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1.
Georgian Med News ; (316-317): 154-158, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34511463

RESUMO

Malignant tumors are one of the leading courses of mortality in the world, and it is believed that 19% of malignant tumors are associated with environmental risk factors. The aim of the study was to establish the spectrum of distributions of an informative biomarker of the unfavorable (genotoxic) effect of the external environment on the body by determining the level of micronuclei (LMN) in buccal epithelium cells in populations of villages of the Sachkhera region (Georgia). In the inhabitants of the Sachkhere district (both sexes, 50-65 years old) living in the villages of Sareki, Sairkhe, and Chorvila, LMN was determined in the cells of the buccal epithelium. The statistical significance of the difference in LML between the village population was assessed using the analysis of variance (ANOVA). Dixon's Q test was used to identify abnormal micronuclei. The χ2 criterion was used to assess the normality of LMN distributions among residents of the villages. The distribution of the population by LMN indicators in each individual village was described as the distribution of a two-component mixture. The statistical significance of the difference between the Gaussian means of the mixture components was assessed using the Z-test. To analyze the data and visualize the results, the SPSS and Open BUGS software packages were used. Differences in the LMN of the buccal epithelium in the studied populations were revealed, which may be due to the influence of external environmental factors: in Sareki, the effect of a certain (unidentified) clearly expressed genotoxic factor (both in terms of intensity and scale of exposure) was revealed, which is accompanied by a sharp increase in LMN, while in Chorvila and Sairkhe the presence of an inducing factor is not recorded and LMN remained practically within the norms. The identification of the causal relationship between the nature of the distributions of the used biomarkers and the specificity of the incidence of the population in the villages, as well as the possible contribution of unfavorable environmental factors, is the subject of further research.


Assuntos
Dano ao DNA , Mucosa Bucal , Idoso , Teorema de Bayes , Biomarcadores , Feminino , República da Geórgia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
2.
Georgian Med News ; (315): 125-128, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Russo | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34365438

RESUMO

Spatial-temporal monitoring of the health status of the population plays an important role in public health. For identifying and considering the effects of heterogeneity at the subpopulation level, Bayesian methods for analyzing mixtures of the probability distributions are currently being intensively developed. This article presents the results of studies of the distribution spectrum of the blood total antiradical activity (TAA) levels of the Sachkhere district (Georgia) villages' (Chorvila, Sareki, Sairkhe) population. The research results indicate a non-uniform distribution of blood TAA levels in the populations of the villages of the Sachkhere district. The average blood TAA value in the village Chorvila was statistically significantly lower than the value of blood TAA in the villages of Sareki and Sairkhe. In the village Chorvila, the distribution of blood TAA indices can be described by the Gauss distribution; in Sareki and Sairkhe, a bimodal type of distribution of these values was revealed (the reliability of the difference between the mean values of the distribution components was be lower than in Sareki), which indicates the existence of at least two different subpopulations in this region, related to the impact a certain (unidentified) factor inducing the mobilization of blood TAA. The obtained results allow us to consider the TAA of blood as the most important marker of the oxidative homeostasis of the body in the population.


Assuntos
Teorema de Bayes , República da Geórgia , Humanos , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes
3.
Georgian Med News ; (315): 181-185, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34365447

RESUMO

The study aim was to observe the working conditions of individuals working on municipal transport, check the levels of dust and toxicity, and review from the hygienic point of view. The levels of dust and chemical pollutants in the working environment of Tbilisi municipal transport workers were examined. Methods used in hygienic practice were applied to analyze air samples. test in total was conducted to measure the concentration of dust in the air and samples were collected with air analyzers. The toxicity levels in the surrounding environment of the municipal motor vehicle drivers, as well as technicians (welders, electricians, turners, tinsmiths, electric arc welding). It was established that the toxicity of the air in the municipal transports and technical service establishments fluctuates between certain levels. The highest dust levels were found in the working zone of the driver, with dust levels twice accepted levels. Working conditions at this specific zone were identified as 3.1 class. Workplaces in different service stations were also classified in the same group, with dust levels 1.6 times higher than normal. In total 5 workplaces were given level 3.1 classification. Only the workplace of a tinsmith was classified as a level 2 acceptable hazard. The concentration of dust and toxic chemicals in the environment of municipal transport employees is lower than acceptable levels, but long-time exposure to these agents affects the health of individuals and may cause subclinical health effects, even if the disease does not fully manifest. These effects should be taken into consideration when planning regular medical examinations and rejuvenating procedures for the employees.


