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1.
Cancer Med ; 2021 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33650323

RESUMO

Prior studies reported the association of reproductive factors with breast cancer (BC), but the evidence is inconsistent. We conducted a pooled analysis of nine cohort studies in Japan to evaluate the impact of six reproductive factors (age at menarche/age at first birth/number of births/age at menopause/use of female hormones/breastfeeding) on BC incidence. We conducted analyses according to menopausal status at the baseline or at the diagnosis. Hazard ratio (HR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) were estimated by applying Cox proportional-hazards model in each study. These hazard ratios were integrated using a random-effects model. Among 187,999 women (premenopausal: 61,113, postmenopausal: 126,886), we observed 873 premenopausal and 1,456 postmenopausal cases. Among premenopausal women, use of female hormones significantly increased BC incidence (HR: 1.53 [1.04-2.25]). Although P value for trend was not significant for age at first birth and number of births (P for trend: 0.15 and 0.30, respectively), women giving first birth at ages ≥36 experienced significantly higher BC incidence than at ages 21-25 years, and women who had ≥2 births experienced significantly lower BC incidence than nulliparous women. Among postmenopausal women, more births significantly decreased BC incidence (P for trend: 0.03). Although P value for trend was not significant for age at first birth and age at menopause (P for trend: 0.30 and 0.37, respectively), women giving first birth at ages 26-35 years experienced significantly higher BC incidence than at ages 21-25 years, and women with age at menopause: ≥50 years experienced significantly higher BC incidence than age at menopause: ≤44 years. BC incidence was similar according to age at menarche or breastfeeding history among both premenopausal and postmenopausal women. In conclusion, among Japanese women, use of female hormones increased BC incidence in premenopausal women, and more births decreased BC incidence in postmenopausal women.

2.
BMJ Open ; 11(2): e041804, 2021 Feb 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33589453

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Shoulder pain is a common health problem coexisting with other musculoskeletal pain. However, the effects of pre-existing musculoskeletal pain on the development of shoulder pain are not clear. The present study aimed to elucidate the association between coexisting musculoskeletal pain at other body sites and new-onset shoulder pain among survivors of the Great East Japan Earthquake (GEJE). DESIGN: This is a longitudinal study. SETTING: The study was conducted at the severely damaged coastal areas in Ishinomaki and Sendai cities. PARTICIPANTS: The survivors who did not have shoulder pain at 3 years after the GEJE were followed up 1 year later (n=2131). INTERVENTIONS: Musculoskeletal pain (low back, hand and/or foot, knee, shoulder and neck pain) was assessed using self-reported questionnaires. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: The outcome of interest was new-onset shoulder pain, which was defined as shoulder pain absent at 3 years but present at 4 years after the disaster. The main predictive factor for new-onset shoulder pain was musculoskeletal pain in other body parts at 3 years after the GEJE; this was categorised according to the number of pain sites (0, 1, ≥2). Multiple regression analyses were conducted to calculate the odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) for new-onset shoulder pain due to musculoskeletal pain in other body parts. RESULTS: The incidence of new-onset shoulder pain was 6.7% (143/2131). Musculoskeletal pain in other body parts was significantly associated with new-onset shoulder pain. Using the survivors without other musculoskeletal pain as reference, the adjusted OR and 95% CI for new-onset shoulder pain were 1.86 (1.18 to 2.94) for those with one body part and 3.22 (2.08 to 4.98) for those with ≥2 body parts presenting with musculoskeletal pain (p<0.001). CONCLUSIONS: Pre-existing musculoskeletal pain in other body parts was significantly associated with new-onset shoulder pain among survivors; this provides useful information for clinical and public health policies.

