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1.
Hepatol Commun ; 2021 Oct 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34676692

RESUMO

The identification of patients with advanced fibrosis who do not need any further hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) surveillance after the eradication of hepatitis C is pivotal. In this study, we developed a simple serum-based risk model that could identify patients with low-risk HCC. This was a nationwide multicenter study involving 16 Hospitals in Japan. Patients with advanced fibrosis (1,325 in a derivation cohort and 508 in a validation cohort) who achieved sustained virological responses at 24 weeks after treatment (SVR24) were enrolled. The HCC risk model at any point after SVR24 and its change were evaluated, and subsequent HCC development was analyzed. Based on the multivariable analysis, patients fulfilling all of the factors (GAF4 criteria: gamma-glutamyl transferase < 28 IU/L, alpha-fetoprotein < 4.0 ng/mL, and Fibrosis-4 Index < 4.28) were classified as low-risk and others were classified as high-risk. When patients were stratified at the SVR24, and 1 year, and 2 years after SVR24, subsequent HCC development was significantly lower in low-risk patients (0.5-1.1 per 100 person-years in the derivation cohort and 0.9-1.1 per 100 person-years in the validation cohort) than in high-risk patients at each point. HCC risk from 1 year after SVR24 decreased in patients whose risk improved from high-risk to low-risk (HCC incidence: 0.6 per 100 person-years [hazard ratio (HR) = 0.163 in the derivation cohort] and 1.3 per 100 person-years [HR = 0.239 in the validation cohort]) than in those with sustained high risk. Conclusion: The HCC risk model based on simple serum markers at any point after SVR and its change can identify patients with advanced fibrosis who are at low HCC risk, and these patients may be able to reduce HCC surveillance.

2.
J Med Virol ; 93(11): 6247-6256, 2021 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34170517

RESUMO

The real-world virological efficacy and safety of interferon-free direct-acting antiviral (DAA) therapy with sofosbuvir (SOF) and velpatasvir (VEL) were assessed in hepatitis C virus (HCV) genotype 1- and 2-infected patients with decompensated cirrhosis. A total of 65 patients with HCV-related decompensated cirrhosis (Child-Pugh score of 7 points or more) who were treated with the SOF/VEL regimen were enrolled. The sustained virological response (SVR) rate and safety profile were analyzed. SVR was defined as undetectable serum HCV RNA at 12 weeks after the end of treatment (SVR12). The percentages of patients with undetectable HCV RNA at 4, 8, and 12 weeks after the start of therapy were 81.2% (95% confidence interval [CI], 69.5-89.9) (52/64), 98.4% (95% CI, 91.2-100.0) (60/61), and 98.5% (95% CI, 91.7-100.0) (64/65), respectively. The overall SVR rate was 92.3% (95% CI, 83.0-97.5) (60/65). Albumin-bilirubin (ALBI) scores decreased during and after treatment (p < 0.001), and there were significant differences between baseline and end of treatment and between baseline and SVR12. Subgroup analyses showed no significant differences in SVR rates according to patient age, sex, HCV genotype (subtype), Child-Pugh classification, modified ALBI grade, presence of ascites, presence of hepatic coma, or history of hepatocellular carcinoma. In all subpopulations, the SVR rates were higher than 80%. There were no severe adverse events associated with the treatment. The SOF/VEL regimen showed good virological efficacy and acceptable safety even in patients with HCV-related decompensated cirrhosis.

