION: Higher CG-CR closeness, a potentially modifiable factor, is associated with lower NPS severity and may provide a target for intervention.

6.
Int J Genomics ; 2018: 5121540, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30255029

RESUMO

Polygenic scores (or genetic risk scores) quantify the aggregate of small effects from many common genetic loci that have been associated with a trait through genome-wide association. Polygenic scores were first used successfully in schizophrenia and have since been applied to multiple phenotypes including multiple sclerosis, rheumatoid arthritis, and height. Because human height is an easily-measured and complex polygenic trait, polygenic height scores provide exciting insights into the predictability of aggregate common variant effect on the phenotype. Shawn Bradley is an extremely tall former professional basketball player from Brigham Young University and the National Basketball Association (NBA), measuring 2.29 meters (7'6″, 99.99999th percentile for height) tall, with no known medical conditions. Here, we present a case where a rare combination of common SNPs in one individual results in an extremely high polygenic height score that is correlated with an extreme phenotype. While polygenic scores are not clinically significant in the average case, our findings suggest that for extreme phenotypes, polygenic scores may be more successful for the prediction of individuals.

7.
Alzheimer Dis Assoc Disord ; 32(4): 298-304, 2018 Oct-Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30188355

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Studies have reported faster cognitive/functional decline in persons with dementia (PWD) with malnutrition. We investigated whether baseline nutritional status predicted severe dementia and mortality in a population-based sample. PATIENTS: A maximum of 300 PWD were assessed annually for up to 8.6 years. METHODS: Nutritional status was assessed using a modified Mini-Nutritional Assessment (mMNA). Severe dementia was defined as: "severe" rating on the Clinical Dementia Rating or Mini-Mental State Examination score ≤10. Using Cox proportional hazards models, we examined the association between baseline mMNA score (or its subcomponents) with each outcome. Covariates included demographics; dementia onset age, type, and duration; APOE genotype; and residency with caregiver. RESULTS: Compared with "well-nourished," "malnourished" PWD had 3-4 times the hazard of severe dementia [hazard ratio (HR), 4.31; P=0.014] and death (HR, 3.04; P<0.001). Those "at risk for malnutrition" had twice the hazard of severe dementia (HR, 1.98; P=0.064) and 1.5 times the hazard of death (HR, 1.46; P=0.015). mMNA subcomponents of food group intake, weight loss, body mass index, mobility, health status, protein consumption, and mid-arm circumference predicted one or both outcomes. CONCLUSIONS: Nutritional status is an important predictor of clinical outcomes in dementia and may provide an avenue for intervention.

8.
Int Psychogeriatr ; 30(10): 1499-1507, 2018 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29559029

RESUMO

ABSTRACTBackground:The use of FDA approved medications for Alzheimer's disease [AD; FDAAMAD; (cholinesterase inhibitors and N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor antagonists)] has been associated with symptomatic benefit with a reduction in formal (paid services) and total costs of care (formal and informal costs). We examined the use of these medications and their association with informal costs in persons with dementia. METHOD: Two hundred eighty participants (53% female, 72% AD) from the longitudinal, population-based Dementia Progression Study in Cache County, Utah (USA) were followed up to ten years. Mean (SD) age at baseline was 85.6 (5.5) years. Informal costs (expressed in 2015 dollars) were calculated using the replacement cost method (hours of care multiplied by the median wage in Utah in the visit year) and adjusted for inflation using the Medical Consumer Price Index. Generalized Estimating Equations with a gamma log-link function were used to examine the longitudinal association between use of FDAAMAD and informal costs. RESULTS: The daily informal cost for each participant at baseline ranged from $0 to $318.12, with the sample median of $9.40. Within the entire sample, use of FDAAMAD was not significantly associated with informal costs (expß = 0.73, p = 0.060). In analyses restricted to participants with mild dementia at baseline (N = 222), use of FDAAMAD was associated with 32% lower costs (expß = 0.68, p = 0.038). CONCLUSIONS: Use of FDAAMAD was associated with lower informal care costs in those with mild dementia only.

