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1.
Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol ; 39(8): 1565-1573, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31294621

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Dietary triglycerides are partially retained in the intestine within intracellular or extracellular compartments, which can be rapidly mobilized in response to several stimuli, including glucose and GLP-2 (glucagon-like peptide-2). To elucidate the mechanism of intestinal lipid mobilization, this study examined the patterns and time course of lymph flow and triglycerides after glucose and GLP-2 treatment in rats. Approach and Results: Lymph flow, triglyceride concentration, and triglyceride output were assessed in mesenteric lymph duct-cannulated rats in response to an intraduodenal (i.d.) lipid bolus followed 5 hours later by either (1) i.d. saline+intraperitoneal (i.p.) saline (placebo), (2) i.d. glucose plus i.p. saline, (3) i.d. saline+i.p. GLP-2, or (4) i.d. glucose+i.p. GLP-2. GLP-2 and glucose administered alone or in combination stimulated total triglyceride output to a similar extent, but the timing and pattern of stimulation differed markedly. Whereas GLP-2 rapidly increased lymph flow with no effect on lymph triglyceride concentration or triglyceride:apoB48 (apolipoprotein B48) ratio (a surrogate marker of chylomicron size) compared with placebo, glucose transiently decreased lymph flow followed by delayed stimulation of lymph flow and increased lymph triglyceride concentration and triglyceride:apoB48 ratio. CONCLUSIONS: Glucose and GLP-2 robustly enhanced intestinal triglyceride output in rats but with different effects on lymph flow, lymph triglyceride concentration, and chylomicron size. GLP-2 stimulated triglyceride output primarily by enhancing lymph flow with no effect on chylomicron size, whereas glucose mobilized intestinal triglycerides, stimulating secretion of larger chylomicrons. This suggests that these 2 stimuli mobilize intestinal lipid by different mechanisms.

2.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 2631, 2019 06 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31201301

RESUMO

Men and women differ in circulating lipids and coronary artery disease (CAD). While sex hormones such as estrogens decrease CAD risk, hormone replacement therapy increases risk. Biological sex is determined by sex hormones and chromosomes, but effects of sex chromosomes on circulating lipids and atherosclerosis are unknown. Here, we use mouse models to separate effects of sex chromosomes and hormones on atherosclerosis, circulating lipids and intestinal fat metabolism. We assess atherosclerosis in multiple models and experimental paradigms that distinguish effects of sex chromosomes, and male or female gonads. Pro-atherogenic lipids and atherosclerosis are greater in XX than XY mice, indicating a primary effect of sex chromosomes. Small intestine expression of enzymes involved in lipid absorption and chylomicron assembly are greater in XX male and female mice with higher intestinal lipids. Together, our results show that an XX sex chromosome complement promotes the bioavailability of dietary fat to accelerate atherosclerosis.


Assuntos
Transtornos 46, XX do Desenvolvimento Sexual/metabolismo , Aterosclerose/genética , Metabolismo dos Lipídeos/genética , Lipídeos/sangue , Cromossomo X/fisiologia , Transtornos 46, XX do Desenvolvimento Sexual/sangue , Animais , Aterosclerose/sangue , Aterosclerose/metabolismo , Dieta Aterogênica/efeitos adversos , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Feminino , Hormônios Esteroides Gonadais/metabolismo , Humanos , Mucosa Intestinal/metabolismo , Intestino Delgado/metabolismo , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Camundongos Knockout , Ovário/metabolismo , Fatores Sexuais , Proteína da Região Y Determinante do Sexo/genética , Testículo/metabolismo
4.
Cells ; 8(4)2019 04 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30959835