Assuntos
Poluentes Ocupacionais do Ar , Poluição do Ar , Exposição Ocupacional , Poluentes Ocupacionais do Ar/análise , Poluentes Ocupacionais do Ar/toxicidade , Poluição do Ar/efeitos adversos , Poeira/análise , Humanos , Exposição Ocupacional/efeitos adversos , Local de Trabalho
4.
Georgian Med News ; (313): 173-176, 2021 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34103452

RESUMO

In this review, we discuss the role of adrenoceptors in the regulation of the rheological functions of erythrocytes. ß-adrenoceptors play an important role in the regulation of erythrocytes functions and metabolism. They participate in the modification of transport membrane proteins (Na+/K+-ATPase, Ca+2-ATPase, Na+/K+/2Cl-cotransporter, Na+/H+-antiporter, CAT-1, Ca2+-dependent K+ channels (Gard channels), the activity of adenylate cyclase and cAMP, AMP-dependent activation of the L-arginine/NOS system and erythrocyte NOS) and by this way modulate the cells volume, rheological properties (deformability, aggregability), intensity of NO synthesis and ATP reliase. These properties of erythrocytes determine, that, in addition to the transport of gases, they play the oxygen sensors role and can participate in the mechanisms of vasorelaxation and maintenance of a normal level of microcirculation.


Assuntos
Eritrócitos , Simportadores de Cloreto de Sódio-Potássio , Eritrócitos/metabolismo , Receptores Adrenérgicos , Trocadores de Sódio-Hidrogênio , ATPase Trocadora de Sódio-Potássio/metabolismo
5.
Georgian Med News ; (203): 41-6, 2012 Feb.
Artigo em Russo | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22466540

RESUMO

The aim of the research was to study the health of Tbilisi underground metro workers under modern social-economic conditions in Georgia. Occupational pathology of the cardiovascular, digestive systems, psycho-emotional state, osteo-articular apparatus were found statistically significant among the basic group workers, more frequently in comparing with a control group without professional contact to major harmful factors (vibration, noise, meteorological conditions, air pollution environment with dust and toxic gases p<0.001). On the basis of hygienic-clinical relationship between working conditions and a state of health are established.


Assuntos
Doenças Profissionais/epidemiologia , Exposição Ocupacional/estatística & dados numéricos , República da Geórgia/epidemiologia , Humanos
6.
Georgian Med News ; (169): 39-43, 2009 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-19430042

RESUMO

Serum concentrations of the cardiac troponins (cTn) T and I, specific markers of myocardial injury, are frequently elevated in haemodialysis patients. The clinical relevance of this is unclear. The purpose of this research was to investigate possible factors associated with increased serum levels of cardiac troponins (cTn) T and I, specific markers of myocardial injury, in chronic haemodialysis patients. Cross-sectional research was conducted and 150 chronic haemodialysis patients without acute coronary symptoms were investigated (mean age of patients 60+/-15 years). Clinical and echocardiographic data, biochemical status, and haemodialysis regimen were evaluated for each patient. Pre-dialysis serum cTnT, cTnI, and CK-MB concentrations were determined. Logistic regression was the principal method of analysis. Pre-dialysis levels of cTnT >0.1 ng/ml (n=28, 19.6% of patients) were associated with age (P<0.001), diabetes (P<0.005), history of ischemic heart disease (P<0.05), and left ventricular hypertrophy (P<0.05). In multivariate analysis, age odds ratio (OR 1.04), diabetes (OR 4.9), and indexed left ventricular mass (OR 1.01) were found to be independently associated with cTnT concentration above the threshold. Elevated baseline serum levels of cardiac troponins were associated with cardiovascular risk factors, history of ischemic heart disease and left ventricular hypertrophy in asymptomatic chronic haemodialysis patients.


