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1.
Disaster Med Public Health Prep ; : 1-4, 2021 Oct 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34645542

RESUMO

Emergency evacuation during disasters may have significant health impacts on vulnerable populations. The Japanese Government issued evacuation orders for surrounding residents of the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant (FDNPP) immediately after the March 11, 2011, nuclear accident. Little is known of difficulties associated with the disaster-specific evacuation from health care facilities located in this area. Among the 338 patients hospitalized at Futaba Hospital, located 4.6 km west of FDNPP, at the time of the accident, 39 patients (11.5%), predominantly critically ill patients who were bedridden or disabled, died before the evacuation was completed. The shortage of hospital staff and disruption of infrastructure resulted in a lack of adequate care provision, such as infusion therapy or sputum suctioning, leading to premature death of some hospitalized patients during the emergency hospital evacuation. As hospital evacuation is sometimes unavoidable during disasters, potential health impacts of hospital evacuation should be recognized and reflected in disaster preparedness plans.

2.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34501938

RESUMO

Protecting the health of farmworkers is a crucial issue. Previous studies report that safety training and educational interventions might increase farmworkers' protective behaviors. The present study aimed to investigate the effectiveness of distributing a checklist as an interventional measure for pesticide protection in rural Asia, where pesticide poisoning is a major problem. This study was a community-based interventional study, using the distribution of a checklist with pesticide protective habits in Narail district, Bangladesh, with a total of 100 eligible males. Two questionnaire surveys were conducted before distributing the checklist and 25 days after. Change between the baseline and follow-up surveys was measured by frequency scores of protective behavior. The average pesticide-protective behavioral score increased from 4.58 in the baseline survey to 8.11 in the follow-up. Additionally, the checklist was more effective in the group with higher education, the younger group, and the group with lower pesticide-protective behavioral scores in the baseline survey. The paper checklist on protective behaviors against pesticide poisoning was effective because of the increase in the frequency of such positive behavior among farmworkers. Thus, intervention measures should be implemented to increase the knowledge and awareness regarding pesticide protection habits to protect the health of farmworkers.

3.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 100(32): e26830, 2021 Aug 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34397887

RESUMO

ABSTRACT: For five years after the 2011 triple disaster (earthquake, tsunami, and nuclear disaster) in Japan, the proportion of patients with undiagnosed symptomatic breast cancer remained elevated in the coastal area of Fukushima. These individuals experienced a prolonged interval from first symptom recognition to initial medical consultation (hereafter referred to as the patient interval). We aimed to investigate how this prolonged patient interval affected disease staging.Using patient records, we retrospectively extracted females with newly and pathologically diagnosed breast cancer who initially presented to Minamisoma Municipal General Hospital from March 2011 to March 2016. We estimated the proportion with advanced-stage disease (III, IV) according to the patient interval duration (<3 months, 3-12 months, and 12 months plus). A cut-off patient interval value was determined based on the previous evidence with regards to impacts on survival prospects. Logistic regression approaches were used to fulfill the study outcome.The proportion of patients with advanced-stage disease was 10.3% for < 3 months (7/68), 18.2% for 3-12 months (2/11), and 66.7% for more than 12 months (12/18). We found a similar trend using the multivariate logistic regression analyses.Prolongation of the patient interval was associated with advanced-stage disease among female patients with breast cancer.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/epidemiologia , Desastres , Acidente Nuclear de Fukushima , Estadiamento de Neoplasias , Estresse Psicológico/complicações , Neoplasias da Mama/diagnóstico , Neoplasias da Mama/etiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Japão/epidemiologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Estresse Psicológico/diagnóstico , Fatores de Tempo
4.
Int Immunopharmacol ; 98: 107884, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34246041

