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1.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(5)2021 Mar 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33802562

RESUMO

VTRNA2-1 is a metastable epiallele with accumulating evidence that methylation at this region is heritable, modifiable and associated with disease including risk and progression of cancer. This study investigated the influence of genetic variation and other factors such as age and adult lifestyle on blood DNA methylation in this region. We first sequenced the VTRNA2-1 gene region in multiple-case breast cancer families in which VTRNA2-1 methylation was identified as heritable and associated with breast cancer risk. Methylation quantitative trait loci (mQTL) were investigated using a prospective cohort study (4500 participants with genotyping and methylation data). The cis-mQTL analysis (334 variants ± 50 kb of the most heritable CpG site) identified 43 variants associated with VTRNA2-1 methylation (p < 1.5 × 10-4); however, these explained little of the methylation variation (R2 < 0.5% for each of these variants). No genetic variants elsewhere in the genome were found to strongly influence VTRNA2-1 methylation. SNP-based heritability estimates were consistent with the mQTL findings (h2 = 0, 95%CI: -0.14 to 0.14). We found no evidence that age, sex, country of birth, smoking, body mass index, alcohol consumption or diet influenced blood DNA methylation at VTRNA2-1. Genetic factors and adult lifestyle play a minimal role in explaining methylation variability at the heritable VTRNA2-1 cluster.

2.
Cancers (Basel) ; 13(6)2021 Mar 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33803639

RESUMO

Case-control studies of breast cancer have consistently shown that pathogenic variants in CHEK2 are associated with about a 3-fold increased risk of breast cancer. Information about the recurrent protein-truncating variant CHEK2 c.1100delC dominates this estimate. There have been no formal estimates of age-specific cumulative risk of breast cancer for all CHEK2 pathogenic (including likely pathogenic) variants combined. We conducted a population-based case-control-family study of pathogenic CHEK2 variants (26 families, 1071 relatives) and estimated the age-specific cumulative risk of breast cancer using segregation analysis. The estimated hazard ratio for carriers of pathogenic CHEK2 variants (combined) was 4.9 (95% CI 2.5-9.5) relative to non-carriers. The HR for carriers of the CHEK2 c.1100delC variant was estimated to be 3.5 (95% CI 1.02-11.6) and the HR for carriers of all other CHEK2 variants combined was estimated to be 5.7 (95% CI 2.5-12.9). The age-specific cumulative risk of breast cancer was estimated to be 18% (95% CI 11-30%) and 33% (95% CI 21-48%) to age 60 and 80 years, respectively. These findings provide important information for the clinical management of breast cancer risk for women carrying pathogenic variants in CHEK2.

3.
Cancers (Basel) ; 13(7)2021 Mar 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33804961

RESUMO

While gene panel sequencing is becoming widely used for cancer risk prediction, its clinical utility with respect to predicting aggressive prostate cancer (PrCa) is limited by our current understanding of the genetic risk factors associated with predisposition to this potentially lethal disease phenotype. This study included 837 men diagnosed with aggressive PrCa and 7261 controls (unaffected men and men who did not meet criteria for aggressive PrCa). Rare germline pathogenic variants (including likely pathogenic variants) were identified by targeted sequencing of 26 known or putative cancer predisposition genes. We found that 85 (10%) men with aggressive PrCa and 265 (4%) controls carried a pathogenic variant (p < 0.0001). Aggressive PrCa odds ratios (ORs) were estimated using unconditional logistic regression. Increased risk of aggressive PrCa (OR (95% confidence interval)) was identified for pathogenic variants in BRCA2 (5.8 (2.7-12.4)), BRCA1 (5.5 (1.8-16.6)), and ATM (3.8 (1.6-9.1)). Our study provides further evidence that rare germline pathogenic variants in these genes are associated with increased risk of this aggressive, clinically relevant subset of PrCa. These rare genetic variants could be incorporated into risk prediction models to improve their precision to identify men at highest risk of aggressive prostate cancer and be used to identify men with newly diagnosed prostate cancer who require urgent treatment.