3.
Hypertens Res ; 2021 Feb 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33589797

RESUMO

Recently, a high urinary sodium-to-potassium (Na/K) ratio and reduced sleep efficiency, in addition to conventional risk factors (obesity and excess alcohol intake), have been identified as risk factors for hypertension. We estimated the population attributable fraction (PAF) for home hypertension due to these risk factors in a general Japanese population. We conducted a cross-sectional study including 1384 participants (393 men and 991 women) to estimate the odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) for the presence of any of the conventional risk factors using multivariable logistic regression analyses. The models were adjusted for sex, age, smoking status, and log-transformed average daily steps. We also estimated the OR and 95% CI for the presence of any of the overall risk factors. Furthermore, we calculated the PAF due to these risk factors. The results showed that the prevalence of home hypertension was 39.0% (540/1384). The presence of any of the conventional risk factors, as well as any of the overall risk factors, was significantly associated with an increased prevalence of hypertension (OR 2.80, 95% CI 2.15-3.65; OR 2.50, 95% CI 1.93-3.22, respectively). The PAF for hypertension due to the presence of any of the conventional risk factors and the PAF due to the presence of any of the overall risk factors were 30.2% and 39.0%, respectively. In conclusion, the impact of the overall risk factors, including the urinary Na/K ratio and sleep efficiency, on home hypertension was higher than that of conventional risk factors alone. The management of the urinary Na/K ratio and sleep efficiency as well as conventional risk factors might be important in the management of blood pressure.

4.
J Am Med Dir Assoc ; 2021 Feb 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33587891

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the relationship between poor oral health and the incidence of fall-related fractures in older Japanese individuals. DESIGN: A 9-year prospective cohort study. SETTING AND PARTICIPANTS: Participants comprised 937 community-dwelling older Japanese adults aged 70 years or older. They all lived in the Tsurugaya district, a suburban area of Sendai city, and underwent comprehensive geriatric assessment, including an oral examination, in a public facility. MEASUREMENTS: The exposure variables were related to oral health status (posterior occlusal support, number of remaining teeth, and occlusal force). The outcome measure was the incidence of fall-related fractures, which was determined by National Health Insurance data. Analyzed covariates included age, sex, medical history, smoking, alcohol drinking, educational level, depressive symptoms, cognitive impairment, physical function, body mass index, and history of falls. Statistical relationships were examined by calculating hazard ratios (HRs) at 95% confidence intervals (CIs) using the Cox proportional hazard model. RESULTS: In the multivariate analysis, the HRs of fall-related fractures were significantly higher in those with unilateral posterior occlusal support (HR, 2.72; 95% CI, 1.13-6.55) and no posterior occlusal support (HR, 2.58; 95% CI, 1.29-5.15) than in those with bilateral posterior occlusal support. The HRs (95% CIs) of fall-related fractures in individuals with 10-19 and 1-9 teeth and edentulous individuals were 1.77 (0.81-3.89), 2.67 (1.24-5.75), and 2.31 (1.01-5.28), respectively, compared to those with ≥20 teeth. CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS: Poor oral health status is a risk factor for the incidence of fall-related fractures in community-dwelling older Japanese individuals. The findings suggest that attention should be focused on oral health status to further understand the risk of fall-related fractures among community-dwelling older adults.

5.
Int J Cancer ; 2021 Jan 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33497475

RESUMO

Although alcohol consumption is reported to increase the incidence of breast cancer in European studies, evidence for an association between alcohol and breast cancer in Asian populations is insufficient. We conducted a pooled analysis of eight large-scale population-based prospective cohort studies in Japan to evaluate the association between alcohol (both frequency and amount) and breast cancer risk with categorization by menopausal status at baseline and at diagnosis. Estimated hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals were calculated in the individual cohorts and combined using random-effects models. Among 158 164 subjects with 2 369 252 person-years of follow-up, 2208 breast cancer cases were newly diagnosed. Alcohol consumption had a significant association with a higher risk of breast cancer in both women who were premenopausal at baseline (regular drinker compared to nondrinker: HR 1.37, 1.04-1.81, ≥23 g/d compared to 0 g/d: HR 1.74, 1.25-2.43, P for trend per frequency category: P = .017) and those who were premenopausal at diagnosis (≥23 g/d compared to 0 g/d: HR 1.89, 1.04-3.43, P for trend per frequency category: P = .032). In contrast, no significant association was seen in women who were postmenopausal at baseline or at diagnosis, despite a substantial number of subjects and long follow-up period. Our results revealed that frequent and high alcohol consumption are both risk factors for Asian premenopausal breast cancer, similarly to previous studies in Western countries. The lack of a clear association in postmenopausal women in our study warrants larger investigation in Asia.