3.
Cancers (Basel) ; 13(11)2021 May 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34073396

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Lenvatinib (LEN) has been approved for patients with unresectable hepatocellular carcinoma (u-HCC) since March 2018 in Japan. We performed a retrospective nationwide multicenter study to clarify the clinical characteristics of LEN in real-world practice. METHODS: A total of 343 u-HCC patients who received LEN from March 2018 to May 2020 at 23 sites in Japan were registered. RESULTS: During the median observation period of 10.5 months, 143 patients died. In Child-Pugh A (n = 276) and Child-Pugh B (n = 67) patients, the median overall survival (OS) was 21.0 and 9.0 months. The median progression-free survival (PFS) was 8.8 months in Child-Pugh A patients. The objective response rate (ORR) and disease control rate (DCR) according to modified response evaluation criteria in solid tumors (RECIST criteria) were 42.1% and 82.1%. The independent pretreatment factors associated with mortality in all patients were AFP ≥ 400 ng/mL (hazard ratio (HR) 2.00, 95% confidential interval (95% CI) 1.08-2.09, p < 0.0001), modified albumin-bilirubin (ALBI) grade 2b or 3 (HR 1.56, 95% CI 1.09-2.17, p = 0.012), major vascular invasion (HR 1.91, 95% CI 1.26-2.89, p = 0.0022), PS > 0 (HR 1.50, 95% CI 1.09-2.08, p = 0.014), and MTT (molecular targeted therapy) experience (HR 2.22, 95% CI 1.56-3.13, p = 0.00038). In the MTT naïve patients with ALBI grade 1 or modified ALBI 2a and BCLC stage B (n = 68), median OS and PFS were 25.3 and 12.3 months. Liver-related adverse events during LEN were the only significant adverse event associated with OS (HR 2.74, 95% CI 1.93-3.88, p < 0.0001). Among the Child-Pugh A patients with extrahepatic metastasis and no major vascular invasion, median PFS in the patients with bone metastasis was significantly shorter than those with lung or adrenal grand metastasis (6.3 vs. 12.5 months, p = 0.0025). CONCLUSION: LEN showed a high response rate in real-world practice. Pretreatment factors, including ALBI score, AFP, and major vascular invasion are important in making a treatment strategy for patients with u-HCC. The patients with bone metastasis would be candidates for new therapeutic approaches.

4.
Oncology ; 99(8): 507-517, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33946070

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: We evaluated the efficacy and safety of lenvatinib-transcatheter arterial chemoembolization (LEN-TACE) sequential therapy for patients (n = 88) with intermediate-stage hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). METHODS: Eighty-eight patients who obtained tumor control by LEN treatment were analyzed; 30 received LEN followed by TACE (LEN-TACE sequential therapy), and 58 received LEN monotherapy. Propensity score matching was performed, and the outcomes of 19 patients in the LEN-TACE group and 19 patients in the LEN-alone group were compared. Objective response rate (ORR), progression-free survival (PFS), overall survival (OS), incidence of adverse events (AEs), and change in albumin-bilirubin (ALBI) score were evaluated. RESULTS: After matching, baseline characteristics were similar between the groups. The ORR was 63.2% with LEN-TACE group and 63.2% with the LEN-alone group. Multivariate analysis showed that addition of TACE during LEN treatment (hazard ratio [HR] 0.264, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.087-0.802, p = 0.019) and Child-Pugh score 5 (HR 0.223, 95% CI 0.070-0.704, p = 0.011) were the significant factors for PFS. Median PFS was 11.6 months with LEN-TACE and 10.1 months with LEN-alone. The survival rate of the LEN-TACE group was significantly higher than that of the LEN-alone group (median survival time; not reached vs. 16.9 months, p = 0.007). The incidence of common LEN-associated AEs was similar between groups. Although elevated aspartate aminotransferase/alanine aminotransferase and fever were more frequent with LEN-TACE group, these events were manageable. CONCLUSION: For patients with intermediate-stage HCC, LEN-TACE sequential therapy may provide a deep response and favorable prognosis.


Assuntos
Carcinoma Hepatocelular/terapia , Quimioembolização Terapêutica/métodos , Neoplasias Hepáticas/terapia , Compostos de Fenilureia/administração & dosagem , Quinolinas/administração & dosagem , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Antineoplásicos/administração & dosagem , Antineoplásicos/efeitos adversos , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/patologia , Quimioembolização Terapêutica/efeitos adversos , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Neoplasias Hepáticas/patologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estadiamento de Neoplasias , Compostos de Fenilureia/efeitos adversos , Intervalo Livre de Progressão , Pontuação de Propensão , Quinolinas/efeitos adversos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Taxa de Sobrevida
5.
Oncology ; 99(8): 491-498, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34000725

