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1.
J Burn Care Res ; 40(4): 507-512, 2019 06 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30893426

RESUMO

Smoke inhalation injury (SII) is a major morbidity and cause of mortality in patients with burns. Damage caused by inhalation of thermal or chemical irritants, including toxic fumes and chemicals, leads to respiratory cilia and epithelial cell injuries, which turn to severe bronchospasm and alveolar damage and results in acute respiratory distress syndrome. Respiratory management plays a vital role in the treatment of SII. In this review, we provide an overview of SII with emphasis on respiratory management, including aerosol therapy, bronchial hygiene therapy, advanced ventilation modes, and heated humidified high-flow nasal cannula. In summary, the information may be helpful for further improvements in outcomes.

2.
Paediatr Respir Rev ; 2019 Nov 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32386887

RESUMO

Establishing effective respiration is vital in the transition from fetal to neonatal life. Respiratory support mainly facilitates and creates functional residual capacity and maintains adequate gas exchange. Sustained inflation (SI) delivers prolonged inflation and rapidly creates and establishes the functional residual capacity. The use of SI in preterm infants in the delivery room is still controversial. The optimum settings of SI remain unknown. Animal studies and clinical reports have demonstrated the advantages and disadvantages of SI. In this article, the current literature was reviewed to examine the efficacy of SI in infants.

3.
Nat Commun ; 8(1): 71, 2017 07 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28694423

RESUMO

It is unclear whether there is an intermediate dark state between the S2 and S1 states of carotenoids. Previous two-dimensional electronic spectroscopy measurements support its existence and its involvement in the energy transfer from carotenoids to chlorophylls, but there is still considerable debate on the origin of this dark state and how it regulates the energy transfer process. Here we use ab initio calculations on excited-state dynamics and simulated two-dimensional electronic spectrum of carotenoids from purple bacteria to provide evidence supporting that the dark state may be assigned to a new Ag+ state. Our calculations also indicate that groups on the conjugation backbone of carotenoids may substantially affect the excited-state levels and the energy transfer process. These results contribute to a better understanding of carotenoid excited states.Carotenoids harvest energy from light and transfer it to chlorophylls during photosynthesis. Here, Feng et al. perform ab initio calculations on excited-state dynamics and simulated 2D electronic spectrum of carotenoids, supporting the existence of a new excited state in carotenoids.


Assuntos
Carotenoides/metabolismo , Clorofila/metabolismo , Transferência de Energia/fisiologia , Regulação Bacteriana da Expressão Gênica/fisiologia , Proteobactérias/metabolismo , Clorofila/genética
4.
Int J Infect Dis ; 58: 8-17, 2017 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28238888

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Regulatory T-cells (Tregs) play an important role in the pathogenesis of chronic hepatitis C (CHC) infection. Pegylated interferon is the standard therapy for CHC patients in Asian countries. This study aimed to evaluate the frequency and function of Tregs in CHC patients receiving combination therapy. METHODS: CHC patients (n=30) who had elevated alanine aminotransferase and underwent combination therapy were included. Clinical data and Treg function were checked at baseline, 12 weeks after treatment, at the end of treatment, and at the end of 24 weeks of follow-up. Treg immunosuppressive activity was measured as the inhibition ratio of conventional T-cell proliferation. RESULTS: Treg-mediated immunosuppression was significantly lower during therapy than at baseline (baseline 44.45%; 12 weeks 18.41% (p=0.042); end of treatment 22.62% (p=0.036); end of follow-up 17.46% (p=0.003)). Treg-mediated immunosuppression was higher in patients with a sustained virological response (SVR) than in those without SVR at the end of follow-up (SVR 24.20%, non-SVR 6.87%; p=0.030). CONCLUSION: Treg-mediated immunosuppression was lower during and after combination therapy, regardless of the treatment response, and higher in patients with SVR than in those without SVR at the end of follow-up.