4.
Eur Respir J ; 2020 Sep 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32943407

RESUMO

THE QUESTION ADDRESSED BY THE STUDY: Are long-term Household Air Pollutions (HAPs) associated with asthma and lung function decline in middle-aged adults, and whether these associations were modified by GST gene variants, ventilation and atopy. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Prospective data on HAPs (heating, cooking, mould, smoking) and asthma were collected in the Tasmanian Longitudinal Health Study (TAHS) at mean ages 43 and 53 years (n=3314). Subsamples had data on lung function (n=897) and GST gene polymorphisms (n=928). Latent class analysis was used to characterise longitudinal patterns of exposure. Regression models assessed associations and interactions. RESULTS: We identified seven longitudinal HAP profiles. Of these, 3 were associated with persistent asthma, greater lung function decline and %reversibility by age 53 years, compared to "least exposed" profile, for who used reverse cycle air conditioning, electric cooking and without smoking. "All gas"(OR:2.64, 95%CI 1.22-5.70), "wood heating/smoking" (2.71, 1.21-6.05) and "wood heating/gas cooking" (2.60, 1.11-6.11) were associated with persistent asthma, greater lung function decline and %reversibility. Participants with GSTP1 Ile/Ile genotypes were at a higher risk of asthma or greater lung function decline when exposed compared to other genotypes. Exhaust fan use and opening windows frequently could reduce the adverse effects of HAP produced by combustion heating and cooking on current asthma presumably through increasing ventilation. ANSWER TO THE QUESTION: Exposures to wood heating, gas cooking and heating, and tobacco smoke over 10 years increased the risks of persistent asthma, lung function decline and %reversibility, with evidence of interaction by GST genes and ventilation.

5.
Genet Res (Camb) ; 102: e6, 2020 08 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32772980

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To characterize the spectrum of BRCA1 and BRCA2 pathogenic germline variants in women from south-west Poland and west Ukraine affected with breast or ovarian cancer. Testing in women at high risk of breast and ovarian cancer in these regions is currently mainly limited to founder mutations. METHODS: Unrelated women affected with breast and/or ovarian cancer from Poland (n = 337) and Ukraine (n = 123) were screened by targeted sequencing. Excluded from targeted sequencing were 34 Polish women who had previously been identified as carrying a founder mutation in BRCA1. No prior testing had been conducted among the Ukrainian women. Thus, this study screened BRCA1 and BRCA2 in the germline DNA of 426 women in total. RESULTS: We identified 31 and 18 women as carriers of pathogenic/likely pathogenic (P/LP) genetic variants in BRCA1 and BRCA2, respectively. We observed five BRCA1 and eight BRCA2 P/LP variants (13/337, 3.9%) in the Polish women. Combined with the 34/337 (10.1%) founder variants identified prior to this study, the overall P/LP variant frequency in the Polish women was thus 14% (47/337). Among the Ukrainian women, 16/123 (13%) women were identified as carrying a founder mutation and 20/123 (16.3%) were found to carry non-founder P/LP variants (10 in BRCA1 and 10 in BRCA2). CONCLUSIONS: These results indicate that genetic testing in women at high risk of breast and ovarian cancer in Poland and Ukraine should not be limited to founder mutations. Extended testing will enhance risk stratification and management for these women and their families.

6.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32650022

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Human milk oligosaccharides (HMO) are a diverse range of sugars secreted in breast milk that have direct and indirect effects on immunity. The profiles of HMOs produced differ between mothers. OBJECTIVE: We sought to determine the relationship between maternal HMO profiles and offspring allergic diseases up to age 18 years. METHODS: Colostrum and early lactation milk samples were collected from 285 mothers enrolled in a high-allergy-risk birth cohort, the Melbourne Atopy Cohort Study. Nineteen HMOs were measured. Profiles/patterns of maternal HMOs were determined using LCA. Details of allergic disease outcomes including sensitization, wheeze, asthma, and eczema were collected at multiple follow-ups up to age 18 years. Adjusted logistic regression analyses and generalized estimating equations were used to determine the relationship between HMO profiles and allergy. RESULTS: The levels of several HMOs were highly correlated with each other. LCA determined 7 distinct maternal milk profiles with memberships of 10% and 20%. Compared with offspring exposed to the neutral Lewis HMO profile, exposure to acidic Lewis HMOs was associated with a higher risk of allergic disease and asthma over childhood (odds ratio asthma at 18 years, 5.82; 95% CI, 1.59-21.23), whereas exposure to the acidic-predominant profile was associated with a reduced risk of food sensitization (OR at 12 years, 0.08; 95% CI, 0.01-0.67). CONCLUSIONS: In this high-allergy-risk birth cohort, some profiles of HMOs were associated with increased and some with decreased allergic disease risks over childhood. Further studies are needed to confirm these findings and realize the potential for intervention.