RESUMO

Performing a cohort-based SARS-CoV-2 antibody assay is crucial for understanding infection status and future decision-making. The objective of this study was to examine consecutive antibody seroprevalence changes among hospital staff, a high-risk population. A two-time survey was performed in May and October 2020 for 545 hospital staff to investigate the changes in the results of the rapid kit test and chemiluminescence immunoassay (CLIA). The seroprevalence of each assay was summarized at both the survey periods. The proportion of seropositive individuals in the CLIA for each survey period and the number of confirmed COVID-19 cases in Central Fukushima were then compared. We chose 515 participants for the analysis. The proportion of IgM seroprevalence in CLIA increased from 0.19% in May to 0.39% in October, and IgG seroprevalence decreased from 0.97% in May to 0.39% in October. The proportion of IgM seroprevalence in the rapid kit test decreased from 7.96% in May to 3.50% in October, and IgG seroprevalence decreased from 7.77% in May to 2.14% in October. The IgG and IgM antibody seroprevalence among hospital staff in rural Central Fukushima decreased; the seroprevalence among hospital staff was consistent with the number of confirmed COVID-19 cases in the Central Fukushima area. Although it is difficult to interpret the results of the antibody assay in a population with a low prior probability, constant follow-up surveys of antibody titers among hospital staff had several merits in obtaining a set of criteria regarding the accuracy of measures against COVID-19 and estimating the COVID-19 infection status among hospital staff.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Antivirais/sangue , Antígenos Virais/imunologia , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Imunoglobulina G/sangue , Imunoglobulina M/sangue , Recursos Humanos em Hospital , Saúde da População Rural , SARS-CoV-2/imunologia , Adulto , Biomarcadores/sangue , COVID-19/diagnóstico , COVID-19/imunologia , COVID-19/virologia , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Humanos , Japão/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Vigilância da População , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos , Fatores de Tempo
5.
Disaster Med Public Health Prep ; : 1-5, 2021 Jul 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34286680

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Typhoon Hagibis struck Japan on October 12, 2019. This study documents and characterizes deaths caused by Hagibis and helps identify strategies to reduce mortality in future disasters. METHODS: Japanese residents, who were killed by Typhoon Hagibis, as reported by Japan's Fire and Disaster Management Agency, were considered for the study. Details were collected from mainstream Japanese media, and flooding data from hazard maps published by local municipalities. RESULTS: Out of the 99 total fatalities, 65 (73.0%) were aged 65 years or above. Among those who drowned indoors (20), 18 (90.0%) lived in high-risk areas of flooding, and their bodies were found on the first floor of their residences. A total of 10 (55.6%) out of the 18 fatalities lived in homes with 2 or more floors, indicating that they could have moved upstairs to avoid the floodwater. However, 6 (33.3%) could not do so due to existing health issues. CONCLUSIONS: Relatively elderly people, particularly those in areas at high risk of flooding, were most affected. Seeking higher ground is a standard safety measure in times of flooding, but this may not be possible for everyone depending on their health status, structure of their residence, and the depth of floodwaters.

6.
Glob Health Action ; 14(1): 1918886, 2021 01 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34058969

RESUMO

Background: As a result of the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant accident, many residents evacuated and were exposed to changes in their living environment and socioeconomic status, and to persistent stressors. Past studies have suggested the potential for these circumstances to contribute to long-term changes to population health.Objective: The objective of this study was to gain a better understanding of long-term health effects of evacuation, by evaluating the risk of non-communicable diseases among evacuees from Minamisoma City (one of the closest municipalities to the power plant) until 2017.Methods: The study evaluated data from annual health check-ups for residents aged 40-74 years covered by National Health Insurance (who are largely self-employed) from 2010 to 2017 administered by Minamisoma City. Diabetes, hyperlipidemia, and hypertension were defined from the results of blood sampling. Annual changes in age-adjusted prevalence were estimated by evacuation scenario. We also performed an inverse-probability weighting (IPW) analysis to adjust for baseline covariates in 2010 and estimated the differences in the risk of diabetes, hyperlipidemia, and hypertension by evacuation scenario as of the 2017 health check-up in reference to the no-evacuation group.Results: A total of 1,837 individuals were considered in this study. Regardless of evacuation scenario, there was statistical evidence suggesting an upward and a downward trend in diabetes and hypertension from 2010 to 2017, respectively, while hyperlipidemia showed no remarkable change. IPW analyses demonstrated that disease risks in 2017 did not differ significantly among people with different evacuation scenarios.Conclusions: Region-specific factors played an important role in the health effects of the evacuation. Our findings have important implications for the need of an assessment of the health effects of evacuations in more localized manner. Further research in this area will strengthen the communities' preparedness for future disasters that require mass evacuation.