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: This study compared clinical outcomes of 2nd- and 3rd-line regorafenib in patients with unresectable hepatocellular carcinoma. METHODS: In this retrospective cohort study, 48 patients were treated with regorafenib for unresectable hepatocellular carcinoma. Thirty-five and 13 patients were initiated on 2nd- and 3rd-line therapy, respectively. We assessed the responses to and safety of the therapy. RESULTS: There were no statistically significant differences in clinical characteristics at the start of 2nd- or 3rd-line regorafenib therapy. The overall response rate of 2nd- and 3rd-line regorafenib was 20 and 8%, respectively. The disease control rate was 57 and 54%, respectively. Median overall survival (mOS) from the start of 2nd-line regorafenib was 17.5 months. mOS from the start of 3rd-line regorafenib was not obtained. Median progression-free survival of 2nd- and 3rd-line regorafenib was 4.9 and 2.3 months, respectively. mOS from 1st-line therapy with tyrosine kinase inhibitor plus sorafenib-regorafenib-lenvatinib was 29.5 months; that with lenvatinib-sorafenib-regorafenib was not obtained. Patients on 3rd-line therapy tended to have better Child-Pugh scores and tumor factors at the start of 1st-line therapy than other patients. CONCLUSION: Patients on 2nd- and 3rd-line regorafenib showed favorable responses. Good Child-Pugh scores and tumor factors may be associated with a better response rate and OS.


Assuntos
Carcinoma Hepatocelular/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Hepáticas/tratamento farmacológico , Compostos de Fenilureia/administração & dosagem , Piridinas/administração & dosagem , Administração Oral , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Antineoplásicos/administração & dosagem , Antineoplásicos/efeitos adversos , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/patologia , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Neoplasias Hepáticas/patologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Compostos de Fenilureia/efeitos adversos , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/administração & dosagem , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/efeitos adversos , Piridinas/efeitos adversos , Quinolinas/administração & dosagem , Quinolinas/efeitos adversos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Sorafenibe/administração & dosagem , Sorafenibe/efeitos adversos , Taxa de Sobrevida , Resultado do Tratamento
6.
Oncology ; 99(5): 327-335, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33677453

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The clinical outcome of ramucirumab in multi-molecular targeted agent (MTA) sequential therapy for unresectable hepatocellular carcinoma (u-HCC) was assessed in comparison with that of prior tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI) therapy. METHODS: Sixteen patients who received ramucirumab as part of multi-MTA sequential therapy for u-HCC were enrolled in a retrospective, cohort study. Ramucirumab was started as 2nd line in 7 patients, 3rd line in 5 patients, and 4th line in 4 patients. RESULTS: The overall response rate was 6.3%, the disease control rate (DCR) was 50.0%, median progression-free survival was 2.0 months (evaluated by mRECIST), median overall survival (OS) with ramucirumab was 7.9 months, and the median OS from 1st-line therapy was 28.1 months. One month after the start of ramucirumab, α-fetoprotein (AFP) decreased in 6 of 12 cases (50.0%), and the DCR in AFP-decreased cases was 83.3%. The DCR of ramucirumab was 66.7% in cases in which disease control was obtained by prior TKI therapy, whereas it was 0.0% in the cases in which disease control was not obtained by prior TKI therapy. Examining the adverse events, no new safety concerns were confirmed. CONCLUSION: The AFP response to ramucirumab and the treatment response to prior TKI therapy are associated with treatment response to ramucirumab.


Assuntos
Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/uso terapêutico , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/mortalidade , Neoplasias Hepáticas/mortalidade , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Anticorpos Monoclonais Humanizados/administração & dosagem , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/tratamento farmacológico , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/patologia , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Neoplasias Hepáticas/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Hepáticas/patologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Compostos de Fenilureia/administração & dosagem , Prognóstico , Piridinas/administração & dosagem , Quinolinas/administração & dosagem , Estudos Retrospectivos , Sorafenibe/administração & dosagem , Taxa de Sobrevida
7.
Clin Infect Dis ; 73(9): e3349-e3354, 2021 11 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33544129

