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1.
J Invest Surg ; : 1-3, 2022 Mar 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35313797
2.
Cancers (Basel) ; 14(5)2022 Mar 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35267604

RESUMO

Liver transplantation (LT) is the only potentially curative option for children with unresectable hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). We performed a systematic review of the MEDLINE, Scopus, Cochrane Library, and Web of Science databases (end-of-search date: 31 July 2020). Our outcomes were overall survival (OS) and disease-free survival (DFS). We evaluated the effect of clinically relevant variables on outcomes using the Kaplan-Meier method and log-rank test. Sixty-seven studies reporting on 245 children undergoing LT for HCC were included. DFS data were available for 150 patients and the 1-, 3-, and 5-year DFS rates were 92.3%, 89.1%, and 84.5%, respectively. Sixty of the two hundred and thirty-eight patients (25.2%) died over a mean follow up of 46.8 ± 47.4 months. OS data were available for 222 patients and the 1-, 3-, and 5-year OS rates were 87.9%, 78.8%, and 74.3%, respectively. Although no difference was observed between children transplanted within vs. beyond Milan criteria (p = 0.15), superior OS was observed in children transplanted within vs. beyond UCSF criteria (p = 0.02). LT can yield favorable outcomes for pediatric HCC beyond Milan but not beyond UCSF criteria. Further research is required to determine appropriate LT selection criteria for pediatric HCC.

3.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35191067

RESUMO

Over the last decades, health care costs have been increasing at an alarming, exponential rate which is considered unsustainable. Surgical care utilizes one-third of health care costs. Estimating, evaluating, and understanding the cost of surgery is a vital step towards cost management and reduction. Current cost estimation studies and cost-effectiveness studies have vast disparities in their methodology, with published costs of Operating Room varying from as low as $7 and as high as $113 per minute. Costs in surgery are distinguished as direct and indirect. Allocation of direct costs involves identification, measurement, and valuation processes. Allocation of indirect costs involves the allocation of capital and overhead costs and of indirect department costs. Annualised capital costs and overhead hospital costs are then allocated to surgery by either the cost-centre allocation or the activity-based allocation frameworks. Indirect department costs are allocated to a specific surgery by weighted service allocation or hourly rate allocation or inpatient day allocation, or marginal markup allocation. The growing societal, financial and political pressure for cost reduction has brought cost analysis to the forefront of healthcare discussions. Thus, we believe that almost every single surgeon will eventually enter the field of healthcare economics by necessity. This review aims to provide surgeons with a practical framework for engaging in cost estimation studies.

4.
5.
Eur J Trauma Emerg Surg ; 48(2): 1197-1204, 2022 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34296323

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The Emergency Surgery Score (ESS) is a reliable point-based score that predicts mortality and morbidity in emergency surgery patients. However, it has been validated only in the U.S. PATIENTS: We aimed to prospectively validate ESS in a Greek patient population. METHODS: All patients who underwent an emergent laparotomy were prospectively included over a 15-month period. A systematic chart review was performed to collect relevant preoperative, intraoperative, and postoperative variables based on which the ESS was calculated for each patient. The relationship between ESS and 30-day mortality, morbidity (i.e., the occurrence of at least one complication), and the need for intensive care unit (ICU) admission was evaluated and compared between the Greek and U.S. patients using the c-statistics methodology. The study was registered on "Research Registry" with the unique identifying number 5901. RESULTS: A total of 214 patients (102 Greek) were included. The mean age was 64 years, 44% were female, and the median ESS was 7. The most common indication for surgery was hollow viscus perforation (25%). The ESS reliably and incrementally predicted mortality (c-statistics = 0.79 [95% CI 0.67-0.90] and 0.83 [95% CI 0.74-0.92]), morbidity (c-statistics = 0.83 [95% CI 0.76-0.91] and 0.79 [95% CI 0.69-0.88]), and ICU admission (c-statistics = 0.88 [95% CI 0.81-0.96] and 0.84 [95% CI 0.77-0.91]) in both Greek and U.S. CONCLUSION: The correlation between the ESS and the surgical outcomes was statistically significant in both Greek and U.S. patients undergoing emergency laparotomy. ESS could prove globally useful for preoperative patient counseling and quality-of-care benchmarking.