10.
J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci ; 72(12): 1607-1613, 2017 Nov 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28498887

RESUMO

Neurotrophins, including nerve-growth factor and brain-derived neurotrophic factor, have been implicated in Alzheimer's disease (AD). Associations between AD and neurotrophin signaling genes have been inconsistent, with few studies examining sex differences in risk. We examined four single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) involved in neurotrophin signaling (rs6265, rs56164415, rs2289656, rs2072446) and risk for AD by sex in a population-based sample of older adults. Three thousand four hundred and ninety-nine individuals without dementia at baseline [mean (standard deviation) age = 74.64 (6.84), 58% female] underwent dementia screening and assessment over four triennial waves. Cox regression was used to examine time to AD or right censoring for each SNP. Female carriers of the minor T allele for rs2072446 and rs56164415 had a 60% (hazard ratio [HR] = 1.60, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.02-2.51) and 93% (HR = 1.93, 95% CI = 1.30-2.84) higher hazard for AD, respectively, than male noncarriers of the T allele. Furthermore, male carriers of the T allele of rs2072446 had a 61% lower hazard (HR = 0.39, 95% CI = 0.14-1.06) than male noncarriers at trend-level significance (p = .07). The association between certain neurotrophin gene polymorphisms and AD differs by sex and may explain inconsistent findings in the literature.


Assuntos
Doença de Alzheimer/epidemiologia , Doença de Alzheimer/genética , Fatores de Crescimento Neural/genética , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Medição de Risco , Fatores Sexuais
11.
JMIR Mhealth Uhealth ; 4(3): e93, 2016 Aug 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27485822

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Health education and behavior change programs targeting specific risk factors have demonstrated their effectiveness in reducing the development of future diseases. Alzheimer disease (AD) shares many of the same risk factors, most of which can be addressed via behavior change. It is therefore theorized that a behavior change intervention targeting these risk factors would likely result in favorable rates of AD prevention. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to reduce the future risk of developing AD, while in the short term promoting vascular health, through behavior change. METHODS: The study was an interventional randomized controlled trial consisting of subjects who were randomly assigned into either treatment (n=102) or control group (n=42). Outcome measures included various blood-based biomarkers, anthropometric measures, and behaviors related to AD risk. The treatment group was provided with a bespoke "Gray Matters" mobile phone app designed to encourage and facilitate behavior change. The app presented evidence-based educational material relating to AD risk and prevention strategies, facilitated self-reporting of behaviors across 6 behavioral domains, and presented feedback on the user's performance, calculated from reported behaviors against recommended guidelines. RESULTS: This paper explores the rationale for a mobile phone-led intervention and details the app's effect on behavior change and subsequent clinical outcomes. Via the app, the average participant submitted 7.3 (SD 3.2) behavioral logs/day (n=122,719). Analysis of these logs against primary outcome measures revealed that participants who improved their high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels during the study duration answered a statistically significant higher number of questions per day (mean 8.30, SD 2.29) than those with no improvement (mean 6.52, SD 3.612), t97.74=-3.051, P=.003. Participants who decreased their body mass index (BMI) performed significantly better in attaining their recommended daily goals (mean 56.21 SD 30.4%) than those who increased their BMI (mean 40.12 SD 29.1%), t80 = -2.449, P=.017. In total, 69.2% (n=18) of those who achieved a mean performance percentage of 60% or higher, across all domains, reduced their BMI during the study, whereas 60.7% (n=34) who did not, increased their BMI. One-way analysis of variance of systolic blood pressure category changes showed a significant correlation between reported efforts to reduce stress and category change as a whole, P=.035. An exit survey highlighted that respondents (n=83) reported that the app motivated them to perform physical activity (85.4%) and make healthier food choices (87.5%). CONCLUSIONS: In this study, the ubiquitous nature of the mobile phone excelled as a delivery platform for the intervention, enabling the dissemination of educational intervention material while simultaneously monitoring and encouraging positive behavior change, resulting in desirable clinical effects. Sustained effort to maintain the achieved behaviors is expected to mitigate future AD risk. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrails.gov NCT02290912; https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT02290912 (Archived by WebCite at http://www.webcitation.org/6ictUEwnm).

12.
BMC Genomics ; 17 Suppl 3: 438, 2016 06 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27357204

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Alzheimer's disease is the leading cause of dementia in the elderly and the third most common cause of death in the United States. A vast number of genes regulate Alzheimer's disease, including Presenilin 1 (PSEN1). Multiple studies have attempted to locate novel variants in the PSEN1 gene that affect Alzheimer's disease status. A recent study suggested that one of these variants, PSEN1 E318G (rs17125721), significantly affects Alzheimer's disease status in a large case-control dataset, particularly in connection with the APOEε4 allele. METHODS: Our study looks at the same variant in the Cache County Study on Memory and Aging, a large population-based dataset. We tested for association between E318G genotype and Alzheimer's disease status by running a series of Fisher's exact tests. We also performed logistic regression to test for an additive effect of E318G genotype on Alzheimer's disease status and for the existence of an interaction between E318G and APOEε4. RESULTS: In our Fisher's exact test, it appeared that APOEε4 carriers with an E318G allele have slightly higher risk for AD than those without the allele (3.3 vs. 3.8); however, the 95 % confidence intervals of those estimates overlapped completely, indicating non-significance. Our logistic regression model found a positive but non-significant main effect for E318G (p = 0.895). The interaction term between E318G and APOEε4 was also non-significant (p = 0.689). CONCLUSIONS: Our findings do not provide significant support for E318G as a risk factor for AD in APOEε4 carriers. Our calculations indicated that the overall sample used in the logistic regression models was adequately powered to detect the sort of effect sizes observed previously. However, the power analyses of our Fisher's exact tests indicate that our partitioned data was underpowered, particularly in regards to the low number of E318G carriers, both AD cases and controls, in the Cache county dataset. Thus, the differences in types of datasets used may help to explain the difference in effect magnitudes seen. Analyses in additional case-control datasets will be required to understand fully the effect of E318G on Alzheimer's disease status.