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: It is unclear whether the fibrosis 4 index (FIB-4), a marker of liver fibrosis, at baseline and change in FIB-4 after sustained virological response (SVR) is associated with incident hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) risk. In this study, we examined the association of incident HCC risk with baseline FIB-4 and sustained high FIB-4 (>3.25) at any time point after SVR. METHODS: A total of 3823 patients who received direct-acting antiviral treatment and achieved SVR were enrolled. The FIB-4 was measured 24 weeks after the end of direct-acting antiviral treatment and achievement of SVR (SVR24), and 1, 2, and 3 years after SVR24, after which subsequent HCC development was investigated. RESULTS: In patients with an FIB-4 >3.25 at SVR24 and 1, 2, and 3 years after SVR24, subsequent HCC development was significantly higher than in those with an FIB-4 ≤3.25 at each point. The rates of HCC development 1, 2, 3, and 4 years after SVR24 were significantly higher in patients with sustained FIB-4 >3.25 than in those whose FIB-4 decreased to ≤3.25 (5.4%, 9.2%, 11.7%, and 16.0%, respectively, vs 2.2%, 3.1%, 3.7%, and 4.4%; P < .001). The adjusted hazard ratios (95% confidence intervals) for an FIB-4 >3.25 at SVR24 and 1, 2, and 3 years later were 3.38 (2.4-4.8), 2.95 (1.9-4.7), 2.62 (1.3-5.1), and 3.37 (1.4-9.8), respectively. CONCLUSIONS: The FIB-4 could be used to assess HCC development risk at any time after SVR, and changes in FIB-4 were associated with changes in the HCC development risk. Repeated assessments of FIB-4 could serve as a prognostic indicator of a high-risk HCC cohort that may require more intensive HCC surveillance strategy.


Assuntos
Carcinoma Hepatocelular , Hepatite C Crônica , Neoplasias Hepáticas , Antivirais/uso terapêutico , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/epidemiologia , Hepacivirus , Hepatite C Crônica/complicações , Hepatite C Crônica/tratamento farmacológico , Humanos , Cirrose Hepática/tratamento farmacológico , Cirrose Hepática/epidemiologia , Neoplasias Hepáticas/epidemiologia , Fatores de Risco , Resposta Viral Sustentada
8.
Intern Med ; 60(6): 829-837, 2021 Mar 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33087674

RESUMO

Objective Lusutrombopag is a thrombopoietin receptor agonist that improves thrombocytopenia in patients with chronic liver disease scheduled to undergo invasive procedures. However, information on the efficacy of repeated lusutrombopag treatment and factors associated with the treatment is scarce. We analyzed the efficacy of repeated lusutrombopag treatment and the factors associated with a response to lusutrombopag. Methods Thirty-nine patients with chronic liver disease who received lusutrombopag treatment before undergoing invasive procedures were enrolled in this retrospective study. Of the 39 patients, 10 received lusutrombopag treatment multiple times for a total of 53 regimens of lusutrombopag treatment. Changes in platelet counts, the effects of repeated lusutrombopag treatment, and factors associated with response to lusutrombopag were analyzed. Results The median platelet count increased significantly from 4.5×104/µL before lusutrombopag treatment to 7.2×104/µL before the invasive procedure (p<0.01), and patients undergoing 49 of the 53 (92%) treatment regimens succeeded in undergoing invasive procedures without needing platelet transfusions. In patients who received lusutrombopag treatment repeatedly, the median platelet count significantly increased following the second administration of lusutrombopag, and the effects of lusutrombopag were similar between the first and second administration. A multivariate analysis identified the absence of diabetes mellitus (odds ratio, 5.56 for presence; p=0.04) as a significant and independent predictor of a response to lusutrombopag. Conclusion Lusutrombopag treatment significantly increased platelet counts in patients with chronic liver disease, making it possible to receive invasive procedures. The treatment produced identical effects when it was repeated. The efficacy of lusutrombopag might be decreased in patients with diabetes mellitus.


Assuntos
Hepatopatias , Trombocitopenia , Doença Crônica , Cinamatos , Humanos , Hepatopatias/complicações , Hepatopatias/tratamento farmacológico , Receptores de Trombopoetina , Estudos Retrospectivos , Tiazóis , Trombocitopenia/tratamento farmacológico
9.
Esophagus ; 18(3): 669-675, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33221955

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The study aimed to investigate the efficacy of vonoprazan 10 mg compared with 20 mg in patients with erosive esophagitis. METHOD: Seventy-three patients with erosive esophagitis were randomly divided into two groups either vonoprazan 20 mg (n = 37) or 10 mg (n = 36). They were administered each dose for 4 weeks as the initial treatment followed by maintenance treatment with 10 mg for 8 weeks. The primary endpoints were mucosal healing rate and symptom relief at 4 weeks. The secondary endpoint was symptom relief at 12 weeks after the maintenance treatment. Mucosal healing was assessed endoscopically, and symptom relief was assessed using the FSSG score. RESULTS: At 4 weeks, the endoscopic healing rates of the 20 mg and 10 mg groups were 94.6% and 94.4%, respectively. The FSSG scores of the 20 mg and 10 mg groups were significantly decreased in both treatment groups from 13 (4-39) to 4 (0-25) and 14 (4-40) to 3 (0-29), respectively. At 12 weeks, the scores further decreased to 2 (0-13) and 2 (0-26), respectively. The vonoprazan 10 mg group showed a similar therapeutic effect to the 20 mg group in mucosal healing at 4 weeks and in symptom relief throughout the study period. When stratified by esophagitis grading, these findings were still demonstrated in grade A/B patients but not in grade C/D patients. CONCLUSION: Our findings suggest that initial treatment with vonoprazan 10 mg might be useful especially in patients with mild erosive esophagitis. Large controlled studies are warranted to confirm our investigation.