Assuntos
Acidente Nuclear de Fukushima , Doenças não Transmissíveis , Humanos , Doenças não Transmissíveis/epidemiologia , Centrais Nucleares , Estudos Retrospectivos , Medição de Risco
7.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34060276

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Regional disparity is an imperative component of health disparity. In particular, providing emergency care that is equally available in rural areas is an essential part of reducing the urban-rural disparity. The objective of this study was to examine the worsening admission rate among Cambodian emergency patients in a rural area and determine their background characteristics that cause this decline. METHODS: To investigate the disparity among patients who visited Sunrise Japan Hospital (SJH), a major general private hospital in the capital, patient data from November 2016 to September 2019 were obtained from the electronic reception patient database. The primary outcome was defined as the proportion of admission patients as an indicator of illness severity. The patients' addresses were classified into 4 areas based on distance from the capital. RESULTS: A total of 6167 patients who visited the emergency department at SJH between January 2017 and September 2019 were included in the analysis. The proportion of patients who needed to be hospitalized or transferred increased with the distance from the capital. The proportion of patients who finished consultation decreased with the distance from the capital (P<.01: Chi-square test). The results of the logistic regression analysis showed that the admission rate in rural areas was significantly higher only among males as compared to that of the capital in multivariate analyses adjusted for age, time, and season. CONCLUSION: The admission rate of emergency patients who visited a private general hospital in Cambodia's capital city increased with distance from the capital city. To improve regional disparity among emergency patients, further research is necessary to identify the issues among emergency patients, especially those who are vulnerable.

8.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 100(25): e26466, 2021 Jun 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34160451

RESUMO

ABSTRACT: Following the lifting of the evacuation order due to the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident, the medical demand and emergency medical system (EMS) in the area where the evacuation orders were lifted have not been well-investigated. This study aimed to evaluate the emergency transportation in such areas and compare the differences with areas that had minimal impact.Using the local EMS transport records, the characteristics of patients who were transferred by an EMS vehicle in Minamisoma City were collected between July 12, 2016 and July 31, 2018, and were compared between former evacuation zones and outside the evacuation zones in the city.The number of emergency transports in the study period in Minamisoma City were 325 cases in the area where the evacuation orders were lifted and 4307 cases in the other areas. The total EMS time was significantly longer in the area where the evacuation order was lifted (48 ±â€Š16 minutes) than in the other areas (40 ±â€Š15 minutes) (P < .001). In the analysis of each component of EMS times, the transport time, which is the time from departure from the patient's location to arrival at a hospital, was significantly longer in the former evacuation zone than in the other areas (16 ±â€Š9 vs 9 ±â€Š9 minutes, P < .001), suggesting that transport time contributed to the longer EMS response times.In areas where the evacuation orders were lifted, the EMS transport time was significantly longer than that in the area outside the former evacuation zone; correspondingly, the total EMS time significantly increased in the former evacuation zone. A plausible reason for this may be the closure of local medical facilities following the evacuation order after the nuclear accident.


Assuntos
Ambulâncias/estatística & dados numéricos , Emergências , Serviços Médicos de Emergência/estatística & dados numéricos , Acidente Nuclear de Fukushima , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Ambulâncias/organização & administração , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Cidades , Estudos Transversais , Serviços Médicos de Emergência/organização & administração , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Japão , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Tempo , Adulto Jovem
9.
J Am Med Dir Assoc ; 2021 Jun 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34146522