Assuntos
Hipertrofia Ventricular Esquerda/sangue , Isquemia Miocárdica/sangue , Diálise Renal/efeitos adversos , Troponina I/sangue , Troponina T/sangue , Idoso , Biomarcadores/sangue , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Isquemia Miocárdica/etiologia , Miocárdio/metabolismo
7.
Georgian Med News ; (168): 99-103, 2009 Mar.
Artigo em Russo | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-19359733

RESUMO

The aim of the work is to determine the major sensitive criteria of biochemical indicators that allow timely discovery of negative influence of lead on organism and assist in early diagnosis of primary stages of saturnism. The workers of Georgian typographies, performing technological processes of letterpress printing were observed. Professional groups having contact with lead aerosols (main group of 66 people) and the workers of the same typography not being in touch with the poison (control group of 24 people) were studied. It was distinguished that, protracted professional contact with lead causes moderate increase of lead, coproporphyrin and DALA in daily urine in most cases; it is more clearly evidenced in the professional groups of lead smelters and lino operators and less clearly among typesetter and printers. Upon the checkup of people, having a direct contact with lead, biochemical analysis of urine should be given a preference, especially the determination of quantitative content of lead and coproporphyrin in urine with the aim of revealing the lead carrier, which is one of the first signals for occupational lookout and medical monitoring of the similar contingent.


Assuntos
Indústrias/estatística & dados numéricos , Intoxicação por Chumbo/diagnóstico , Doenças Profissionais/diagnóstico , Doenças Profissionais/epidemiologia , Diagnóstico Diferencial , Diagnóstico Precoce , Humanos , Intoxicação por Chumbo/epidemiologia , Intoxicação por Chumbo/urina
8.
Georgian Med News ; (159): 62-8, 2008 Jun.
Artigo em Russo | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-18633155

RESUMO

The radical reform of health care system in Georgia after the collapse of the Soviet Union negatively affected the occupational medicine, environmental medicine, occupational health services, and preventive measures. The level of medical assistance to people suffering from harmful industrial factors decreased, which is a serious danger for the health of the workers and for the next generations. The aim of the article is to protect the right to means for adequate health and suggest effective ways for health care improvement. In order to reconstruct the system of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, it is necessary to create a network of occupational healthcare. We strongly believe investment in preventive health is vital to safeguard and improve the health of the community. The Center of Occupational Medicine and the Institute of Labor Medicine and Ecology with corresponding financing, educational programs for medical students and continuous practice of physicians in occupational medicine, enhancing the number of the scientific research designed to discover the early forms of occupational pathologies and timely prevention of the disease is vital to protect the right to means for adequate health, to advance the professional development of physicians, nurses, research scientists, and allied health professionals in order to diminish general and occupational diseases in Georgia.


Assuntos
Doenças Profissionais/epidemiologia , República da Geórgia/epidemiologia , Humanos , Morbidade/tendências
9.
Georgian Med News ; (155): 52-5, 2008 Feb.
Artigo em Russo | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-18401058

RESUMO

The article investigates factors associated with occupational disease among Georgian dance studio students. The problem of work-related neuromuscular and musculoskeletal disorders is outlined. Reiterating and stereotypical movements cause tension of specific muscles, constrained body, monotonous work, and emotional tension lead to occupational support-motor apparatus disorders. The aim of the work is to study the health status of Georgian dance studio students. 254 Georgian dance studio students were examined. It was found that pathology of cardio-vascular, respiratory and digesting systems was more frequent among male students than females; musculoskeletal disorders were common only among the girls. 1/3 of girls with disorder of musculoskeletal system had inborn dysplasia of hip joint bones. In three male students hernia had developed during the first year of the study.