Assuntos
Antivirais/uso terapêutico , Hepatite C Crônica/imunologia , Interferon-alfa/uso terapêutico , Ribavirina/uso terapêutico , Linfócitos T Reguladores/imunologia , Adulto , Alanina Transaminase/metabolismo , Estudos de Coortes , Quimioterapia Combinada , Feminino , Hepatite C Crônica/tratamento farmacológico , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Polietilenoglicóis
5.
Opt Express ; 23(3): A106-17, 2015 Feb 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25836236

RESUMO

Metallic back reflectors has been used for thin-film and wafer-based solar cells for very long time. Nonetheless, the metallic mirrors might not be the best choices for photovoltaics. In this work, we show that solar cells with all-dielectric reflectors can surpass the best-configured metal-backed devices. Theoretical and experimental results all show that superior large-angle light scattering capability can be achieved by the diffuse medium reflectors, and the solar cell J-V enhancement is higher for solar cells using all-dielectric reflectors. Specifically, the measured diffused scattering efficiency (D.S.E.) of a diffuse medium reflector is >0.8 for the light trapping spectral range (600nm-1000nm), and the measured reflectance of a diffuse medium can be as high as silver if the geometry of embedded titanium oxide(TiO(2)) nanoparticles is optimized. Moreover, the diffuse medium reflectors have the additional advantage of room-temperature processing, low cost, and very high throughput. We believe that using all-dielectric solar cell reflectors is a way to approach the thermodynamic conversion limit by completely excluding metallic dissipation.

6.
Opt Express ; 22 Suppl 3: A880-94, 2014 May 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24922394

RESUMO

Dielectric mirrors have recently emerged for solar cells due to the advantages of lower cost, lower temperature processing, higher throughput, and zero plasmonic absorption as compared to conventional metallic counterparts. Nonetheless, in the past, efforts for incorporating dielectric mirrors into photovoltaics were not successful due to limited bandwidth and insufficient light scattering that prevented their wide usage. In this work, it is shown that the key for ultra-broadband dielectric mirrors is aperiodicity, or randomization. In addition, it has been proven that dielectric mirrors can be widely applicable to thin-film and thick wafer-based solar cells to provide for light trapping comparable to conventional metallic back reflectors at their respective optimal geometries. Finally, the near-field angular emission plot of Poynting vectors is conducted, and it further confirms the superior light-scattering property of dielectric mirrors, especially for diffuse medium reflectors, despite the absence of surface plasmon excitation. The preliminary experimental results also confirm the high feasibility of dielectric mirrors for photovoltaics.


Assuntos
Fontes de Energia Elétrica , Luz , Membranas Artificiais , Nanotecnologia/instrumentação , Energia Solar , Ressonância de Plasmônio de Superfície/instrumentação , Desenho de Equipamento , Humanos , Nanoestruturas , Espalhamento de Radiação
7.
Opt Express ; 21 Suppl 1: A131-45, 2013 Jan 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23389264

RESUMO

Surface plasmon enhancement has been proposed as a way to achieve higher absorption for thin-film photovoltaics, where surface plasmon polariton(SPP) and localized surface plasmon (LSP) are shown to provide dense near field and far field light scattering. Here it is shown that controlled far-field light scattering can be achieved using successive coupling between surface plasmonic (SP) nano-particles. Through genetic algorithm (GA) optimization, energy transfer between discrete nano-particles (ETDNP) is identified, which enhances solar cell efficiency. The optimized energy transfer structure acts like lumped-element transmission line and can properly alter the direction of photon flow. Increased in-plane component of wavevector is thus achieved and photon path length is extended. In addition, Wood-Rayleigh anomaly, at which transmission minimum occurs, is avoided through GA optimization. Optimized energy transfer structure provides 46.95% improvement over baseline planar cell. It achieves larger angular scattering capability compared to conventional surface plasmon polariton back reflector structure and index-guided structure due to SP energy transfer through mode coupling. Via SP mediated energy transfer, an alternative way to control the light flow inside thin-film is proposed, which can be more efficient than conventional index-guided mode using total internal reflection (TIR).


Assuntos
Simulação por Computador , Nanoestruturas/química , Espalhamento de Radiação , Energia Solar , Ressonância de Plasmônio de Superfície/instrumentação , Absorção , Fontes de Energia Elétrica , Transferência de Energia , Desenho de Equipamento
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