RESUMO

Apolipoprotein A-IV (apoA-IV) is a lipid-binding protein, which is primarily synthesized in the small intestine, packaged into chylomicrons, and secreted into intestinal lymph during fat absorption. In the circulation, apoA-IV is present on chylomicron remnants, high-density lipoproteins, and also in lipid-free form. ApoA-IV is involved in a myriad of physiological processes such as lipid absorption and metabolism, anti-atherosclerosis, platelet aggregation and thrombosis, glucose homeostasis, and food intake. ApoA-IV deficiency is associated with atherosclerosis and diabetes, which renders it as a potential therapeutic target for treatment of these diseases. While much has been learned about the physiological functions of apoA-IV using rodent models, the action of apoA-IV at the cellular and molecular levels is less understood, let alone apoA-IV-interacting partners. In this review, we will summarize the findings on the molecular function of apoA-IV and apoA-IV-interacting proteins. The information will shed light on the discovery of apoA-IV receptors and the understanding of the molecular mechanism underlying its mode of action.


Assuntos
Apolipoproteínas A/metabolismo , Aterosclerose/prevenção & controle , Diabetes Mellitus/prevenção & controle , Animais , Apolipoproteínas A/genética , Colesterol/metabolismo , Glucose/metabolismo , Homeostase , Humanos
5.
Curr Protoc Mouse Biol ; 9(1): e60, 2019 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30801996

RESUMO

This protocol provides a comprehensive reference for the evolution of the lymph fistula model, the mechanism of lipid absorption, the detailed procedure for studying lipid absorption using the lymph fistula model, the interpretation of the results, and consideration of the experimental design. The lymph fistula model is an approach to assess the concentration and rate of a range of molecules transported by the lymph by cannulating lymph duct in animals. In this protocol, mice first undergo surgery with the implantation of cannulae in the duodenum and mesenteric lymph duct and are allowed to recover overnight in Bollman restraining cages housed in a temperature-regulated environment. To study in vivo lipid absorption, a lipid emulsion is prepared with labeled tracers, including [3 H]-triolein and [14 C]-cholesterol. On the day of the experiment, mice are continuously infused with lipid emulsion via the duodenum for 6 hr, and lymph is usually collected hourly. At the end of the study, gastrointestinal segments and their luminal contents are collected separately for determination of the digestion, uptake, and transport of exogenous lipids. © 2019 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc.


Assuntos
Metabolismo dos Lipídeos , Linfa/metabolismo , Sistema Linfático/cirurgia , Animais , Radioisótopos de Carbono/administração & dosagem , Radioisótopos de Carbono/metabolismo , Colesterol/administração & dosagem , Colesterol/metabolismo , Camundongos , Trioleína/administração & dosagem , Trioleína/metabolismo , Trítio/administração & dosagem , Trítio/metabolismo
6.
Biol Reprod ; 2018 Nov 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30418498

RESUMO

L-Proline (proline) in amniotic fluid was markedly increased during pregnancy in both pigs and sheep. However, in vivo data to support a beneficial effect of proline on fetal survival are not available. In this study, pregnant C57BL/6J mice were fed a purified diet supplemented with or without 0.50% proline from embryonic day 0.5 (E0.5) to E12.5 or term. Results indicated that dietary supplementation with proline to gestating mice enhanced fetal survival, reproductive performance, the concentrations of proline, arginine, aspartic acid, and tryptophan in plasma and amniotic fluid, while decreasing the concentrations of ammonia and urea in plasma and amniotic fluid. Placental mRNA levels for amino acid transporters, including Slc36a4, Slc38a2, Slc38a4, Slc6a14, and Na+/K+ ATPase subunit-1α (Atp1a1), fatty acid transporter Slc27a4 and glucose transporter Slc2a1 and Slc2a3, were augmented in proline-supplemented mice, compared with the control group. Histological analysis showed that proline supplementation enhanced labyrinth zone in the placenta of mice at E12.5, mRNA levels for Vegf, Vegfr, Nos2, and Nos3, compared with the controls. Western blot analysis showed that proline supplementation increased protein abundances of phosphorylated (p)-mTORC1, p-ribosomal protein S6 kinase (p70S6K), and p-eukaryotic translation initiation factor 4E-binding protein 1 (4E-BP1), as well as the protein level of GCN2 (a negative regulator of mTORC1 signaling). Collectively, our results indicate a novel functional role of proline in improving placental development and fetal survival by enhancing placental nutrient transport, angiogenesis, and protein synthesis.