Assuntos
Complicações Pós-Operatórias , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Grécia/epidemiologia , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/epidemiologia , Estudos Prospectivos , Medição de Risco/métodos
6.
7.
World J Transplant ; 11(9): 400-409, 2021 Sep 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34631471

RESUMO

Kasai procedure (KP) and liver transplantation (LT) represent the only therapeutic options for patients with biliary atresia (BA), the most common indication for LT in the pediatric population. However, KP represents by no means a radical option but rather a bridging one, as nearly all patients will finally require a liver graft. More and more experts in the field of transplant surgery propose that maybe it is time for a paradigm change in BA treatment and abandon KP as transplantation seems inevitable. Inadequacy of organs yet makes this option currently not feasible, so it seems useful to find ways to maximize the efficacy of KP. In previous decades, multiple studies tried to identify these factors which opt for better results, but in general, outcomes of KP have not improved to the level that was anticipated. This review provides the framework of conditions which favor native liver survival after KP and the ones which optimize a positive LT outcome. Strategies of transition of care at the right time are also presented, as transplantation plays a key role in the surgical treatment of BA. Future studies and further organization in the transplant field will allow for greater organ availability and better outcomes to be achieved for BA patients.

8.
World J Gastroenterol ; 27(37): 6191-6223, 2021 Oct 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34712027

RESUMO

Artificial intelligence (AI) is an umbrella term used to describe a cluster of interrelated fields. Machine learning (ML) refers to a model that learns from past data to predict future data. Medicine and particularly gastroenterology and hepatology, are data-rich fields with extensive data repositories, and therefore fruitful ground for AI/ML-based software applications. In this study, we comprehensively review the current applications of AI/ML-based models in these fields and the opportunities that arise from their application. Specifically, we refer to the applications of AI/ML-based models in prevention, diagnosis, management, and prognosis of gastrointestinal bleeding, inflammatory bowel diseases, gastrointestinal premalignant and malignant lesions, other nonmalignant gastrointestinal lesions and diseases, hepatitis B and C infection, chronic liver diseases, hepatocellular carcinoma, cholangiocarcinoma, and primary sclerosing cholangitis. At the same time, we identify the major challenges that restrain the widespread use of these models in healthcare in an effort to explore ways to overcome them. Notably, we elaborate on the concerns regarding intrinsic biases, data protection, cybersecurity, intellectual property, liability, ethical challenges, and transparency. Even at a slower pace than anticipated, AI is infiltrating the healthcare industry. AI in healthcare will become a reality, and every physician will have to engage with it by necessity.


Assuntos
Gastroenterologia , Hepatopatias , Inteligência Artificial , Humanos , Aprendizado de Máquina , Prognóstico
10.
Am J Surg ; 222(4): 731-738, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33840443

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: We compared the outcomes of laparoscopic hepatectomy (LH) vs. open hepatectomy (OH) for intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma (iCCA). METHODS: A systematic review of the MEDLINE, EMBASE, Scopus, and Cochrane Library databases was performed using PRISMA guidelines (end-of-search date: 08-June-2020). Individual patient data on overall survival (OS) and recurrence-free survival (RFS) were extracted. Random-effects meta-analyses, and one- and two-stage survival analyses were conducted. RESULTS: Eight retrospective cohort studies comparing LH (n = 544) vs. OH (n = 2256) were identified. LH demonstrated lower overall complication (Risk ratio [RR] = 0.64, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.46-0.90; p = 0.01), surgical lymphadenectomy (RR = 0.74, 95% CI: 0.58-0.93; p = 0.01) and margin-positive resection (RR = 0.78, 95% CI: 0.62-0.99; p = 0.04) rates, and higher recurrence-free rate (RR = 1.24, 95% CI: 1.01-1.51; p = 0.04) vs. OH. In Cox regression, no difference was observed regarding OS (Hazard Ratio [HR] = 1.11, 95% CI: 0.65-1.91; p = 0.70) and RFS (HR = 1.19, 95% CI: 0.74-1.90; p = 0.47). CONCLUSION: The use of LH should be considered when feasible in well-selected iCCA patients by hepatobiliary surgeons with experience in minimally-invasive surgery.