6.
Nutr Rev ; 78(Supplement_3): 14-17, 2020 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33259610

RESUMO

The national health promotion program, Health Japan 21 (second term), began in 2013. This program has set 5 basic goals: to extend healthy life expectancy and reduce health disparity, to prevent noncommunicable disease, to improve function for social life, to establish a social environment for health, and to improve lifestyle. To achieve these goals, Health Japan 21 (second term) set 53 targets for the period between 2013 and 2022. At the interim evaluation in 2018, only 21 of the 53 targets were judged likely to be achieved by 2022. In addition, 18 targets were judged as unchanged, and 1 target was judged to be deteriorating. Thus, to achieve the goals of Health Japan 21 (second term), further efforts to strengthen health promotion programs across Japan are needed.

7.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 21726, 2020 Dec 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33303893

RESUMO

The nature of the recovery process of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms is multifactorial. The Massive Parallel Limitless-Arity Multiple-testing Procedure (MP-LAMP), which was developed to detect significant combinational risk factors comprehensively, was utilized to reveal hidden combinational risk factors to explain the long-term trajectory of the PTSD symptoms. In 624 population-based subjects severely affected by the Great East Japan Earthquake, 61 potential risk factors encompassing sociodemographics, lifestyle, and traumatic experiences were analyzed by MP-LAMP regarding combinational associations with the trajectory of PTSD symptoms, as evaluated by the Impact of Event Scale-Revised score after eight years adjusted by the baseline score. The comprehensive combinational analysis detected 56 significant combinational risk factors, including 15 independent variables, although the conventional bivariate analysis between single risk factors and the trajectory detected no significant risk factors. The strongest association was observed with the combination of short resting time, short walking time, unemployment, and evacuation without preparation (adjusted P value = 2.2 × 10-4, and raw P value = 3.1 × 10-9). Although short resting time had no association with the poor trajectory, it had a significant interaction with short walking time (P value = 1.2 × 10-3), which was further strengthened by the other two components (P value = 9.7 × 10-5). Likewise, components that were not associated with a poor trajectory in bivariate analysis were included in every observed significant risk combination due to their interactions with other components. Comprehensive combination detection by MP-LAMP is essential for explaining multifactorial psychiatric symptoms by revealing the hidden combinations of risk factors.

8.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33306609

RESUMO

STUDY DESIGN: A longitudinal panel study. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to examine the occurrence of low back pain (LBP), especially the association of previous LBP with further episodes of LBP, in survivors of the Great East Japan Earthquake (GEJE) during the course of 5 years. SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA: LBP is common among survivors of natural disasters, but its long-term course is not clear. METHODS: A 5-year longitudinal study was conducted among survivors of the GEJE (n = 1821). The presence of LBP was assessed using a self-reported questionnaire at 2, 4, and 7 years after the disaster (termed the first, second, and third time points, respectively). Multiple logistic regression analysis was performed to assess a potential association between LBP at the first and second time points with LBP at the third time point, and the odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were calculated. RESULTS: The prevalence of LBP was 25.3%, 27.3%, and 27.2% at the first, second, and third time points, respectively. The occurrence of LBP at the first time point was significantly associated with LBP at the third time point, and the adjusted odds ratio (OR) (95% confidence interval [CI]) was 5.47 (4.28-6.98). Furthermore, LBP at the first and second time points was significantly associated with LBP at the third time point. Compared to no LBP at the first and second time points, the adjusted OR (95% CIs) for LBP at the third time point was 4.12 (3.14-5.41) in the case of LBP at either of the first or second time points and 10.73 (7.80-14.76) for LBP at both time points (P for trend < 0.001). CONCLUSION: Previous LBP was associated with LBP 5 years later among survivors of the GEJE. Furthermore, the effect on subsequent LBP was stronger with a higher frequency of previous LBP episodes. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: 3.

9.
Int J Cancer ; 2020 Dec 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33326609

RESUMO

Associations of coffee and tea consumption with lung cancer risk have been inconsistent, and most lung cancer cases investigated were smokers. Included in this study were over 1.1 million participants from 17 prospective cohorts. Cox regression analyses were conducted to estimate hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Potential effect modifications by sex, smoking, race, cancer subtype and coffee type were assessed. After a median 8.6 years of follow-up, 20 280 incident lung cancer cases were identified. Compared with noncoffee and nontea consumption, HRs (95% CIs) associated with exclusive coffee drinkers (≥2 cups/d) among current, former and never smokers were 1.30 (1.15-1.47), 1.49 (1.27-1.74) and 1.35 (1.15-1.58), respectively. Corresponding HRs for exclusive tea drinkers (≥2 cups/d) were 1.16 (1.02-1.32), 1.10 (0.92-1.32) and 1.37 (1.17-1.61). In general, the coffee and tea associations did not differ significantly by sex, race or histologic subtype. Our findings suggest that higher consumption of coffee or tea is associated with increased lung cancer risk. However, these findings should not be assumed to be causal because of the likelihood of residual confounding by smoking, including passive smoking, and change of coffee and tea consumption after study enrolment.