7.
Nat Commun ; 9(1): 3608, 2018 09 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30190457

RESUMO

Platelet αIIbß3 integrin and its ligands are essential for thrombosis and hemostasis, and play key roles in myocardial infarction and stroke. Here we show that apolipoprotein A-IV (apoA-IV) can be isolated from human blood plasma using platelet ß3 integrin-coated beads. Binding of apoA-IV to platelets requires activation of αIIbß3 integrin, and the direct apoA-IV-αIIbß3 interaction can be detected using a single-molecule Biomembrane Force Probe. We identify that aspartic acids 5 and 13 at the N-terminus of apoA-IV are required for binding to αIIbß3 integrin, which is additionally modulated by apoA-IV C-terminus via intra-molecular interactions. ApoA-IV inhibits platelet aggregation and postprandial platelet hyperactivity. Human apoA-IV plasma levels show a circadian rhythm that negatively correlates with platelet aggregation and cardiovascular events. Thus, we identify apoA-IV as a novel ligand of αIIbß3 integrin and an endogenous inhibitor of thrombosis, establishing a link between lipoprotein metabolism and cardiovascular diseases.

8.
Mol Nutr Food Res ; 62(21): e1800494, 2018 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30184329

RESUMO

SCOPE: Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is a chronic disease of gastrointestinal tract in which oxidative stress and overactivation of inflammatory response are implicated. The aim of the present study is to test the hypothesis that hydroxyproline (Hyp), an amino acid with an antioxidative property, attenuates dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced colitis in mice. METHODS AND RESULTS: Male C57BL/6 mice supplemented with or without 1% Hyp are subjected to 2.5% DSS in drinking water to induce colitis. Hyp attenuates the severity of colitis as evidenced by reduced disease activity index scores, decreased myeloperoxidase activity, histological damage, and apoptosis. Furthermore, DSS-induced increases in reactive oxygen species accumulation, TNF-α and IL-6 secretion, and malonyldialdehyde activity and a decrease in reduced glutathione in the colon are ameliorated by Hyp. The enhanced phosphorylation of STAT3 and NF-κB following DSS administration is mitigated by Hyp, which is also observed in LPS-treated RAW264.7 macrophages. Moreover, the inhibitory effect of Hyp on IL-6 expression is mainly mediated by the NF-κB signaling, because the induction of STAT3 and IL-6 by LPS is markedly reversed by Bay11-7085, a specific inhibitor NF-κB. CONCLUSION: In summary, Hyp is a critical nutrient with an ability to attenuate DSS-induced colonic damage in mice. This beneficial effect of Hyp is partially mediated by inhibiting the NF-κB/IL-6 signaling and the restoration of redox homeostasis.

9.
J Biol Chem ; 293(34): 13349-13350, 2018 Aug 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30143599

RESUMO

Mice harboring a particular allele of the human brain-derived neurotropic factor (BDNFM/M mice) develop extreme obesity and insulin resistance when fed a high-fat diet. The underlying mechanisms of this genetic risk factor for obesity are unclear. In the current issue of JBC, Yang et al. report that pharmacological inhibition of integral membrane protein CD36 significantly reduces body weight gain and improves glucose tolerance in BDNFM/M mice. Targeting CD36 may therefore be a promising strategy to improve metabolic dysfunctions and normalize risk factors in obese individuals.