Assuntos
Colangiocarcinoma/mortalidade , Colangiocarcinoma/cirurgia , Hepatectomia/métodos , Humanos , Laparoscopia , Tempo de Internação , Duração da Cirurgia , Complicações Pós-Operatórias , Análise de Sobrevida
11.
J Am Coll Surg ; 232(5): 680-681, 2021 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33896476
12.
J Surg Res ; 264: A1-A9, 2021 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33743995

RESUMO

Artificial intelligence (AI) has made increasing inroads in clinical medicine. In surgery, machine learning-based algorithms are being studied for use as decision aids in risk prediction and even for intraoperative applications, including image recognition and video analysis. While AI has great promise in surgery, these algorithms come with a series of potential pitfalls that cannot be ignored as hospital systems and surgeons consider implementing these technologies. The aim of this review is to discuss the progress, promise, and pitfalls of AI in surgery.


Assuntos
Cirurgia Geral/métodos , Aprendizado de Máquina/tendências , Tomada de Decisão Clínica/métodos , Cirurgia Geral/tendências , Humanos , Medição de Risco/métodos
13.
Eur J Health Econ ; 22(4): 585-604, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33740153

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Following the publication of reports from landmark international consensuses (Louisville 2008 and Morioka 2014), minimally invasive hepatectomy became widely accepted as a legitimate alternative to open surgery. We aimed to compare the operative, hospitalization, and total economic costs of open (OLR) vs. laparoscopic (LLR) vs. robotic liver resection (RLR). METHODS: We performed a systematic literature review (end-of-search date: July 3, 2020) according to the PRISMA statement. Random-effects meta-analyses were conducted. Quality assessment was performed with the Cochrane Risk of Bias tool for randomized controlled trials, and the Newcastle-Ottawa Scale for non-randomized studies. RESULTS: Thirty-eight studies reporting on 3847 patients (1783 OLR; 1674 LLR; 390 RLR) were included. The operative costs of LLR were significantly higher than those of OLR, while subgroup analysis also showed higher operative costs in the LLR group for major hepatectomy, but no statistically significant difference for minor hepatectomy. Hospitalization costs were significantly lower in the LLR group, with subgroup analyses indicating lower costs for LLR in both major and minor hepatectomy series. No statistically significant difference was observed regarding total costs between LLR and OLR both overall and on subgroup analyses in either major or minor hepatectomy series. Meta-analyses showed higher operative, hospitalization, and total costs for RLR vs. LLR, but no statistically significant difference regarding total costs for RLR vs. OLR. CONCLUSION: LLR's higher operative costs are offset by lower hospitalization costs compared to OLR leading to no statistically significant difference in total costs, while RLR appears to be a more expensive alternative approach.


Assuntos
Laparoscopia , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Robóticos , Custos e Análise de Custo , Hepatectomia , Humanos , Tempo de Internação , Estudos Retrospectivos , Resultado do Tratamento
14.
J Trauma Acute Care Surg ; 90(3): 557-564, 2021 03 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33507026