Assuntos
Doença de Alzheimer/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença/genética , Mutação de Sentido Incorreto , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Presenilina-1/genética , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Alelos , Apolipoproteína E4/genética , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Epistasia Genética , Frequência do Gene , Genótipo , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Razão de Chances , Fatores de Risco , Utah
13.
Alzheimers Dement ; 12(8): 917-24, 2016 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27103262

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Identifying factors associated with lower dementia care costs is essential. We examined whether two caregiver factors were associated with lower costs of informal care. METHODS: A total of 271 care dyads of the Cache County Dementia Study were included. Estimates of informal costs were based on caregiver reports of time spent in care-related activities and inflation-adjusted 2012 Utah median hourly wages. Caregiver coping and emotional closeness with the care-recipient were assessed using the Ways of Coping Checklist-Revised and Relationship Closeness Scale, respectively. RESULTS: Higher closeness was associated with 24% lower costs (expß = 0.763 [95% confidence interval: 0.583-0.999]) in linear mixed models controlling for demographics and baseline dementia severity and duration. Problem-focused coping was not associated with informal costs (P = .354). DISCUSSION: Caregiver closeness, a potentially modifiable factor, predicted lower dementia informal care costs over time. Future studies examining the care environment in closer dyads may identify specific care-related behaviors or strategies that are associated with lower costs.


Assuntos
Cuidadores/psicologia , Efeitos Psicossociais da Doença , Demência , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Demência/economia , Demência/enfermagem , Demência/psicologia , Progressão da Doença , Feminino , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
14.
J Alzheimers Dis ; 52(1): 33-42, 2016 02 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26967207

RESUMO

Nutritional status may be a modifiable factor in the progression of dementia. We examined the association of nutritional status and rate of cognitive and functional decline in a U.S. population-based sample. Study design was an observational longitudinal study with annual follow-ups up to 6 years of 292 persons with dementia (72% Alzheimer's disease, 56% female) in Cache County, UT using the Mini-Mental State Exam (MMSE), Clinical Dementia Rating Sum of Boxes (CDR-sb), and modified Mini Nutritional Assessment (mMNA). mMNA scores declined by approximately 0.50 points/year, suggesting increasing risk for malnutrition. Lower mMNA score predicted faster rate of decline on the MMSE at earlier follow-up times, but slower decline at later follow-up times, whereas higher mMNA scores had the opposite pattern (mMNA by time ß= 0.22, p = 0.017; mMNA by time2 ß= -0.04, p = 0.04). Lower mMNA score was associated with greater impairment on the CDR-sb over the course of dementia (ß= 0.35, p <  0.001). Assessment of malnutrition may be useful in predicting rates of progression in dementia and may provide a target for clinical intervention.


Assuntos
Doença de Alzheimer/epidemiologia , Doença de Alzheimer/metabolismo , Demência Vascular/epidemiologia , Demência Vascular/metabolismo , Estado Nutricional , Idade de Início , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Progressão da Doença , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Entrevista Psiquiátrica Padronizada , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Fatores Sexuais , Utah/epidemiologia
15.
Int J Geriatr Psychiatry ; 31(3): 256-63, 2016 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26133120