7.
Int J Cancer ; 147(8): 2142-2149, 2020 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32338768

RESUMO

Few genetic risk factors have been demonstrated to be specifically associated with aggressive prostate cancer (PrCa). Here, we report a case-case study of PrCa comparing the prevalence of germline pathogenic/likely pathogenic (P/LP) genetic variants in 787 men with aggressive disease and 769 with nonaggressive disease. Overall, we observed P/LP variants in 11.4% of men with aggressive PrCa and 9.8% of men with nonaggressive PrCa (two-tailed Fisher's exact tests, P = .28). The proportion of BRCA2 and ATM P/LP variant carriers in men with aggressive PrCa exceeded that observed in men with nonaggressive PrCa; 18/787 carriers (2.3%) and 4/769 carriers (0.5%), P = .004, and 14/787 carriers (0.02%) and 5/769 carriers (0.01%), P = .06, respectively. Our findings contribute to the extensive international effort to interpret the genetic variation identified in genes included on gene-panel tests, for which there is currently an insufficient evidence-base for clinical translation in the context of PrCa risk.

8.
Fam Cancer ; 19(3): 197-202, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32060697

RESUMO

The advent of gene panel testing is challenging the previous practice of using clinically defined cancer family syndromes to inform single-gene genetic screening. Individual and family cancer histories that would have previously indicated testing of a single gene or a small number of related genes are now, increasingly, leading to screening across gene panels that contain larger numbers of genes. We have applied a gene panel test that included four DNA mismatch repair (MMR) genes (MLH1, MSH2, MSH6 and PMS2) to an Australian population-based case-control-family study of breast cancer. Altogether, eight pathogenic variants in MMR genes were identified: six in 1421 case-families (0.4%, 4 MSH6 and 2 PMS2) and two in 833 control-families (0.2%, one each of MLH1 and MSH2). This testing highlights the current and future challenges for clinical genetics in the context of anticipated gene panel-based population-based screening that includes the MMR genes. This testing is likely to provide additional opportunities for cancer prevention via cascade testing for Lynch syndrome and precision medicine for breast cancer treatment.

9.
BMC Cancer ; 18(1): 165, 2018 02 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29422015

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Breast cancer risk for BRCA1 and BRCA2 pathogenic mutation carriers is modified by risk factors that cluster in families, including genetic modifiers of risk. We considered genetic modifiers of risk for carriers of high-risk mutations in other breast cancer susceptibility genes. METHODS: In a family known to carry the high-risk mutation PALB2:c.3113G>A (p.Trp1038*), whole-exome sequencing was performed on germline DNA from four affected women, three of whom were mutation carriers. RESULTS: RNASEL:p.Glu265* was identified in one of the PALB2 carriers who had two primary invasive breast cancer diagnoses before 50 years. Gene-panel testing of BRCA1, BRCA2, PALB2 and RNASEL in the Australian Breast Cancer Family Registry identified five carriers of RNASEL:p.Glu265* in 591 early onset breast cancer cases. Three of the five women (60%) carrying RNASEL:p.Glu265* also carried a pathogenic mutation in a breast cancer susceptibility gene compared with 30 carriers of pathogenic mutations in the 586 non-carriers of RNASEL:p.Glu265* (5%) (p < 0.002). Taqman genotyping demonstrated that the allele frequency of RNASEL:p.Glu265* was similar in affected and unaffected Australian women, consistent with other populations. CONCLUSION: Our study suggests that RNASEL:p.Glu265* may be a genetic modifier of risk for early-onset breast cancer predisposition in carriers of high-risk mutations. Much larger case-case and case-control studies are warranted to test the association observed in this report.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Endorribonucleases/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença/genética , Adulto , Idade de Início , Austrália , Proteína BRCA1/genética , Proteína BRCA2/genética , Feminino , Heterozigoto , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mutação , Linhagem , Adulto Jovem
10.
BMC Med Genet ; 19(1): 12, 2018 01 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29351780