10.
Science ; 361(6402): 599-603, 2018 08 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30093598

RESUMO

Excess dietary lipid uptake causes obesity, a major global health problem. Enterocyte-absorbed lipids are packaged into chylomicrons, which enter the bloodstream through intestinal lymphatic vessels called lacteals. Here, we show that preventing lacteal chylomicron uptake by inducible endothelial genetic deletion of Neuropilin1 (Nrp1) and Vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 1 (Vegfr1; also known as Flt1) renders mice resistant to diet-induced obesity. Absence of NRP1 and FLT1 receptors increased VEGF-A bioavailability and signaling through VEGFR2, inducing lacteal junction zippering and chylomicron malabsorption. Restoring permeable lacteal junctions by VEGFR2 and vascular endothelial (VE)-cadherin signaling inhibition rescued chylomicron transport in the mutant mice. Zippering of lacteal junctions by disassembly of cytoskeletal VE-cadherin anchors prevented chylomicron uptake in wild-type mice. These data suggest that lacteal junctions may be targets for preventing dietary fat uptake.


Assuntos
Quilomícrons/metabolismo , Dieta Hiperlipídica/efeitos adversos , Gorduras na Dieta/metabolismo , Neuropilina-1/genética , Obesidade/etiologia , Obesidade/genética , Receptor 1 de Fatores de Crescimento do Endotélio Vascular/genética , Animais , Antígenos CD/metabolismo , Caderinas/antagonistas & inibidores , Caderinas/metabolismo , Quilomícrons/efeitos adversos , Gorduras na Dieta/efeitos adversos , Enterócitos/metabolismo , Deleção de Genes , Absorção Intestinal/genética , Absorção Intestinal/fisiologia , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Knockout , Transdução de Sinais , Fator A de Crescimento do Endotélio Vascular/antagonistas & inibidores , Fator A de Crescimento do Endotélio Vascular/metabolismo , Receptor 2 de Fatores de Crescimento do Endotélio Vascular/antagonistas & inibidores , Receptor 2 de Fatores de Crescimento do Endotélio Vascular/metabolismo
12.
Gastroenterology ; 155(2): 501-513, 2018 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29689264

RESUMO

BACKGROUND & AIMS: Intestinal microbiota modulate metabolism and associate closely with epithelial cells in the intestine. In intestinal epithelial cells (IECs), histone deacetylase 3 (HDAC3) integrates microbiota-derived signals to control intestinal homeostasis. We investigated whether HDAC3 in IECs regulates metabolism and the development of obesity in mice. METHODS: Adult C57BL/6 (control) mice and mice with constitutive or inducible IEC-specific disruption of Hdac3 (HDAC3ΔIEC mice) were placed on a standard chow or high-fat diet (HFD, 60% kcal from fat). We measured body composition, weight, glucose tolerance, and energy expenditure. IECs were isolated from small intestine and gene expression, and lipid levels were analyzed. HDAC3 levels were determined in 43 pediatric patient ileal biopsy samples and compared with body weight. RESULTS: Control mice fed an HFD gained weight, became obese, and had reduced glucose tolerance with increased serum insulin, whereas HFD-fed HDAC3ΔIEC mice did not develop obesity. Serum levels of triglycerides were reduced in HDAC3ΔIEC mice, and these mice had less liver fat and smaller adipocytes, compared with HFD-fed control mice. HDAC3ΔIEC mice had similar food intake and activity as control mice, but higher energy expenditure because of increased catabolism. IECs from HDAC3ΔIEC mice had altered expression levels of genes that regulate metabolism in response to the microbiota (such as Chka, Mttp, Apoa1, and Pck1) and accumulated triglycerides compared with IECs from control mice. The microbiota-derived short-chain fatty acid butyrate was decreased in obese mice. Butyrate significantly reduced the activity of HDAC3 and increased Pck1 expression in only control IECs. Administration of butyrate to control mice with diet-induced obesity, but not HDAC3ΔIEC mice, led to significant weight loss. Disruption of HDAC3 in IECs of mice after they became obese led to weight loss and improved metabolic profile. Levels of HDAC3 in intestinal biopsy samples correlated with patient weight. CONCLUSIONS: We found that epithelial HDAC3 promotes development of diet-induced obesity in studies of mice and that butyrate reduces activity of HDAC3 in IECs to prevent diet-induced obesity. This pathway might be manipulated to prevent or reduce obesity-associated disease.


