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Nanotechnology ; 28(25): 255301, 2017 Jun 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28548051


Focused ion beam (FIB) systems have become powerful diagnostic and modification tools for nanoscience and nanotechnology. Gas field ion sources (GFISs) built from atomic-size emitters offer the highest brightness among all ion sources and thus can improve the spatial resolution of FIB systems. Here we show that the Ir/W(111) single-atom tip (SAT) can emit high-brightness Xe+ ion beams with a high current stability. The ion emission current versus extraction voltage was analyzed from 150 K up to 309 K. The optimal emitter temperature for maximum Xe+ ion emission was ∼150 K and the reduced brightness at the Xe gas pressure of 1 × 10-4 torr is two to three orders of magnitude higher than that of a Ga liquid metal ion source, and four to five orders of magnitude higher than that of a Xe inductively coupled plasma ion source. Most surprisingly, the SAT emitter remained stable even when operated at 309 K. Even though the ion current decreased with increasing temperature, the current at room temperature (RT) could still reach over 1 pA when the gas pressure was higher than 1 × 10-3 torr, indicating the feasibility of RT-Xe-GFIS for application to FIB systems. The operation temperature of Xe-SAT-GFIS is considerably higher than the cryogenic temperature required for the helium ion microscope (HIM), which offers great technical advantages because only simple or no cooling schemes can be adopted. Thus, Xe-GFIS-FIB would be easy to implement and may become a powerful tool for nanoscale milling and secondary ion mass spectroscopy.

Phys Rev Lett ; 90(19): 196603, 2003 May 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-12785967


Two-dimensional Pb islands of a few atomic layers are grown on the incommensurate Si(111)-Pb surface at low temperatures. Among them, two types of islands having different stacking with the substrate are observed. These islands, respectively, display an alternating image contrast with their thickness. Besides, the contrasts of the islands of different types are complementary to each other layer by layer. These intriguing behaviors do not show significant bias dependence throughout the range from -3 to +3 V and can be explained by the vertical charge oscillation with the growth of a new layer. The charge oscillation in the out-of-plane direction originates from electron scattering by the in-plane potential variation at the Pb/Si interface.

Phys Rev Lett ; 86(22): 5116-9, 2001 May 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-11384435


Two-dimensional lead (Pb) islands of varying heights have been grown on the Si(111)-(7 x 7) surface at low temperature. Individual islands are investigated concurrently with real-space and local-probe scanning tunneling microscopy and spectroscopy. Quantum size effects, manifested in the formation of new electronic bound states, redistribution of surface charge density, and oscillatory relaxations in island thickness are found to be perfectly correlated to each other.

Phys Rev Lett ; 84(25): 5792-5, 2000 Jun 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-10991056


Using scanning tunneling microscopy, we have observed electromigration of Si on Si(111)-(7x7) surfaces and have identified the diffusion species to be Si magic clusters. Effects of the directed motion along the direction of the heating current in electromigration and those in thermal migration are determined separately and quantitatively. We also observe the preferential filling of two-dimensional (2D) Si craters and the preferential detachment of Si magic clusters from the edges of 2D Si islands near the cathode side. The driving force for this anisotropic behavior is much stronger than previously recognized.

Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 74(5): 1923-7, 1977 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-266714


Exposure of human erythrocytes, under isotonic conditions, to a high voltage pulse of a few kV/cm leads to total hemolysis of the red cells. Experiments described herein demonstrate that the hemolysis is due to the effect of electric field. Neither the effect of current nor the extent of the rapid Joule-heating to the suspending medium shows a direct correlation with the observed hemolysis. Voltage pulsation of the erythrocyte suspension can induce a transmembrane potential across the cell membrane and, at a critical point, it either opens up or creates pores in the red cells. In isotonic saline the pores are small. They allow passage of potassium and sodium ions but not sucrose and hemoglobin molecules. The pores are larger in low ionic conditions and permit permeation of sucrose molecules, but under no circumstances can hemoglobin leak out as the direct result of the voltage pulse. Kinetic measurements indicate that the hemolysis of the red cells follows a stepwise mechanism: leakage of ions leads to an osmotic imbalance which in turn causes a colloidal hemolysis of the red cells. Other effects of the voltage pulsation are also discussed.

Eletricidade , Membrana Eritrocítica , Eritrócitos , Hemólise , Adulto , Coloides , Membrana Eritrocítica/fisiologia , Eritrócitos/fisiologia , Hemoglobinas , Temperatura Alta , Humanos , Cinética , Potenciais da Membrana , Concentração Osmolar
Biophys J ; 16(9): 1091-104, 1976 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-963205


Previous work has shown that the application of the Joule heating temperature jump technique of Eigen and de Maeyer to an istonic suspension of human erythrocytes induced an interiorization of [3H-A1glucose and a hemolysis of the red cells (Tsong, T.Y., and E. Kingsley, J. Biol. Chem. 250:786 [1975]). The result was interpreted as due to the thermal osmosis effect. Further considerations of the various effects of the Joule heating technique indicate that the hemolysis of the red cells may also be caused by the rapid dielectric perturbation of the cell membranes. By means of turbidity measurements of the suspensions we have detected at least four relaxation times. Two of the faster ones (tau1 approximately 20 mus and tau2 approximately 5 ms) are tentatively attributed to water relaxations in the membrane structures. The other two are attributed to membrane ruptures (tlag approximately 0.1s) and the hemolysis reaction (tau3 approximately 0.5 s). Studies with the erythrocytes from different hematological disorders indicate that whereas the two slower relaxations are sensitive to the overall physical property of the red cell membranes the two faster relaxations are not. These observations are consistent with the above assignment of the relaxation processes. The apparent activation energies are, above assignment of the relaxation processes. The apparent activation energies are, respectively, 8.4, 12.0, and 11.8 kcal/mol for the tau1, tau2, and tau3 reactions. Experiments with erythrocyte ghosts indicate a single relaxation for the water permeation, and biphasic kinetics for the membrane rupture and resealing reactions. The phenomena reported here may contribute to our understanding of water transport and molecular release in cellular systems.

Eletricidade , Hemólise , Temperatura Alta , Humanos , Técnicas In Vitro