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: FANCM and RECQL have recently been reported as breast cancer susceptibility genes and it has been suggested that they should be included on gene panel tests for breast cancer predisposition. However, the clinical value of testing for mutations in RECQL and FANCM remains to be determined. In this study, we have characterised the spectrum of FANCM and RECQL mutations in women affected with breast or ovarian cancer from South-West Poland and West Ukraine. METHODS: We applied Hi-Plex, an amplicon-based enrichment method for targeted massively parallel sequencing, to screen the coding exons and proximal intron-exon junctions of FANCM and RECQL in germline DNA from unrelated women affected with breast cancer (n = 338) and ovarian cancer (n = 89) from Poland (n = 304) and Ukraine (n = 123). These women were at high-risk of carrying a genetic predisposition to breast and/or ovarian cancer due to a family history and/or early-onset disease. RESULTS: Among 427 women screened, we identified one carrier of the FANCM:c.1972C > T nonsense mutation (0.23%), and two carriers of the frameshift insertion FANCM:c.1491dup (0.47%). None of the variants we observed in RECQL were predicted to be loss-of-function mutations by standard variant effect prediction tools. CONCLUSIONS: Our study of the Polish and Ukrainian populations has identified a carrier frequency of truncating mutations in FANCM consistent with previous reports. Although initial reports suggesting that mutations in RECQL could be associated with increased breast cancer risk included women from Poland and identified the RECQL:c.1667_1667 + 3delAGTA mutation in 0.23-0.35% of breast cancer cases, we did not observe any carriers in our study cohort. Continued screening, both in research and diagnostic settings, will enable the accumulation of data that is needed to establish the clinical utility of including RECQL and FANCM on gene panel tests.


Assuntos
DNA Helicases/genética , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença , RecQ Helicases/genética , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Códon sem Sentido , Éxons , Feminino , Frequência do Gene , Variação Genética , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neoplasias Ovarianas/genética , Linhagem , Polônia , Fatores de Risco , Ucrânia , Adulto Jovem
11.
Fam Cancer ; 17(3): 345-349, 2018 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29052111

RESUMO

Loss-of-function germline mutations in the PALB2 gene are associated with an increase of breast cancer risk. The purpose of this study was to characterise the spectrum of PALB2 mutations in women affected with breast or ovarian cancer from South-West Poland and West Ukraine. We applied Hi-Plex, an amplicon-based enrichment method for targeted massively parallel sequencing, to screen the coding exons and proximal intron-exon junctions of PALB2 in germline DNA from unrelated women affected with breast cancer (n = 338) and ovarian cancer (n = 89) from Poland (n = 304) and Ukraine (n = 123). These women were at high-risk of carrying a genetic predisposition to breast and/or ovarian cancer due to a family history and/or early-onset disease. Targeted-sequencing identified two frameshift deletions: PALB2:c.509_510del; p.R170Ifs in three women affected with breast cancer and PALB2:c.172_175del;p.Q60Rfs in one woman affected with ovarian cancer. A number of other previously described missense (some predicted to be damaging by PolyPhen-2 and CADD) and synonymous mutations were also identified in this population. This study is consistent with previous reports that PALB2:c.509_510del and PALB2:c.172_175del are recurrent mutations associated with breast cancer predisposition in Polish women with a family history of the disease. Our study contributes to the accumulating evidence indicating that PALB2 should be included in genetic testing for breast cancer susceptibility in these populations to enhance risk assessment and management of women at high-risk of developing breast cancer. This data could also contribute to ongoing work that is assessing the possible association between ovarian cancer risk and PALB2 mutations for which there is currently no evidence.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Proteína do Grupo de Complementação N da Anemia de Fanconi/genética , Neoplasias Ovarianas/genética , Adulto , Análise Mutacional de DNA/métodos , Feminino , Predisposição Genética para Doença/genética , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mutação , Polônia , Ucrânia
12.
J Med Genet ; 53(12): 800-811, 2016 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27595995