10.
Clin Nutr ; 2020 Dec 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33342602

RESUMO

BACKGROUND & AIMS: Previous studies have reported that the Japanese diet is associated with a lower risk of dementia; however, whether changes in adherence to the Japanese diet affects incident dementia remains unknown. We aimed to evaluate the association between long-term changes in adherence to the Japanese diet and risk of incident dementia among older Japanese individuals. METHODS: We collected dietary information from community-dwelling older individuals living in Ohsaki city, Japan using a validated 39-item food frequency questionnaire in 1994 and 2006. Adherence to the Japanese diet was assessed using the 8-item Japanese Diet Index (JDI8) score (range: 0 to 8 points). Changes in adherence to the Japanese diet were defined as changes in the JDI8 score from 1994 to 2006. Next, the participants were classified into five groups: great decrease, moderate decrease, no changes [ref.], moderate increase, or great increase. Then, 3146 Japanese adults aged ≥65 years in 2006 were followed-up for 5.7 years. Incident dementia was retrieved from the long-term care insurance database. The Cox proportional hazards model was used to estimate multivariable-adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs) for incident dementia. RESULTS: During 14,336 person-years of follow up, 231 cases of dementia were ascertained. Compared with no changes in the JDI8 score, the multivariable-adjusted HRs (95%CIs) were 1.72 (1.13, 2.62) for great decrease, 1.10 (0.73, 1.66) for moderate decrease, 0.82 (0.54, 1.25) for moderate increase, and 0.62 (0.38, 1.02) for great increase (p-trend <0.0001). CONCLUSIONS: An increase in adherence to the Japanese diet was associated with a reduced risk of incident dementia, whereas a decrease in adherence was associated with an elevated risk among older Japanese individuals.

11.
Tohoku J Exp Med ; 252(3): 245-252, 2020 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33162454

RESUMO

With population aging, an increasing attention has been paid to quality of life rather than mere longevity. Now, it is urgently needed to clarify predictors of well-being in later life, i.e., "successful aging (SA)." The aim of this study is to investigate whether the number of remaining teeth impacts on maintenance of SA among Japanese older people. The present study was conducted in Tsurugaya district, a suburban area of Sendai, in northern Japan, and included older people aged ≥ 70 years who had met the criteria for SA at a 2003 baseline survey. At the baseline survey, dentists obtained data for the number of remaining teeth. We obtained information about Long-term Care Insurance certification, including the dates of incident functional disability and death between 2003 and 2012. Data pertaining to health-related quality of life (HRQOL) were collected at the 2003 baseline survey and the 2012 follow-up survey. Maintenance of SA was defined in terms of survival, disability-free status and high HRQOL in both 2003 and 2012. Among 450 participants, 108 (24.0%) were considered to have maintained a state of SA. When participants were classified into three groups according to previous studies, in comparison with participants who retained 0-9 teeth, the multivariate prevalence ratios (95% confidence intervals) were 1.39 (0.81-2.36) for those who retained 10-19 teeth and 1.58 (1.002-2.50) for those who retained ≥ 20 teeth (p trend = 0.046). The present results suggest that retaining ≥ 20 teeth is associated with maintenance of SA among Japanese older people.