Assuntos
Dieta Hiperlipídica/efeitos adversos , Células Epiteliais/metabolismo , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/fisiologia , Histona Desacetilases/metabolismo , Obesidade/patologia , Animais , Biópsia , Peso Corporal/fisiologia , Criança , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Metabolismo Energético , Feminino , Histona Desacetilases/genética , Humanos , Íleo/citologia , Íleo/microbiologia , Íleo/patologia , Resistência à Insulina , Mucosa Intestinal/citologia , Mucosa Intestinal/microbiologia , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Camundongos Transgênicos , Obesidade/etiologia , Obesidade/fisiopatologia
13.
Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol ; 315(1): G95-G103, 2018 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29470144

RESUMO

Breast milk lutein is better absorbed by infants than lutein delivered in infant formula. Therefore, we wanted to better understand the possible absorption differences of lutein in breast milk vs. that in infant formula by determining its bioavailability after gastric administration and whether the intestinal absorption of lutein can be improved by using new delivery vehicles. Study 1 compared the intestinal uptake,and the lymphatic and portal transport of lutein in conscious lymph fistula rats. Four groups of lymph- and portal vein-cannulated rats ( n = 8-10/group) were randomized to receive via gastric tube increasing doses (10, 20, 40, or 80 mg/kg) of 20% lutein in safflower oil (SO) suspension to assess whether there was a saturable level of lutein that could be absorbed and transported in lymph. Aliquots of hourly portal blood and lymph were taken for lutein and zeaxanthin analyses. The dose-response study showed that 20 mg/kg lutein was the saturable level of lymphatic lutein absorption with no lutein detected in portal circulation at any dosage level tested. Study 2 randomized five groups of lymph fistula rats ( n = 4-9/group) to receive 20 mg/kg lutein from either lutein in SO or lutein in four different mono- and diglyceride oils (MDGs). Gastric infusion of lutein suspended in MDG (20 mg/kg) significantly improved (71-211%, P < 0.05) lymphatic lutein output 2-6 h after lipid feeding vs. lutein in SO. Lymphatic zeaxanthin (10% of the lutein fed mixture) transport in both Study 1 and Study 2 followed that of lutein. We conclude that a mixture of MDGs helps solubilize lutein and facilitate gastrointestinal micelle formation, thus improving lymphatic lutein absorption compared with triglyceride oils. NEW & NOTEWORTHY This paper describes how lutein is digested and absorbed by the gastrointestinal tract by using the conscious lymph fistula rat model. Our dose-response study showed that absorption and lymphatic transport of lutein is a saturable process with no lutein detected in portal circulation at any dosage level tested. Our paper also provides insight into how this process can be improved by modifying the typical lipid mixtures carrying the lutein.

14.
J Biol Chem ; 293(6): 2091-2101, 2018 02 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29263093

RESUMO

We previously found that 17ß-estradiol (E2) stimulates apolipoprotein A-IV (apoA-IV) gene expression in the nucleus of the solitary tract (NTS) of lean ovariectomized (OVX) rodents. Here we report that in the NTS of high-fat diet-induced obese (DIO) rats, the apoA-IV mRNA level is significantly reduced and that the estrogenic effects on apoA-IV gene expression and food intake are impaired. E2 regulates apoA-IV gene expression through its nuclear receptor α (ERα), which requires co-activators, such as steroid receptor coactivator-1 (SRC-1), to facilitate the transcription of targeted genes. Interestingly, SRC-1 gene expression is significantly reduced in DIO OVX rats. SRC-1 is colocalized with apoA-IV in the cells of the NTS and E2 treatment enhances the recruitment of ERα and SRC-1 to the estrogen response element at the apoA-V promoter, implying the participation of SRC-1 in E2's stimulatory effect on apoA-IV gene expression. Using small hairpin RNA (shRNA), which was validated in cultured neuronal cells, we found that SRC-1 gene knockdown specifically in the NTS significantly diminished E2's anorectic action, leading to increased food intake and body weight. More importantly, the stimulatory effect of E2 on apoA-IV gene expression in the NTS was significantly attenuated in SRC-1 knockdown rats. These results collectively demonstrate the critical roles of NTS SRC-1 in mediating E2's actions on food intake and apoA-IV gene expression and suggest that reduced levels of endogenous SRC-1 and apoA-IV expression are responsible for the impaired E2's anorectic action in obese females.