Assuntos
Doenças Ósseas/epidemiologia , Doenças Cardiovasculares/epidemiologia , Dança , Folclore , Gastroenteropatias/epidemiologia , Nível de Saúde , Doenças Profissionais/epidemiologia , Estudantes/estatística & dados numéricos , Educação Vocacional/estatística & dados numéricos , Criança , República da Geórgia/epidemiologia , Humanos , Fatores Sexuais
10.
Georgian Med News ; (136): 121-4, 2006 Jul.
Artigo em Georgiano, Russo | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-16905865

RESUMO

Dancers performing classical, characteristic and national dances represent one of those activities that cause stress of nervous-muscular and psycho-emotional systems, locomotion apparatus induced by physical efforts. Intensive physical and psycho - emotional stress during the dancing process causes misbalance between physiological possibilities of the body and its capability of prompt adaptation, thus creating conditions for developing pathologies. Among male dancers of Georgian national ballet most frequently occur professional diseases such as: arthrosis and traumatic meniscites of knee joints, arthrosis of talocrural joint, epicondylitis of shoulder bone, chronic lumboiliac sacriplex radiculitis, and osteochondrosis of cervical part of the spine; among female dancers osteochodrosis of neck and chronic lumboiliac radiculitis were mainly observed. Increased level of neurasthenic syndrome among dancers of Georgian national ballet occurred in the form of hypertonic type vegetative-vascular dystonia. That stemmed from peculiarities of dancers work and permits to ascribe this pathology to the group of work-related diseases. To this group should be ascribed as well podagra arthritis of a foot stemmed from: a) systematic micro-traumas resulting in dystrophic changes and b) special regimen of nutrition.


Assuntos
Dança/fisiologia , Nível de Saúde , Locomoção/fisiologia , Adulto , Feminino , República da Geórgia , Humanos , Masculino
11.
Georgian Med News ; (133): 105-8, 2006 Apr.
Artigo em Russo | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-16705245

RESUMO

At the present stage of development of the country, at the time of total social-economical changes, providing the employed part of the population with safe work conditions and qualified health protection system plays an important role and it needs corresponding legislative basis. In the system of these measures the most important thing is organizing a comprehensive research with the aim of studying the work conditions and the state of health of workers engaged in national economy and working out complex sanitary actions. The comprehensive research has manifested the unfavourable state of factors of work and industrial environment (mental and emotional exertion, high level of dustiness). This exerts a significant influence on the functional state of Tbilisi metro workers. Cardiovascular and nervous system pathologies are the main factors in the state of health. On the grounds of clinico-hygienic comparison they can be related to industrial conditional diseases. On the basis of conducted the complex research recommendations about the improvement of work factors and the health state of Tbilisi metro workers (particularly those of organizational character) have been developed.


Assuntos
Saúde do Trabalhador , Ferrovias , República da Geórgia , Humanos , Doenças Profissionais/prevenção & controle , Fatores Socioeconômicos
12.
Georgian Med News ; (130): 125-9, 2006 Jan.
Artigo em Russo | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-16510931

RESUMO

State of the occupational medicine in Georgia -- performing investigations in the field of occupational illnesses, providing workers with the occupational health services, training of the medical staff in higher educational institutions, perspectives of occupational health services for workers and personnel, having professional contact with hazardous factors were discussed. The major stages of the development of occupational medicine, since the foundation of the occupational health services in Georgia, till today, were presented. The principal mistakes made in organizational -- practical, educational, methodical, research practices in public institution managing the training of the scientific and practical personnel of occupational medicine were evaluated. On the basis of the present state of occupational medicine in the country some principal conclusions were made. These conclusions state that immediate measures should be taken for the development of the modern occupational health services. It is necessary to work out some new strategies and to restore old and proved actions.


Assuntos
Medicina do Trabalho/história , República da Geórgia , História do Século XX , Humanos
13.
Georgian Med News ; (126): 77-80, 2005 Sep.
Artigo em Russo | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-16234603

RESUMO

The aim of the study was to evaluate influence of the working conditions on the morbidity of workers in Georgian bread-making production. The unfavourable labour conditions in Georgia with the dry subtropical climate, exerts influence on health status of workers of above mentioned production. By the data of the morbidity rate with temporal disability for the period 2000-2004 the average level of morbidity sick rate in the main group 5-7 times exceeds the analogous data of the control group. In the morbidity structure so called meteotropic diseases are leading, as well as diseases of cordial-vascular system are frequent (53,5% of all cases and 41,7% of all disability days). The morbidity structure in the study and the control groups was statistically different (X2=16,92/22,63). The conducted complex investigation has underlined elaboration of complex sanitary measurements.