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Parental death during childhood, and offspring and spouse death during adulthood have individually been associated with faster cognitive decline and higher Alzheimer's disease (AD) risk in late life. However, the cumulative effect of childhood and adulthood family deaths on AD risk among different age cohorts has not been studied. METHODS: To examine these associations, this prospective cohort study uses a population-based sample of 4545 initially non-demented participants (56.7% female; age M = 75.0/SD = 6.9 years) observed at four triennial waves, linked with objective Utah Population Database data on cumulative mother, father, sibling, spouse, and offspring death experienced during childhood and adulthood. Cox regression modeled survival time from baseline interview to AD onset, as a function of family deaths during childhood or adulthood, among different age groups, along with gender and presence of ε4 allele at apolipoprotein E (APOE) polymorphic genetic locus. RESULTS: Age group significantly moderated the relationship between family death and AD; among persons aged 65-69 years at baseline (children of the Great Depression), those exposed to 3-4 deaths and 5+ deaths during adulthood exhibited a doubling of AD risk (adjusted hazard ratio, aHR = 2.25, p = .038, and aHR = 2.72, p = .029), while among persons aged 80 years and older, those exposed to 3-4 deaths during adulthood exhibited lower AD risk (HR = 0.539, p = 0.014). In a combined model of childhood and adulthood deaths, these findings persisted. CONCLUSIONS: Results suggest a cohort effect in the link between family member deaths during adulthood and AD risk later in life.


Assuntos
Doença de Alzheimer/psicologia , Morte , Demência/psicologia , Família , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Doença de Alzheimer/genética , Apolipoproteínas E/genética , Feminino , Genótipo , Humanos , Masculino , Estudos Prospectivos , Análise de Regressão , Fatores de Risco
16.
Alzheimers Dement ; 11(8): 946-54, 2015 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25614127

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Dementia costs are critical for influencing healthcare policy, but limited longitudinal information exists. We examined longitudinal informal care costs of dementia in a population-based sample. METHODS: Data from the Cache County Study included dementia onset, duration, and severity assessed by the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE), Clinical Dementia Rating Scale (CDR), and Neuropsychiatric Inventory (NPI). Informal costs of daily care (COC) was estimated based on median Utah wages. Mixed models estimated the relationship between severity and longitudinal COC in separate models for MMSE and CDR. RESULTS: Two hundred and eighty-seven subjects (53% female, mean (standard deviation) age was 82.3 (5.9) years) participated. Overall COC increased by 18% per year. COC was 6% lower per MMSE-point increase and compared with very mild dementia, COC increased over twofold for mild, fivefold for moderate, and sixfold for severe dementia on the CDR. CONCLUSIONS: Greater dementia severity predicted higher costs. Disease management strategies addressing dementia progression may curb costs.


Assuntos
Cuidadores/economia , Demência/economia , Demência/terapia , Assistência ao Paciente/economia , Distribuição por Idade , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Planejamento em Saúde Comunitária , Demência/diagnóstico , Feminino , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Avaliação de Resultados (Cuidados de Saúde)/economia , Avaliação de Resultados (Cuidados de Saúde)/métodos , Assistência ao Paciente/métodos , Escalas de Graduação Psiquiátrica , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Tempo , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
17.
JAMA Neurol ; 72(2): 209-16, 2015 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25531812

RESUMO

IMPORTANCE: Recently, a rare variant in the amyloid precursor protein gene (APP) was described in a population from Iceland. This variant, in which alanine is replaced by threonine at position 673 (A673T), appears to protect against late-onset Alzheimer disease (AD). We evaluated the frequency of this variant in AD cases and cognitively normal controls to determine whether this variant will significantly contribute to risk assessment in individuals in the United States. OBJECTIVE: To determine the frequency of the APP A673T variant in a large group of elderly cognitively normal controls and AD cases from the United States and in 2 case-control cohorts from Sweden. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: Case-control association analysis of variant APP A673T in US and Swedish white individuals comparing AD cases with cognitively intact elderly controls. Participants were ascertained at multiple university-associated medical centers and clinics across the United States and Sweden by study-specific sampling methods. They were from case-control studies, community-based prospective cohort studies, and studies that ascertained multiplex families from multiple sources. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES: Genotypes for the APP A673T variant were determined using the Infinium HumanExome V1 Beadchip (Illumina, Inc) and by TaqMan genotyping (Life Technologies). RESULTS: The A673T variant genotypes were evaluated in 8943 US AD cases, 10 480 US cognitively normal controls, 862 Swedish AD cases, and 707 Swedish cognitively normal controls. We identified 3 US individuals heterozygous for A673T, including 1 AD case (age at onset, 89 years) and 2 controls (age at last examination, 82 and 77 years). The remaining US samples were homozygous for the alanine (A673) allele. In the Swedish samples, 3 controls were heterozygous for A673T and all AD cases were homozygous for the A673 allele. We also genotyped a US family previously reported to harbor the A673T variant and found a mother-daughter pair, both cognitively normal at ages 72 and 84 years, respectively, who were both heterozygous for A673T; however, all individuals with AD in the family were homozygous for A673. CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE: The A673T variant is extremely rare in US cohorts and does not play a substantial role in risk for AD in this population. This variant may be primarily restricted to Icelandic and Scandinavian populations.