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The Emergency Surgery Score (ESS) was recently validated as an accurate mortality risk calculator for emergency general surgery. We sought to prospectively evaluate whether ESS can predict the need for respiratory and/or renal support (RRS) at discharge after emergent laparotomies (EL). METHODS: This is a post hoc analysis of a 19-center prospective observational study. Between April 2018 and June 2019, all adult patients undergoing EL were enrolled. Preoperative, intraoperative, and postoperative variables were systematically collected. In this analysis, patients were excluded if they died during the index hospitalization, were discharged to hospice, or transferred to other hospitals. A composite variable, the need for RRS, was defined as the need for one or more of the following at hospital discharge: tracheostomy, ventilator dependence, or dialysis. Emergency Surgery Score was calculated for all patients, and the correlation between ESS and RRS was examined using the c-statistics method. RESULTS: From a total of 1,649 patients, 1,347 were included. Median age was 60 years, 49.4% were men, and 70.9% were White. The most common diagnoses were hollow viscus organ perforation (28.1%) and small bowel obstruction (24.5%); 87 patients (6.5%) had a need for RRS (4.7% tracheostomy, 2.7% dialysis, and 1.3% ventilator dependence). Emergency Surgery Score predicted the need for RRS in a stepwise fashion; for example, 0.7%, 26.2%, and 85.7% of patients required RRS at an ESS of 2, 12, and 16, respectively. The c-statistics for the need for RRS, the need for tracheostomy, ventilator dependence, or dialysis at discharge were 0.84, 0.82, 0.79, and 0.88, respectively. CONCLUSION: Emergency Surgery Score accurately predicts the need for RRS at discharge in EL patients and could be used for preoperative patient counseling and for quality of care benchmarking. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: Prognostic and epidemiological, level III.


Assuntos
Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência , Hospitalização , Laparotomia/efeitos adversos , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/epidemiologia , Diálise Renal , Respiração Artificial , Idoso , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Determinação de Necessidades de Cuidados de Saúde , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/terapia , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Medição de Risco
15.
Am J Surg ; 221(5): 1069-1075, 2021 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32917366

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: We sought to evaluate whether the Emergency Surgery Score (ESS) can accurately predict outcomes in elderly patients undergoing emergent laparotomy (EL). METHODS: This is a post-hoc analysis of an EAST multicenter study. Between April 2018 and June 2019, all adult patients undergoing EL in 19 participating hospitals were prospectively enrolled, and ESS was calculated for each patient. Using the c-statistic, the correlation between ESS and mortality, morbidity, and need for ICU admission was assessed in three patient age cohorts (65-74, 75-84, ≥85 years old). RESULTS: 715 patients were included, of which 52% were 65-74, 34% were 75-84, and 14% were ≥85 years old; 51% were female, and 77% were white. ESS strongly correlated with postoperative mortality (c-statistic:0.81). Mortality gradually increased from 0% to 20%-60% at ESS of 2, 10 and 16 points, respectively. ESS predicted mortality, morbidity, and need for ICU best in patients 65-74 years old (c-statistic:0.81, 0.75, 0.83 respectively), but its performance significantly decreased in patients ≥85 years (c-statistic:0.72, 0.64, 0.67 respectively). CONCLUSION: ESS is an accurate predictor of outcome in the elderly EL patient 65-85 years old, but its performance decreases for patients ≥85. Consideration should be given to modify ESS to better predict outcomes in the very elderly patient population.


Assuntos
Tratamento de Emergência/estatística & dados numéricos , Laparotomia/estatística & dados numéricos , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Tratamento de Emergência/efeitos adversos , Tratamento de Emergência/mortalidade , Feminino , Humanos , Laparotomia/efeitos adversos , Laparotomia/mortalidade , Masculino , Medição de Risco , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Resultado do Tratamento , Estados Unidos
18.
J Invest Surg ; 34(12): 1407, 2021 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32996807
19.
Hum Pathol ; 107: 104-116, 2021 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33161028