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The rarity of mutations in PALB2, CHEK2 and ATM make it difficult to estimate precisely associated cancer risks. Population-based family studies have provided evidence that at least some of these mutations are associated with breast cancer risk as high as those associated with rare BRCA2 mutations. We aimed to estimate the relative risks associated with specific rare variants in PALB2, CHEK2 and ATM via a multicentre case-control study. METHODS: We genotyped 10 rare mutations using the custom iCOGS array: PALB2 c.1592delT, c.2816T>G and c.3113G>A, CHEK2 c.349A>G, c.538C>T, c.715G>A, c.1036C>T, c.1312G>T, and c.1343T>G and ATM c.7271T>G. We assessed associations with breast cancer risk (42 671 cases and 42 164 controls), as well as prostate (22 301 cases and 22 320 controls) and ovarian (14 542 cases and 23 491 controls) cancer risk, for each variant. RESULTS: For European women, strong evidence of association with breast cancer risk was observed for PALB2 c.1592delT OR 3.44 (95% CI 1.39 to 8.52, p=7.1×10-5), PALB2 c.3113G>A OR 4.21 (95% CI 1.84 to 9.60, p=6.9×10-8) and ATM c.7271T>G OR 11.0 (95% CI 1.42 to 85.7, p=0.0012). We also found evidence of association with breast cancer risk for three variants in CHEK2, c.349A>G OR 2.26 (95% CI 1.29 to 3.95), c.1036C>T OR 5.06 (95% CI 1.09 to 23.5) and c.538C>T OR 1.33 (95% CI 1.05 to 1.67) (p≤0.017). Evidence for prostate cancer risk was observed for CHEK2 c.1343T>G OR 3.03 (95% CI 1.53 to 6.03, p=0.0006) for African men and CHEK2 c.1312G>T OR 2.21 (95% CI 1.06 to 4.63, p=0.030) for European men. No evidence of association with ovarian cancer was found for any of these variants. CONCLUSIONS: This report adds to accumulating evidence that at least some variants in these genes are associated with an increased risk of breast cancer that is clinically important.


Assuntos
Proteínas Mutadas de Ataxia Telangiectasia/genética , Neoplasias da Mama/metabolismo , Quinase do Ponto de Checagem 2/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Mutação , Proteínas Nucleares/genética , Neoplasias da Próstata/metabolismo , Proteínas Supressoras de Tumor/genética , Neoplasias da Mama/epidemiologia , Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Proteína do Grupo de Complementação N da Anemia de Fanconi , Feminino , Estudos de Associação Genética , Humanos , Masculino , Neoplasias Ovarianas/epidemiologia , Neoplasias Ovarianas/genética , Neoplasias Ovarianas/metabolismo , Neoplasias da Próstata/epidemiologia , Neoplasias da Próstata/genética , Risco
13.
Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev ; 25(2): 359-65, 2016 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26677205

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The extent to which clinical breast cancer risk prediction models can be improved by including information on known susceptibility SNPs is not known. METHODS: Using 750 cases and 405 controls from the population-based Australian Breast Cancer Family Registry who were younger than 50 years at diagnosis and recruitment, respectively, Caucasian and not BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutation carriers, we derived absolute 5-year risks of breast cancer using the BOADICEA, BRCAPRO, BCRAT, and IBIS risk prediction models and combined these with a risk score based on 77 independent risk-associated SNPs. We used logistic regression to estimate the OR per adjusted SD for log-transformed age-adjusted 5-year risks. Discrimination was assessed by the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC). Calibration was assessed using the Hosmer-Lemeshow goodness-of-fit test. We also constructed reclassification tables and calculated the net reclassification improvement. RESULTS: The ORs for BOADICEA, BRCAPRO, BCRAT, and IBIS were 1.80, 1.75, 1.67, and 1.30, respectively. When combined with the SNP-based score, the corresponding ORs were 1.96, 1.89, 1.80, and 1.52. The corresponding AUCs were 0.66, 0.65, 0.64, and 0.57 for the risk prediction models, and 0.70, 0.69, 0.66, and 0.63 when combined with the SNP-based score. CONCLUSIONS: By combining a 77 SNP-based score with clinical models, the AUC for predicting breast cancer before age 50 years improved by >20%. IMPACT: Our estimates of the increased performance of clinical risk prediction models from including genetic information could be used to inform targeted screening and prevention.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Adulto , Austrália , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Sistema de Registros , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Adulto Jovem
14.
J Natl Cancer Inst ; 107(5)2015 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25890600