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: A previous report indicated that evacuation owing to the government order after the Fukushima disaster impacted the health status of older people; however, the association between living in evacuation areas and independence in their daily lives was unclear. This study examined the hypothesis that people who were forced to evacuate their homes were more likely to need long-term care (LTC). DESIGN: Historical cohort study. SETTING AND PARTICIPANTS: Older individuals (n = 13,934) in Minamisoma, Fukushima Prefecture, Japan, part of which was designated as an evacuation area. METHODS: Background and certification data from April 2012 to December 2016 were extracted. Logistic regression analysis with sex stratification was performed to examine the association between certification of care levels 1-5 and living in evacuation areas. RESULTS: In total, 18,178 Minamisoma residents aged ≥65 years who had not received LTC certification as of March 11, 2011, were eligible for follow-up. Of these, 4244 residents without a certificate of residence by June 1, 2016, were excluded. Of 13,934 residents followed up, 1553 (11.1%) were newly certified as care levels 1-5. Certification of care levels 1-5 was associated with living in evacuation areas [odds ratio (OR) 1.61, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.20-2.18] and living alone at the time of the disaster (OR 2.58, 95% CI 1.92-3.47) in men and living alone at the time of the disaster (OR 1.35, 95% CI 1.15-1.59) in women. CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS: Living in evacuation areas and living alone were associated with LTC certification. In evacuation areas, individuals with family members were more likely to be certified compared with those in nonevacuation areas. Among residents in evacuation areas, several individuals with family members experiencing family structure changes might need LTC. Preventive measures (including group relocation) may be beneficial for those being evacuated following a disaster.

10.
J Eval Clin Pract ; 2021 Jun 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34184374

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Oncology clinical practice guidelines (OCPGs) are systematically developed evidence-based recommendations aimed to guide practitioners in decision making during the diagnosis, management, and treatment of cancer patients under specific circumstances, thereby optimizing clinical outcomes. However, little is known about the implementation of those guidelines in low and middle-income countries including Nepal. This research aimed to identify the type of OCPGs used by Nepalese physicians working in oncology departments and to explore barriers and facilitators affecting their use. METHODS: Using the total population sampling technique, we conducted an online cross-sectional survey from June 2020 to January 2021 among physicians working in the oncology departments of Nepal. Descriptive analyses were conducted to summarize the research findings. RESULTS: Out of 171 physicians approached for the study, 102 (59.6%) responded to the questionnaire. The sizable proportions of the participants were a senior group of physicians with 27.5% being consultants, 14.7% senior consultants, and 16.7% professors. The most commonly used guideline was the National Comprehensive Cancer Network guideline of the United States (75.5%) followed by the American Society of Clinical Oncology guideline (44.7%). While only 22.6% of physicians reported using OCPGs every time, more than half (56.9%) highlighted that OCPGs are not feasible to implement in Nepal. Insufficient facilities/equipment, physicians' unwillingness to change their usual practice, inability to discuss research with knowledgeable colleagues, and lack of time were commonly cited barriers. CONCLUSION: Findings of our study highlighted that the OCPGs developed in high-income countries may not be feasible for low resource settings like Nepal. Comprehensive local OCPGs should be developed considering the available resources, feasibility, and financial constraints of patients. Furthermore, a constant sharing and learning environment should be created to enhance the knowledge of practicing physicians and to promote the proper implementation of evidence-based findings.

12.
J Radiat Res ; 62(Supplement_1): i122-i128, 2021 May 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33978184

RESUMO

Emergency evacuation during a disaster may have serious health implications in vulnerable populations. After the accident at the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant (FDNPP) in March 2011, the Japanese central government immediately issued an evacuation order for residents living near the plant. There is limited information on the process of evacuation from medical institutions within the evacuation zone and the challenges faced. This study collected and analyzed publicly available resources related to the Futaba Kosei Hospital, located 3.9 km northwest of the FDNPP, and reviewed the hospital's evacuation procedures. On the day of the accident at the FDNPP, 136 patients were admitted in the aforementioned hospital. The hospital's director received information about the situation at the FDNPP from the local disaster task force and requested the immediate evacuation of all patients. Consequently, four patients, including those with an end-stage condition, died during the evacuation. Early intervention by external organizations, such as the Japan Self-Defense Forces, helped the hospital to complete the evacuation without facing major issues. However, despite such an efficient evacuation, the death of four patients suggests that a significant burden is placed on vulnerable people during emergency hospital evacuations. Those with compromised health experience a heavy burden during a nuclear disaster. It is necessary for hospitals located close to a nuclear power plant to develop a more detailed evacuation plan by determining the methods of communication with external organizations that could provide support during evacuation to minimize the burden on vulnerable patients.