RESUMO

Although primary colorectal carcinomas (CRCs) frequently share genetic alterations with their metastases, morphologic surrogates reflecting the genotype contexture of metastases remain largely unknown. We investigated phenotype/genotype associations in paired primary and metastatic colorectal adenocarcinomas from 75 patients. Thirty-three (44%) metastatic lesions were synchronous and 42 (56%) were metachronous. Tumor budding, micronecrosis, and tumor-infiltrating lymphocyte (TIL) density were compared with matched next-generation sequencing genotypes. Micronecrosis in the primary were significantly associated with nodal status (P = 0.0054) and with micronecrosis in metastatic sites (P = 0.0216), particularly in metachronous metastases (P = 0.0033). With a 57-gene panel, one or more mutations were identified in 64 (85.3%) cases. In metastases, high (brisk) TILs were associated with overall mutational burden (P = 0.0058) and with mutations in EGF (P = 0.0325), RAS genes (P = 0.0043), and MMR genes (P = 0.0069), whereas high-level micronecrosis correlated with mutations in APC (P = 0.0004) and MSH6 (P = 0.0385) genes. Genomic alterations were shared in 90.1% of primary/metastatic pairs, but clonality of the same mutation was shared in only 57.1% of paired lesions. Compared with synchronous, metachronous metastases had more private clonal alterations (P = 0.0291); in this group, clonal alterations coincided with brisk TILs (P = 0.0334) and high micronecrosis (P = 0.0133). High TILs in metastatic lesions were predictive of favorable overall survival (log-rank P = 0.044). The observed phenotype/genotype associations favor the clonal evolution model in CRC metastases that seems accompanied by intense host immune response. If the role of micronecrosis and brisk TILs in metachronous metastases is validated in larger studies, these histologic parameters will be worth adding in the armamentarium for the evaluation of metastatic CRC.


Assuntos
Adenocarcinoma/genética , Adenocarcinoma/patologia , Neoplasias Colorretais/genética , Neoplasias Colorretais/secundário , Metástase Neoplásica/genética , Adenocarcinoma/imunologia , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Neoplasias Colorretais/imunologia , Feminino , Estudos de Associação Genética , Humanos , Linfócitos do Interstício Tumoral/imunologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Metástase Neoplásica/imunologia , Metástase Neoplásica/patologia
20.
Int J Surg ; 85: 1-9, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33246153

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Colonic diverticulitis is one of the most common gastrointestinal pathologies and its prevalence increases with the aging of the population in Western countries. Approximately 15% of patients with Hinchey Ia acute diverticulitis present with concomitant isolated pericolic air bubbles that denote intestinal perforation and thus prompting a more "aggressive" treatment attitude, including emergency surgery, despite the absence of evidence-based indications. This study is trying to delineate whether this approach is justified or whether a conservative treatment would suffice for this group of patients. MATERIALS AND METHODS: PubMed and Cochrane CENTRAL databases were systematically searched in order to identify all studies that reported the need for emergency surgery and for percutaneous drainage in patients presenting with Hinchey Ia colonic diverticulitis with extraluminal pericolic gas on CT imaging who were initially treated conservatively. The last database search was performed on November 29, 2019 and no language or study type restriction criteria were applied. The Newcastle-Ottawa scale was used to assess the risk of bias of selected studies. RESULTS: Nine observational cohort studies with 411 patients reported the need for emergency surgery, with a pooled rate of 5.1%. Among these studies, four studies comprising 165 patients reported the need for percutaneous drainage separately with a pooled rate of 1.2%. CONCLUSION: Non-operative management of Hinchey Ia acute diverticulitis with isolated pericolic air is feasible and safe with a success rate of 94.9%. Abscess formation requiring percutaneous drainage is present in only 1.2% of patients, thus rendering the conservative initial treatment of these patients justified. Nevertheless, low quality of included studies indicates further research to validate the outcomes of this review.


Assuntos
Doença Diverticular do Colo/cirurgia , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X/métodos , Doença Aguda , Tratamento Conservador , Doença Diverticular do Colo/diagnóstico por imagem , Drenagem/métodos , Humanos , Perfuração Intestinal/cirurgia
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