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Survival after a diagnosis of breast cancer varies considerably between patients, and some of this variation may be because of germline genetic variation. We aimed to identify genetic markers associated with breast cancer-specific survival. METHODS: We conducted a large meta-analysis of studies in populations of European ancestry, including 37954 patients with 2900 deaths from breast cancer. Each study had been genotyped for between 200000 and 900000 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) across the genome; genotypes for nine million common variants were imputed using a common reference panel from the 1000 Genomes Project. We also carried out subtype-specific analyses based on 6881 estrogen receptor (ER)-negative patients (920 events) and 23059 ER-positive patients (1333 events). All statistical tests were two-sided. RESULTS: We identified one new locus (rs2059614 at 11q24.2) associated with survival in ER-negative breast cancer cases (hazard ratio [HR] = 1.95, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.55 to 2.47, P = 1.91 x 10(-8)). Genotyping a subset of 2113 case patients, of which 300 were ER negative, provided supporting evidence for the quality of the imputation. The association in this set of case patients was stronger for the observed genotypes than for the imputed genotypes. A second locus (rs148760487 at 2q24.2) was associated at genome-wide statistical significance in initial analyses; the association was similar in ER-positive and ER-negative case patients. Here the results of genotyping suggested that the finding was less robust. CONCLUSIONS: This is currently the largest study investigating genetic variation associated with breast cancer survival. Our results have potential clinical implications, as they confirm that germline genotype can provide prognostic information in addition to standard tumor prognostic factors.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Neoplasias da Mama/mortalidade , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Neoplasias da Mama/química , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu/genética , Feminino , Marcadores Genéticos , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Genótipo , Humanos , Prognóstico , Receptores Estrogênicos/análise , Análise de Sobrevida
15.
Breast Cancer Res ; 17: 58, 2015 Apr 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25897948

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Previous studies have identified common germline variants nominally associated with breast cancer survival. These associations have not been widely replicated in further studies. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the association of previously reported SNPs with breast cancer-specific survival using data from a pooled analysis of eight breast cancer survival genome-wide association studies (GWAS) from the Breast Cancer Association Consortium. METHODS: A literature review was conducted of all previously published associations between common germline variants and three survival outcomes: breast cancer-specific survival, overall survival and disease-free survival. All associations that reached the nominal significance level of P value <0.05 were included. Single nucleotide polymorphisms that had been previously reported as nominally associated with at least one survival outcome were evaluated in the pooled analysis of over 37,000 breast cancer cases for association with breast cancer-specific survival. Previous associations were evaluated using a one-sided test based on the reported direction of effect. RESULTS: Fifty-six variants from 45 previous publications were evaluated in the meta-analysis. Fifty-four of these were evaluated in the full set of 37,954 breast cancer cases with 2,900 events and the two additional variants were evaluated in a reduced sample size of 30,000 samples in order to ensure independence from the previously published studies. Five variants reached nominal significance (P <0.05) in the pooled GWAS data compared to 2.8 expected under the null hypothesis. Seven additional variants were associated (P <0.05) with ER-positive disease. CONCLUSIONS: Although no variants reached genome-wide significance (P <5 x 10(-8)), these results suggest that there is some evidence of association between candidate common germline variants and breast cancer prognosis. Larger studies from multinational collaborations are necessary to increase the power to detect associations, between common variants and prognosis, at more stringent significance levels.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Neoplasias da Mama/mortalidade , Células Germinativas/metabolismo , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Feminino , Estudos de Associação Genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Prognóstico
16.
Breast Cancer Res Treat ; 149(2): 547-54, 2015 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25575445

RESUMO

Loss-of-function mutations in PALB2 are associated with an increased risk of breast cancer, with recent data showing that female breast cancer risks for PALB2 mutation carriers are comparable in magnitude to those for BRCA2 mutation carriers. This study applied targeted massively parallel sequencing to characterize the mutation spectrum of PALB2 in probands attending breast cancer genetics clinics in the USA. The coding regions and proximal intron-exon junctions of PALB2 were screened in probands not known to carry a mutation in BRCA1 or BCRA2 from 1,250 families enrolled through familial cancer clinics by the Breast Cancer Family Registry. Mutation screening was performed using Hi-Plex, an amplicon-based targeted massively parallel sequencing platform. Screening of PALB2 was successful in 1,240/1,250 probands and identified nine women with protein-truncating mutations (three nonsense mutations and five frameshift mutations). Four of the 33 missense variants were predicted to be deleterious to protein function by in silico analysis using two different programs. Analysis of tumors from carriers of truncating mutations revealed that the majority were high histological grade, invasive ductal carcinomas. Young onset was apparent in most families, with 19 breast cancers under 50 years of age, including eight under the age of 40 years. Our data demonstrate the utility of Hi-Plex in the context of high-throughput testing for rare genetic mutations and provide additional timely information about the nature and prevalence of PALB2 mutations, to enhance risk assessment and risk management of women at high risk of cancer attending clinical genetic services.