13.
J Radiat Res ; 62(Supplement_1): i101-i106, 2021 May 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33978180

RESUMO

It is crucial to evaluate ethical issues regarding evacuation orders, especially after a nuclear disaster. After the Fukushima accident in 2011, the Japanese government ordered the affected people to evacuate. The evacuation orders have now been lifted in many areas. A risk trade-off analysis between benefits and risk associated with returning home would help in evaluating the justification for the lifting of the evacuation order in the aftermath of a nuclear disaster. Here, we performed a risk trade-off analysis among people returning home after the lifting of an evacuation order between an increase in emotional happiness (positive effect) and loss of life expectancy due to additional radiation exposure (negative effect), using a happy life expectancy (HpLE) indicator. Emotional happiness was estimated using questionnaires distributed among the affected people who lived in municipalities where evacuation orders were lifted. Loss of life expectancy was estimated under a scenario that returnees received 20 mSv in the year of return and subsequent radiation exposure. Increase in emotional happiness due to returning home was ~1-2 orders of magnitude higher among women aged 20, 40 and 65 years than the loss of life expectancy due to additional radiation exposure. This finding has implications for the justification for the lifting of evacuation orders.

16.
Health Informatics J ; 27(2): 1460458221996420, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33878956

RESUMO

Disasters can hinder access to health information among cancer patients. However, little is known regarding overall health information exposure (HIE), its barriers and its impacts on attitudes toward healthcare among cancer patients in the long-term aftermath of disasters. The aims of this study were threefold: assess the extent of HIE; identify associations between family composition and a non-engagement with HIE; and examine the effects of HIE on attitudes toward healthcare among local cancer patients-5 years after the 2011 triple disaster (earthquake, tsunami, and nuclear disaster) in Fukushima, Japan. We conducted self-administered surveys with all cancer and non-cancer surgery department outpatients at Minamisoma Municipal General Hospital (MMGH), Minamisoma City, from October 2016 to January 2017. In total, 404 patients (263 cancer patients and 141 non-cancer patients) voluntarily participated in the study. The results revealed that a regular level of HIE occurred among 90.5% of the cancer patients. In cancer patients, family composition was not significantly associated with HIE, and HIE was not associated with attitude toward healthcare. In conclusion, most cancer patients visiting the MMGH surgical department were regularly engaged in HIE.


Assuntos
Desastres , Acidente Nuclear de Fukushima , Neoplasias , Atitude , Estudos Transversais , Atenção à Saúde , Humanos , Japão , Neoplasias/terapia
18.
Lancet ; 397(10278): 969-970, 2021 Mar 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33714385
20.
Microb Risk Anal ; : 100162, 2021 Mar 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33778137

RESUMO

The 2020 Olympic/Paralympic Games have been postponed to 2021, due to the COVID-19 pandemic. We developed a model that integrated source-environment-receptor pathways to evaluate how preventive efforts can reduce the infection risk among spectators at the opening ceremony of Tokyo Olympic Games. We simulated viral loads of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) emitted from infectors through talking/coughing/sneezing and modeled temporal environmental behaviors, including virus inactivation and transfer. We performed Monte Carlo simulations to estimate the expected number of newly infected individuals with and without preventive measures, yielding the crude probability of a spectator being an infector among the 60,000 people expected to attend the opening ceremony. Two indicators, i.e., the expected number of newly infected individuals and the newly infected individuals per infector entry, were proposed to demonstrate the extent of achievable infection risk reduction levels by implementing possible preventive measures. A no-prevention scenario produced 1.5-1.7 newly infected individuals per infector entry, whereas a combination of cooperative preventive measures by organizers and the spectators achieved a 99% risk reduction, corresponding to 0.009-0.012 newly infected individuals per infector entry. The expected number of newly infected individuals was calculated as 0.005 for the combination of cooperative preventive scenarios with the crude probability of a spectator being an infector of 1 × 10-5. Based on our estimates, a combination of cooperative preventions between organizers and spectators is required to prevent a viral spread at the Tokyo Olympic/Paralympic Games. Further, under the assumption that society accepts < 10 newly infected persons traced to events held during the entire Olympic/Paralympic Games, we propose a crude probability of infectors of < 5 × 10-5 as a benchmark for the suppression of the infection. This is the first study to develop a model that can assess the infection risk among spectators due to exposure pathways at a mass gathering event.

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