10.
Hepatol Res ; 50(11): 1234-1243, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32914512

RESUMO

AIM: Combination therapy with sofosbuvir (SOF) plus velpatasvir (VEL) is approved for patients with hepatitis C virus (HCV)-related decompensated cirrhosis. We analyzed the real-world efficacy of SOF/VEL therapy. METHODS: Thirty-three patients with HCV-related decompensated cirrhosis (25 and eight patients with Child B and C, respectively) were treated with SOF/VEL for 12 weeks. The HCV non-structural protein (NS)5A and NS5B drug resistance-associated substitutions (RASs) were determined by direct sequencing. RESULT: Thirty-two of 33 patients completed the treatment, but the remaining patient discontinued the therapy during third week of the treatment due to aggravation of hepatic encephalopathy. Serum HCV-RNA became negative during the treatment in all patients but relapsed after the end of therapy in five patients. In total, 28 out of 33 patients (85%) achieved sustained virological response 12 weeks following completion of treatment (SVR12). The SVR12 rate was 96% in patients with Child B, but significantly lower, at 50%, in patients with Child C (P < 0.05). In genotype 1b HCV-infected patients, all eight patients without baseline NS5A RASs, but only three of seven patients with RASs, achieved SVR12. Multivariate analysis identified Child B (odds ratio, 35.8 for Child C; P = 0.045) as an independent predictor of SVR12. Median serum albumin levels significantly increased only in patients who achieved SVR12. Child-Pugh scores improved in 16 of 28 patients (57%) following achievement of SVR12. CONCLUSION: The effect of SOF/VEL therapy is lower for patients with Child C. Improvement of hepatic function is expected after viral eradication with SOF/VEL therapy in patients with decompensated cirrhosis.

11.
Oncology ; 98(11): 787-797, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32882687

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Although a strong antitumor effect of lenvatinib (LEN) has been noted for patients with unresectable hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), there are still no reports on the prognosis for patients with disease progression after first-line LEN therapy. METHODS: Patients (n = 141) with unresectable HCC, Child-Pugh class A liver function, and an Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status (ECOG-PS) of 0 or 1 who were treated with LEN from March 2018 to December 2019 were enrolled. RESULTS: One hundred and five patients were treated with LEN as first-line therapy, 53 of whom had progressive disease (PD) at the radiological evaluation. Among the 53 patients with PD, there were 27 candidates for second-line therapy, who had Child-Pugh class A liver function and an ECOG-PS of 0 or 1 at progression. After progression on first-line LEN, 28 patients were treated with a molecular targeted agent (MTA) as second-line therapy (sorafenib: n = 26; ramucirumab: n = 2). Multivariate analysis identified modified albumin-bilirubin grade 1 or 2a at LEN initiation (odds ratio 5.18, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.465-18.31, p = 0.011) as a significant and independent factor for candidates. The median post-progression survival after PD on first-line LEN was 8.3 months. Cox hazard multivariate analysis showed that a low alpha-fetoprotein level (<400 ng/mL; hazard ratio [HR] 0.297, 95% CI 0.099-0.886, p = 0.003), a relative tumor volume <50% at the time of progression (HR 0.204, 95% CI 0.07-0.592, p = 0.03), and switching to MTAs as second-line treatment after LEN (HR 0.299, 95% CI 0.12-0.746, p = 0.01) were significant prognostic factors. CONCLUSION: Among patients with PD on first-line LEN, good liver function at introduction of LEN was an important and favorable factor related to eligibility for second-line therapy. In addition, post-progression treatment with MTAs could improve the prognosis for patients who had been treated with first-line LEN.