15.
Curr Opin Gastroenterol ; 34(2): 59-70, 2018 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29266008

RESUMO

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The establishment of mouse models of gallstones, and the contribution of mouse models to genetic studies of gallstone disease, as well as the latest advances in the pathophysiology of gallstones from mouse experiments are summarized. RECENT FINDINGS: The combined uses of genomic strategies and phenotypic studies in mice have successfully led to the identification of many Lith genes, which pave the way for the discovery of human LITH genes. The physical-chemical, genetic, and molecular biological studies of gallstone disease in mice with knockout or transgene of specific target genes have provided many novel insights into the complex pathophysiological mechanisms of this very common hepatobiliary disease worldwide, showing that interactions of five primary defects play a critical role in the pathogenesis of cholesterol gallstones. Based on mouse studies, a new concept has been proposed that hepatic hypersecretion of biliary cholesterol is induced by multiple Lith genes, with insulin resistance as part of the metabolic syndrome interacting with cholelithogenic environmental factors to cause the phenotype. SUMMARY: The mouse model of gallstones is crucial for elucidating the physical-chemical and genetic mechanisms of cholesterol crystallization and gallstone formation, which greatly increase our understanding of the pathogenesis of this disease in humans.

16.
Front Immunol ; 8: 1271, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29118753

RESUMO

The intestinal epithelial cells serve essential roles in maintaining intestinal homeostasis, which relies on appropriate endoplasmic reticulum (ER) function for proper protein folding, modification, and secretion. Exogenous or endogenous risk factors with an ability to disturb the ER function can impair the intestinal barrier function and activate inflammatory responses in the host. The last decade has witnessed considerable progress in the understanding of the functional role of ER stress and unfolded protein response (UPR) in the gut homeostasis and its significant contribution to the pathogenesis of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Herein, we review recent evidence supporting the viewpoint that deregulation of ER stress and UPR signaling in the intestinal epithelium, including the absorptive cells, Paneth cells, goblet cells, and enteroendocrine cells, mediates the action of genetic or environmental factors driving colitis in experimental animals and IBD patients. In addition, we highlight pharmacologic application of chaperones or small molecules that enhance protein folding and modification capacity or improve the function of the ER. These molecules represent potential therapeutic strategies in the prevention or treatment of IBD through restoring ER homeostasis in intestinal epithelial cells.

17.
Front Immunol ; 8: 942, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28855901

RESUMO

Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is a chronic inflammatory disorder of the gastrointestinal tract. Although the etiology and pathogenesis of IBD remain unclear, both genetic susceptibility and environmental factors are implicated in the initiation and progression of IBD. Recent studies with experimental animal models and clinical patients indicated that the intestinal microbiota is one of the critical environmental factors that influence nutrient metabolism, immune responses, and the health of the host in various intestinal diseases, including ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease. The objective of this review is to highlight the crosstalk between gut microbiota and host immune response and the contribution of this interaction to the pathogenesis of IBD. In addition, potential therapeutic strategies targeting the intestinal micro-ecosystem in IBD are discussed.