Assuntos
Emprego , Meio Ambiente , Indústria Alimentícia , Doenças Profissionais/epidemiologia , República da Geórgia/epidemiologia , Humanos , Prevalência
14.
Georgian Med News ; (124-125): 87-90, 2005.
Artigo em Russo | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-16148388

RESUMO

A complicated inquiry of worker's working conditions at enterprises that are producing ammonia nitrate has been conducted. It was determined that during the production process hazardous chemical compounds were used. It was found that labor conditions of studied industry are in unfavorable state. The most important problem is air pollution with toxic gazes. The atmosphere at the enterprises producing ammonia nitrate is significantly polluted by ammonia, nitrous acid and nitrogenous gazes. Concentration of toxic substances depends on the character of the technological process. High air temperature has bad effects on health during warm periods of the year. Noise factor and general industrial vibration exceed acceptable level in the majority of working area. The figures for sickness rate of workers with temporary loss of ability for work during three years have been analyzed. It has been stated that general rate of morbidity is not high, but this index in basic group 3.6-5.1 times exceeds the analogous figure in the control group. In the structure of morbidity diseases of respiratory, musculoskeletal, cardiovascular, neural, kidney and digestive systems are frequent and they amount to 76% of the whole cases. The clinical examination of the workers with basic professions of the production of ammonia nitrate shows the frequent cases of chronic bronchitis and radiculoneuropathy. The results of function study show the damage of airways and the myocardiodystrophy. This confirms the major role of occupational- professional factors in the etiology of these pathological conditions.


Assuntos
Amônia , Indústria Química , Emprego , Nível de Saúde , Programas de Rastreamento/métodos , Nitratos , Doenças Profissionais/epidemiologia , Doenças Profissionais/fisiopatologia , Humanos
15.
Georgian Med News ; (122): 80-3, 2005 May.
Artigo em Russo | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-15988092

RESUMO

The workers producing ammonia nitrate have professional contact with ammonia nitrate aerosol and nitrogenous gases. The state of health of ammonia producing workers has been examined. The morbidity, the therapeutic, neurological and laryngeal status have been inspected. Electrocardiography and examination by peak flow meter by Wotchall has been conducted. Peripheral blood test and radiography of backbone has been carried out as been required. It has been estimated that the illnesses of respiratory apparatus and musculoskeletal system predominate in the morbidity structure. The clinical examination of the workers with basic professions of the production of ammonia nitrate shows the frequent cases of chronic bronchitis and radiculoneuropathy. The results of function study show the damage of airways, the myocardiodystrophy and the changes of T wave. The nitrogen containing particulate pollutants that irritate respiratory systems and hard manual labor at these working places determine these illnesses. This fact corresponds with the hygiene and sanitary conditions of labor at major working places of production. This confirms the major role of occupational-productional factors in the etiology of these pathological conditions. In order to prevent the remote structural lesion of respiratory and cardiovascular systems it is required to amend the functional damage. On the basis of carefully performed study a complex of recreation measures has been carried out in order to improve the service conditions.


Assuntos
Nitratos/toxicidade , Doenças Profissionais/induzido quimicamente , Doenças Profissionais/diagnóstico , Exposição Ocupacional , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino
16.
Med Tr Prom Ekol ; (11-12): 12-3, 1993.
Artigo em Russo | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-7921829

RESUMO

Hygienic, clinical and functional studies showed that the women engaged into building ceramics production are exposed to occupational hazards, the leading one is dust. Those hazards affect the health status of women engaged into the stated production and result in their higher morbidity. The respiratory diseases, basically chronic bronchitis and tracheobronchitis, are the leading entities in the structure of morbidity. The state of specific functions (gynecologic morbidity, complicated pregnancy and delivery) of female workers and physical development of their children differ greatly from those in control group. Methodic documents and prophylactic recommendations are worked out.


Assuntos
Cerâmica , Materiais de Construção , Poeira/efeitos adversos , Doenças Profissionais/etiologia , Exposição Ocupacional , Saúde da Mulher , Mulheres Trabalhadoras , Feminino , Nível de Saúde , Humanos , Morbidade , Doenças Profissionais/epidemiologia , Doenças Profissionais/fisiopatologia , Fatores de Risco , Local de Trabalho
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