Assuntos
Mutação , Proteínas Nucleares/genética , Proteínas Supressoras de Tumor/genética , Adulto , Idoso , Substituição de Aminoácidos , Neoplasias da Mama/diagnóstico , Neoplasias da Mama/epidemiologia , Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Análise Mutacional de DNA , Detecção Precoce de Câncer , Éxons , Proteína do Grupo de Complementação N da Anemia de Fanconi , Feminino , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Gradação de Tumores , Linhagem , Sistema de Registros
17.
Am J Hum Genet ; 96(1): 5-20, 2015 Jan 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25529635

RESUMO

Genome-wide association studies (GWASs) have revealed SNP rs889312 on 5q11.2 to be associated with breast cancer risk in women of European ancestry. In an attempt to identify the biologically relevant variants, we analyzed 909 genetic variants across 5q11.2 in 103,991 breast cancer individuals and control individuals from 52 studies in the Breast Cancer Association Consortium. Multiple logistic regression analyses identified three independent risk signals: the strongest associations were with 15 correlated variants (iCHAV1), where the minor allele of the best candidate, rs62355902, associated with significantly increased risks of both estrogen-receptor-positive (ER(+): odds ratio [OR] = 1.24, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.21-1.27, ptrend = 5.7 × 10(-44)) and estrogen-receptor-negative (ER(-): OR = 1.10, 95% CI = 1.05-1.15, ptrend = 3.0 × 10(-4)) tumors. After adjustment for rs62355902, we found evidence of association of a further 173 variants (iCHAV2) containing three subsets with a range of effects (the strongest was rs113317823 [pcond = 1.61 × 10(-5)]) and five variants composing iCHAV3 (lead rs11949391; ER(+): OR = 0.90, 95% CI = 0.87-0.93, pcond = 1.4 × 10(-4)). Twenty-six percent of the prioritized candidate variants coincided with four putative regulatory elements that interact with the MAP3K1 promoter through chromatin looping and affect MAP3K1 promoter activity. Functional analysis indicated that the cancer risk alleles of four candidates (rs74345699 and rs62355900 [iCHAV1], rs16886397 [iCHAV2a], and rs17432750 [iCHAV3]) increased MAP3K1 transcriptional activity. Chromatin immunoprecipitation analysis revealed diminished GATA3 binding to the minor (cancer-protective) allele of rs17432750, indicating a mechanism for its action. We propose that the cancer risk alleles act to increase MAP3K1 expression in vivo and might promote breast cancer cell survival.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Mapeamento Cromossômico , Cromossomos Humanos Par 5/genética , MAP Quinase Quinase Quinase 1/genética , Locos de Características Quantitativas , Alelos , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Grupos de Populações Continentais/genética , Feminino , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Técnicas de Genotipagem , Humanos , MAP Quinase Quinase Quinase 1/metabolismo , Células MCF-7 , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Regiões Promotoras Genéticas , Fatores de Risco
18.
Breast Cancer Res Treat ; 148(3): 665-73, 2014 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25407397

RESUMO

Aberrant DNA methylation is a key feature of breast carcinoma. We aimed to test the association between breast cancer risk and epigenome-wide methylation in DNA from peripheral blood. Nested case-control study within the prospective Melbourne Collaborative Cohort Study. DNA was extracted from before-diagnosis blood samples (420 incident cases and matched controls). Methylation was measured with the Illumina Infinium Human Methylation 450 BeadChip array. Odds ratio (OR) for epigenome-wide methylation, quantified as the mean beta values across the CpGs, in relation to breast cancer risk were estimated using conditional logistic regression. Overall, the OR for breast cancer was 0.42 (95% CI 0.20-0.90) for the top versus bottom quartile of epigenome-wide DNA methylation and the OR for a one standard deviation increment was 0.69 (95% CI 0.50-0.95; test for linear trend, p = 0.02). Epigenome-wide DNA methylation of CpGs within functional promoters was associated with an increased risk, whereas epigenome-wide DNA methylation of genomic regions outside promoters was associated with decreased risk (test for heterogeneity, p = 0.0002). The increased risk associated with epigenome-wide DNA methylation in functional promoters did not vary by time between blood collection and diagnosis, whereas the inverse association with epigenome-wide DNA methylation outside functional promoters was strongest when the interval from blood collection to diagnosis was less than 5 years and weakest for the longest interval. Epigenome-wide methylation in DNA extracted from peripheral blood collected before diagnosis may have potential utility as markers of breast cancer risk and for early detection.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores Tumorais/sangue , Neoplasias da Mama/sangue , Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Metilação de DNA/genética , Adulto , Idoso , Neoplasias da Mama/patologia , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Ilhas de CpG/genética , Epigenômica , Feminino , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estadiamento de Neoplasias , Regiões Promotoras Genéticas
19.
PLoS One ; 9(11): e109973, 2014.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25390939