18.
Psychoneuroendocrinology ; 86: 34-44, 2017 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28910603

RESUMO

There is a critical gap in our knowledge of the mechanisms that govern interactions between daily life experiences (e.g., stress) and metabolic diseases, despite evidence that stress can have profound effects on cardiometabolic health. Apolipoprotein A-IV (apoA-IV) is a protein found in chylomicrons (lipoprotein particles that transport lipids throughout the body) where it participates in lipid handling and the regulation of peripheral metabolism. Moreover, apoA-IV is expressed in brain regions that regulate energy balance including the arcuate nucleus. Given that both peripheral and central metabolic processes are important modulators of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical (HPA) axis activity, the present work tests the hypothesis that apoA-IV activity affects stress responses. As emerging data suggests that apoA-IV actions can vary with background strain, we also explore the strain-dependence of apoA-IV stress regulation. These studies assess HPA axis, metabolic (hyperglycemia), and anxiety-related behavioral responses to psychogenic stress in control (wildtype) and apoA-IV-deficient (KO) mice on either the C57Bl/6J (C57) or 129×1/SvJ (129) background strain. The results indicate that apoA-IV KO increases post-stress corticosterone and anxiety-related behavior specifically in the 129 strain, and increases stress-induced hyperglycemia exclusively in the C57 strain. These data support the hypothesis that apoA-IV is a novel factor that limits stress reactivity in a manner that depends on genetic background. An improved understanding of the complex relationship among lipid homeostasis, stress sensitivity, and genetics is needed to optimize the development of personalized treatments for stress- and metabolism-related diseases.


Assuntos
Apolipoproteínas A/metabolismo , Apolipoproteínas A/fisiologia , Sistema Hipófise-Suprarrenal/metabolismo , Animais , Ansiedade/metabolismo , Corticosterona/metabolismo , Metabolismo Energético , Homeostase , Hiperglicemia/metabolismo , Sistema Hipotálamo-Hipofisário/metabolismo , Lipídeos/fisiologia , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos da Linhagem 129/metabolismo , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL/metabolismo , Camundongos Endogâmicos/metabolismo , Camundongos Knockout/metabolismo , Estresse Fisiológico/fisiologia , Estresse Psicológico/metabolismo
19.
Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol ; 313(5): R535-R548, 2017 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28768657

RESUMO

Apolipoprotein AIV (ApoAIV) and cholecystokinin (CCK) are well-known satiating signals that are stimulated by fat consumption. Peripheral ApoAIV and CCK interact to prolong satiating signals. In the present study, we hypothesized that ApoAIV and CCK control energy homeostasis in response to high-fat diet feeding. To test this hypothesis, energy homeostasis in ApoAIV and CCK double knockout (ApoAIV/CCK-KO), ApoAIV knockout (ApoAIV-KO), and CCK knockout (CCK-KO) mice were monitored. When animals were maintained on a low-fat diet, ApoAIV/CCK-KO, ApoAIV-KO, and CCK-KO mice had comparable energy intake and expenditure, body weight, fat mass, fat absorption, and plasma parameters relative to the controls. In contrast, these KO mice exhibited impaired lipid transport to epididymal fat pads in response to intraduodenal infusion of dietary lipids. Furthermore, ApoAIV-KO mice had upregulated levels of CCK receptor 2 (CCK2R) in the small intestine while ApoAIV/CCK-KO mice had upregulated levels of CCK2R in the brown adipose tissue. After 20 wk of a high-fat diet, ApoAIV-KO and CCK-KO mice had comparable body weight and fat mass, as well as lower energy expenditure at some time points. However, ApoAIV/CCK-KO mice exhibited reduced body weight and adiposity relative to wild-type mice, despite having normal food intake. Furthermore, ApoAIV/CCK-KO mice displayed normal fat absorption and locomotor activity, as well as enhanced energy expenditure. These observations suggest that mice lacking ApoAIV and CCK have reduced body weight and adiposity, possibly due to impaired lipid transport and elevated energy expenditure.


Assuntos
Apolipoproteínas A/metabolismo , Colecistocinina/metabolismo , Gorduras na Dieta/metabolismo , Homeostase/fisiologia , Adiposidade/genética , Adiposidade/fisiologia , Animais , Apolipoproteínas A/deficiência , Peso Corporal/fisiologia , Colecistocinina/deficiência , Dieta com Restrição de Gorduras/métodos , Ingestão de Alimentos/fisiologia , Ingestão de Energia/fisiologia , Metabolismo Energético/genética , Camundongos Knockout
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