12.
BMJ Open ; 10(11): e037303, 2020 Nov 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33148725

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of a financial incentive on the number of daily walking steps among community-dwelling adults in Japan. STUDY DESIGN: Two-arm, parallel-group randomised controlled trial. SETTING/PARTICIPANTS: We recruited physically inactive community-dwelling adults from Sendai city, Japan. Eligible participants were randomly allocated to an intervention or a wait list control group. Pedometers were used to assess the mean number of daily steps in three periods: baseline (weeks 1-3), intervention (weeks 4-6) and follow-up (weeks 7-9). INTERVENTION: The intervention group was offered a financial incentive (shopping points) to meet the target number of increased daily steps in the intervention period. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: The primary outcome was an increase in the mean number of daily steps in the intervention and follow-up periods compared with baseline. RESULTS: Seventy-two participants (69.4% women; mean age, 61.2±16.2 years; mean number of daily steps at baseline, 6364±2804) were randomised to the intervention (n=36) and control groups (n=36). During the intervention period, the increase in mean daily steps was significantly higher in the intervention group (1650, 95% CI=1182 to 2119) than in the control group (514, 95% CI=136 to 891; p<0.001). However, the difference between groups was not significant at follow-up after the incentives were removed (p=0.311). In addition, compared with controls, a significantly higher proportion of participants in the intervention group showed an increase in mean daily steps of ≥1000 (69.4% vs 30.6%, respectively; OR=5.17, 95% CI=1.89 to 14.08). There were no adverse effects from the intervention. CONCLUSIONS: The present results suggest that financial incentives are effective in promoting short-term increases in physical activity. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: UMIN000033276.

13.
JMA J ; 3(3): 149-153, 2020 Jul 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33150248

RESUMO

Healthy life expectancy is an indicator that represents a composite of data on mortality and health status and is defined as the average number of years that a person can expect to live at a certain level of health. To extend people's healthy life expectancy, my colleague and I conducted a variety of epidemiologic research based upon community-based cohort studies and intervention trials. The findings from our prospective cohort studies included blood pressure reference values measured at home, green tea health benefit, Japanese dietary pattern, and feeling ikigai (a sense of life worth living) at daily life. Based upon these evidence, I have made some proposals toward extension of healthy life expectancy. In 2011, as the Chair of the Planning Committee for the Next National Health Promotion of Ministry of Health, Labor and Welfare (MHLW), I proposed that the Health Japan 21 (second term) should aim to extend healthy life expectancy to exceed the number of years extended in the total life expectancy, thus compressing the duration to be spent in an unhealthy state (compression of morbidity). In the interim evaluation of the Health Japan 21 (second term) in 2018, we were able to demonstrate that this goal is being achieved. Compared with 2010, in 2016, the increase in healthy life expectancy (1.72 years in men and 1.17 years in women) was higher than that of total life expectancy (1.43 years in men and 0.84 years in women). As a result, the duration to be spent in an unhealthy state was reduced by 0.29 years in men and by 0.33 years in women. It is important to note that Japan is the only country that has made progress in achieving compression of morbidity at the national level. We need to maintain this momentum of compressing morbidity.

14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33153208

RESUMO

The Great East Japan Earthquake devasted the old community in coastal areas characterized by primary industry. The number of unemployed people increased from 150,000 to 190,000 after the earthquake. All of the adult residents of Shichigahama (18 years old or older), located in the coastal area of the Miyagi prefecture, whose houses were totally or majorly damaged, were recruited for a survey conducted in October 2011. All of the residents who responded with written informed consent were included in this study. Among 904 individuals who had a job before the Great East Japan Earthquake, 19% became unemployed. Concerning gender and age, 9% of young men, 34% of elderly men, 21% of young women, and 49% of elderly women became unemployed. Concerning the type of industry, 38%, 15%, and 16% of people who had belonged to the primary, secondary, and tertiary industries, respectively, before the disaster became unemployed. Those who became unemployed exhibited a significantly higher risk of insomnia compared to those who maintained jobs. The study pointed out the severe impact of the Great East Japan Earthquake on populations who had belonged to the primary industry, especially among elderly women, and its effect on sleep conditions.