RESUMO

Genetic variations, such as single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in microRNAs (miRNA) or in the miRNA binding sites may affect the miRNA dependent gene expression regulation, which has been implicated in various cancers, including breast cancer, and may alter individual susceptibility to cancer. We investigated associations between miRNA related SNPs and breast cancer risk. First we evaluated 2,196 SNPs in a case-control study combining nine genome wide association studies (GWAS). Second, we further investigated 42 SNPs with suggestive evidence for association using 41,785 cases and 41,880 controls from 41 studies included in the Breast Cancer Association Consortium (BCAC). Combining the GWAS and BCAC data within a meta-analysis, we estimated main effects on breast cancer risk as well as risks for estrogen receptor (ER) and age defined subgroups. Five miRNA binding site SNPs associated significantly with breast cancer risk: rs1045494 (odds ratio (OR) 0.92; 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.88-0.96), rs1052532 (OR 0.97; 95% CI: 0.95-0.99), rs10719 (OR 0.97; 95% CI: 0.94-0.99), rs4687554 (OR 0.97; 95% CI: 0.95-0.99, and rs3134615 (OR 1.03; 95% CI: 1.01-1.05) located in the 3' UTR of CASP8, HDDC3, DROSHA, MUSTN1, and MYCL1, respectively. DROSHA belongs to miRNA machinery genes and has a central role in initial miRNA processing. The remaining genes are involved in different molecular functions, including apoptosis and gene expression regulation. Further studies are warranted to elucidate whether the miRNA binding site SNPs are the causative variants for the observed risk effects.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/diagnóstico , Neoplasias da Mama/genética , MicroRNAs/genética , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Regiões 3' não Traduzidas , Sítios de Ligação , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Mapeamento Cromossômico , Biologia Computacional , Feminino , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Genótipo , Humanos , Receptores Estrogênicos/metabolismo
20.
Cancer Discov ; 4(7): 804-15, 2014 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25050558

RESUMO

UNLABELLED: Approximately half of the familial aggregation of breast cancer remains unexplained. A multiple-case breast cancer family exome-sequencing study identified three likely pathogenic mutations in RINT1 (NM_021930.4) not present in public sequencing databases: RINT1 c.343C>T (p.Q115X), c.1132_1134del (p.M378del), and c.1207G>T (p.D403Y). On the basis of this finding, a population-based case-control mutation-screening study was conducted that identified 29 carriers of rare (minor allele frequency < 0.5%), likely pathogenic variants: 23 in 1,313 early-onset breast cancer cases and six in 1,123 frequency-matched controls [OR, 3.24; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.29-8.17; P = 0.013]. RINT1 mutation screening of probands from 798 multiple-case breast cancer families identified four additional carriers of rare genetic variants. Analysis of the incidence of first primary cancers in families of women carrying RINT1 mutations estimated that carriers were at increased risk of Lynch syndrome-spectrum cancers [standardized incidence ratio (SIR), 3.35; 95% CI, 1.7-6.0; P = 0.005], particularly for relatives diagnosed with cancer under the age of 60 years (SIR, 10.9; 95% CI, 4.7-21; P = 0.0003). SIGNIFICANCE: The work described in this study adds RINT1 to the growing list of genes in which rare sequence variants are associated with intermediate levels of breast cancer risk. Given that RINT1 is also associated with a spectrum of cancers with mismatch repair defects, these findings have clinical applications and raise interesting biological questions.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Proteínas de Ciclo Celular/genética , Neoplasias Colorretais Hereditárias sem Polipose/genética , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Exoma , Feminino , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Variação Genética , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala , Humanos , Masculino , Mutação , Linhagem , Análise de Sequência de DNA
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