Assuntos
Doença de Alzheimer/genética , Precursor de Proteína beta-Amiloide/genética , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Doença de Alzheimer/epidemiologia , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Genótipo , Humanos , Masculino , Linhagem , Fatores de Proteção , Suécia/epidemiologia , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
18.
Aging Ment Health ; 19(5): 390-9, 2015.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25093439

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Prior research identifies that psychological outcomes among dementia caregivers are associated with their use of coping strategies. Few studies have tested the association of coping and health longitudinally. METHOD: This study examined factors associated with the use of coping strategies over time and their associations with physical and mental health outcomes in a population-based sample of 226 dementia caregivers in Cache County, Utah, USA. Caregivers annually completed the Ways of Coping Checklist-Revised, the Beck Anxiety Inventory, and a health interview. Care-recipient cognitive and functional abilities were obtained using the Mini-Mental State Exam and the Clinical Dementia Rating. Neuropsychiatric symptoms were assessed using the Neuropsychiatric Inventory. RESULTS: Caregivers most frequently identified providing care as a problem (37.6%). Linear mixed models of caregiver coping strategies found that the use of most strategies were stable except for increasing Avoidance among adult child caregivers (ß = 0.14, p = 0.048). On average, increased Wishful Thinking (ß = 2.48, p < 0.001) or Blames Self (ß = 1.06, p = 0.002) was associated with higher anxiety scores. Increased use of Blames Others among males (interaction, ß = 0.28, p = 0.02) and greater use of Wishful Thinking among younger caregivers (interaction, ß = -0.01, p = 0.01) were associated with more caregiver health conditions. Coping strategies were not associated with change in anxiety or health conditions over time. CONCLUSION: Our results emphasize the importance of caregiver coping strategies on caregiver health and well-being and may identify subgroups of persons at risk for worse outcomes.


Assuntos
Adaptação Psicológica , Ansiedade/psicologia , Cuidadores/psicologia , Demência/enfermagem , Idoso , Progressão da Doença , Feminino , Nível de Saúde , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Saúde Mental , Testes Neuropsicológicos , Relações Pais-Filho , Estresse Psicológico
19.
Alzheimers Dement (N Y) ; 1(1): 53-62, 2015 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29854925

RESUMO

Introduction: Most Alzheimer's disease (AD) prevention studies focus on older adults or persons with existing cognitive impairment. This study describes the design and progress of a novel pilot intervention, the Gray Matters study. Methods: This proof-of-concept randomized controlled trial tests an evidence-based multidomain lifestyle intervention in 146 persons aged 40 to 64 years, in northern Utah. Data collectors were blinded to participants' randomization to treatment (n = 104) or control (n = 42). Intervention targeted physical activity, food choices, social engagement, cognitive simulation, sleep quality, and stress management, and uses a custom smartphone application, activity monitor, and educational materials. Secondary outcomes include biomarkers, body mass index, cognitive testing, and psychological surveys. Results: Midway through the study, achievements include a 98.7% retention rate, a 96% rate of compliance with app data entry, and positive trends in behavioral change. Discussion: Participants were empowered, learning that lifestyle might impact AD risk, exhibiting positive behavioral changes thus far.

20.
Neurobiol Aging ; 36(1): 547.e1-3, 2015 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25260850

RESUMO

Cholesterol has been implicated in the pathogenesis of late-onset Alzheimer's disease (LOAD) and the cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP) is critical to cholesterol regulation within the cell, making CETP an Alzheimer's disease candidate gene. Several studies have suggested that CETP I405V (rs5882) is associated with cognitive function and LOAD risk, but findings vary and most studies have been conducted using relatively small numbers of samples. To test whether this variant is involved in cognitive function and LOAD progression, we genotyped 4486 subjects with up to 12 years of longitudinal cognitive assessment. Analyses revealed an average 0.6-point decrease per year in the rate of cognitive decline for each additional valine (p < 0.011). We failed to detect the association between CETP I405V and LOAD status (p < 0.28). We conclude that CETP I405V is associated with preserved cognition over time but is not associated with LOAD status.


Assuntos
Doença de Alzheimer/genética , Doença de Alzheimer/psicologia , Proteínas de Transferência de Ésteres de Colesterol/genética , Proteínas de Transferência de Ésteres de Colesterol/fisiologia , Cognição , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Progressão da Doença , Feminino , Variação Genética , Humanos , Masculino , Risco , Estados Unidos
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