15.
J Atheroscler Thromb ; 2020 Oct 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33041313

RESUMO

AIMS: We aimed to develop and validate risk prediction models to estimate the absolute 10-year risk of death from coronary heart disease (CHD), stroke, and cardiovascular disease (CVD). METHODS: We evaluated a total of 44,869 individuals aged 40-79 years from eight Japanese prospective cohorts to derive coefficients of risk equations using cohort-stratified Cox proportional hazard regression models. Discrimination (C-index) of the equation was examined in each cohort and summarised using random-effect meta-analyses. Calibration of the equation was assessed using Hosmer-Lemeshow chi-squared statistic. RESULTS: Within a median follow-up of 12.7 years, we observed 765 deaths due to CVD (276 CHDs and 489 strokes). After backward selection, age, sex, current smoking, systolic blood pressure (SBP), proteinuria, prevalent diabetes mellitus, the ratio of total cholesterol to high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (TC/HDLC), interaction terms of age by SBP, and age by current smoking were retained as predictors for CHD. Sex was excluded in the stroke equation. We did not consider TC/HDLC as a risk factor for the stroke and CVD equations. The pooled C-indices for CHD, stroke, and CVD were 0.83, 0.80, and 0.81, respectively, and the corresponding p-values of the Hosmer-Lemeshow tests were 0.18, 0.003, and 0.25, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Risk equations in the present study can adequately estimate the absolute 10-year risk of death from CHD, stroke, and CVD. Future work will evaluate the system as an education and risk communication tool for primary prevention of CHD and stroke.

16.
Int J Cancer ; 2020 Aug 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32761607

RESUMO

Smoking has been consistently associated with the risk of colorectal cancer (CRC) in Western populations; however, evidence is limited and inconsistent in Asian people. To assess the association of smoking status, smoking intensity and smoking cessation with colorectal risk in the Japanese population, we performed a pooled analysis of 10 population-based cohort studies. Study-specific hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated using Cox's proportional hazards model and then pooled using a random-effects model. Among 363 409 participants followed up for 2 666 004 person-years, 9232 incident CRCs were identified. In men, compared with never smokers, ever smokers showed higher risk of CRC. The HRs (95% CI) were 1.19 (1.10-1.29) for CRC, 1.19 (1.09-1.30) for colon cancer, 1.28 (1.13-1.46) for distal colon cancer and 1.21 (1.07-1.36) for rectal cancer. Smoking was associated with risk of CRC in a dose-response manner. In women, compared with never smokers, ever smokers showed increased risk of distal colon cancer (1.47 [1.19-1.82]). There was no evidence of a significant gender difference in the association of smoking and CRC risk. Our results confirm that smoking is associated with an increased risk of CRC, both overall and subsites, in Japanese men and distal colon cancer in Japanese women.

17.
BMC Psychol ; 8(1): 69, 2020 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32611365

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The physical and psychological health impacts on victims of the Great East Japan Earthquake (GEJE) have lasted for a long time. Some cross-sectional studies have reported a relationship between social networks and/or social support and mental health among victims. Previous studies were cross-sectional observations at one time point after a disaster, it remains unclear whether the lack of social trust soon after the GEJE predicts long-term mental health outcomes among the victims. The objective of the present study was to examine prospectively the association between social trust soon after the GEJE and trends in sleep disorders up to 6 years after the GEJE. METHODS: We conducted a health survey on residents living in two areas affected by the GEJE. We analyzed data from 1293 adults (aged ≥18 years) who had participated in an initial health survey. The participants responded to a self-administrated questionnaire composed of items on health condition, mental health, including sleep disorders (based on the Athens Insomnia Scale [AIS]), and social trust. We classified the participants into two categories (high or low) based on the level of social trust at the first health survey. A linear mixed model was used to estimate trends in AIS scores in relation to social trust at the first health survey. RESULTS: The AIS scores of participants in the low social trust group were significantly higher than those in the high social trust group throughout the 6 years after the GEJE (P < 0.01). After adjusting for some covariates, the AIS score estimate for the participants who had low social trust was 1.30 point higher than those for the participants who had high social trust. CONCLUSION: Social trust at 3 to 5 months after the GEJE predicted AIS scores at 6 years after the GEJE among victims. This finding suggests that it may be possible to identify people who have a lower potential for mental resilience from disaster damage over the long term. Further, health interventions for this high-risk group could help promote resilience after a disaster.


Assuntos
Terremotos , Transtornos do Sono-Vigília/etiologia , Fatores Sociológicos , Confiança , Idoso , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Inquéritos Epidemiológicos , Humanos , Japão , Masculino , Saúde Mental , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos , Inquéritos e Questionários
18.
Tohoku J Exp Med ; 251(3): 207-216, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32669518

RESUMO

In 2011, Minamisanriku Town lost all of its medical facilities during the Great East Japan Earthquake. Using 10,459 anonymized disaster medical records of affected people in Minamisanriku Town, we assessed the prevalence and risk factors of sleep disturbance, which is known to exacerbate non-communicable diseases (NCDs) and anxiety disorder. Because sleep disturbance is a part of mental health issues, we divided the patients into two groups: patients (n = 492) with mental health issues other than sleep disturbance and the remaining (n = 9,967) with other comorbidities. Out of 492 patients with mental health issues, 295 patients (60.0%, 114 male, 158 female and 23 unknown) had sleep disturbance who might have required specific treatments. Out of the remaining 9,967 patients, 1,203 patients (12.1%, 361 male and 769 female and 73 unknown) had sleep disturbance. Univariate and multivariate analyses of the 9,967 patients revealed that the odds ratio (OR) of sleep disturbance was higher for female (OR 1.95), elderly persons over 60 (OR 16.15) and residing in evacuation centers (OR 1.36). Patients with two or more NCD had higher risk (OR 1.42). Importantly, sleep disturbance affects younger patients without NCD residing in evacuation center. Emergency medical teams most frequently prescribed benzodiazepines both for sleep induction and anxiolysis. In addition to high risk groups (female, older, with other mental health issues, residing in evacuation center), it is important to survey sleep disturbance in younger and healthier populations especially in evacuation centers and to provide psychosocial and medical support for them.

19.
Eur J Nutr ; 2020 Jul 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32676701

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The present study aimed to examine the association between adherence to the Japanese diet and the subsequent risk of all-cause and cause-specific mortality using a large-scale cohort from settings all over Japan. METHODS: We analyzed data from a cohort study of 92,969 Japanese adults aged 45-74 years, covering 11 public health center areas nationwide. We collected dietary information using a validated 147-item food frequency questionnaire. Adherence to the Japanese diet consisting of eight components (high intake of rice, miso soup, seaweeds, pickles, green and yellow vegetables, fish, and green tea; low intake of beef and pork) was assessed using 8-item Japanese Diet Index (JDI8) score, with scores ranging from 0 to 8. The Cox proportional hazards model was used to estimate the hazard ratio (HR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) for all-cause and cause-specific mortality. RESULTS: During a median follow-up of 18.9 years, we documented 20,596 deaths. A higher JDI8 score was significantly associated with a lower risk for all-cause and cardiovascular disease (CVD) mortality. The multivariable-adjusted HR of all-cause and CVD mortality for the highest JDI8 score group (score of 6-8) versus the lowest JDI8 score group (score of 0-2) were 0.86 (95% CI 0.81-0.90, P trend < 0.001), and 0.89 (95% CI 0.80-0.99, P trend = 0.007), respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Adhering to the Japanese diet, as assessed by the JDI8, was associated with a decreased risk of all-cause and CVD mortality among adults living in multiple areas across Japan.

20.
J Gastroenterol ; 55(11): 1062-1071, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32676800

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To provide updated clinico-epidemiological information on chronic pancreatitis (CP) in Japan. METHODS: We conducted a two-stage nationwide epidemiological survey; the number of CP patients was estimated in the first-stage survey, and their clinical features were examined in the second-stage survey. We surveyed patients with CP who had visited hospitals in 2016 and were diagnosed according to the Japanese diagnostic criteria 2009 (DC2009). Furthermore, we validated the new Japanese diagnostic criteria (DC2019) in patients with early CP diagnosed according to DC2009. RESULTS: The number of patients with definite/probable CP in 2016 was 56,520 (prevalence, 44.5 per 100,000 persons), and that of early CP was 4470 (prevalence, 3.5 per 100,000 persons). We obtained detailed clinical information of 2150 patients with definite/probable CP and 249 patients with early CP. Compared with the early CP cases, the definite/probable CP cases had higher proportions of male (4.8 vs. 1.3), alcohol-related etiology (72.0% vs. 45.8%), smoking history (69.6% vs. 41.0%), diabetes mellitus (42.3% vs. 19.3%), and past history of acute pancreatitis (AP) (50.4% vs. 22.1%). Among the patients with early CP diagnosed according to DC2009, 93 (37.3%) were diagnosed with early CP according to DC2019, but the diagnosis of the remaining 156 (62.7%) patients was downgraded. Alcohol-related etiology, smoking history, early disease onset, and past history of AP were associated with the maintenance of early CP diagnosis in DC2019. CONCLUSION: We clarified the current status of CP in Japan. Further validation studies are warranted to clarify the diagnostic utility of DC2019.

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