Assuntos
Carcinoma Hepatocelular/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Hepáticas/tratamento farmacológico , Compostos de Fenilureia/uso terapêutico , Quinolinas/uso terapêutico , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Anticorpos Monoclonais Humanizados/uso terapêutico , Antineoplásicos/uso terapêutico , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/mortalidade , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/patologia , Estudos de Coortes , Progressão da Doença , Feminino , Humanos , Neoplasias Hepáticas/mortalidade , Neoplasias Hepáticas/patologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Terapia de Alvo Molecular , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/uso terapêutico , Estudos Retrospectivos , Sorafenibe/uso terapêutico , Taxa de Sobrevida
12.
Metabolites ; 10(9)2020 Aug 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32878279

RESUMO

Drug-induced liver injury (DILI) is a major adverse event caused by drug treatment, which can be categorized into three types: hepatocellular, mixed, and cholestatic. Although nearly every class of drugs can cause DILI, an overall understanding of lipid profiles in DILI patients is lacking. We used lipidomics to analyze the plasma lipid profiles of patients to understand their hepatic pathophysiology and identify DILI biomarkers. We identified 463 lipids and compared their levels between the acute and recovery phases of the three types of DILI patients. Mixed and cholestatic types demonstrated specific plasma lipid alterations between the phases, but the hepatocellular type did not. Moreover, as specific indicators of mixed-type DILI, levels of several ceramides increased in the acute phase, while those of arachidonic acid-containing ether-linked phosphoglycerolipids decreased. In contrast, as specific indicators of cholestatic-type DILI, levels of palmitic acid-containing saturated or monounsaturated phosphatidylcholines increased in the acute phase, while those of arachidonic acid- or docosahexaenoic acid-containing ether-linked phosphoglycerolipids and phosphatidylinositols decreased. We also identified lipids with a relatively high capacity to discriminate the acute phase from the recovery phase and healthy subjects. These findings may help with understanding the pathophysiology of different DILI types and identify candidate biomarkers.

13.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 13021, 2020 08 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32747646

RESUMO

Nucleos(t)ide analogs (NA) suppress hepatitis B virus (HBV) replication and reduce the risk of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). However, NA cannot suppress carcinogenesis completely in patients with chronic hepatitis B. The aims of this study were to identify risk factors for HCC and develop a refined carcinogenesis prediction model. Patients receiving NA therapy (n = 1,183) were recruited retrospectively from the 16 hospitals. All patients had been receiving NA continuously for more than 1 year until the end of the follow-up. During a median follow-up of 4.9 (1.0-12.9) years, 52 (4.4%) patients developed HCC. A multivariate analysis revealed that male gender, older age, lower platelet counts at the baseline, and detectable HBV DNA during NA therapy were independent predictive factors of HCC development. The PAGE-B score was calculated by using these factors. 240 (20.3%), 661 (55.9%), and 282 (23.8%) patients were classified into low-, intermediate-, and high-risk groups, respectively. In the intermediate- and high-risk group, detectable HBV DNA was significantly associated with a higher risk of HCC development compared with continuously undetectable HBV DNA, respectively (HR 3.338; 95% CI 1.045-10.66/HR 3.191; 95% CI 1.543-6.597). PAGE-B-DNA, which is the combined PAGE-B and HBV DNA status, was valuable for a more refined stratification of PAGE-B.


Assuntos
Carcinoma Hepatocelular/tratamento farmacológico , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/virologia , DNA Viral/análise , Vírus da Hepatite B/genética , Neoplasias Hepáticas/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Hepáticas/virologia , Nucleotídeos/uso terapêutico , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/diagnóstico , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Neoplasias Hepáticas/diagnóstico , Neoplasias Hepáticas/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Análise de Regressão , Fatores de Risco
14.
Clin J Gastroenterol ; 13(6): 1233-1238, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32656649

RESUMO

The hepatitis C virus (HCV) NS5A-P32 deletion (P32del) confers potent resistance to NS5A inhibitors. Chronic hepatitis C patients in whom NS5A-P32del variants had emerged during prior direct-acting antiviral (DAA) therapy with an NS5A inhibitor show poor response to DAA retreatment. Here, we report three patients with HCV NS5A-P32del infection who were treated with sofosbuvir, velpatasvir plus ribavirin (SOF/VEL + RBV) in a real-world setting. The patients developed HCV NS5A-P32del, L31F + P32del, or L31V + P32del variants following failure of daclatasvir plus asunaprevir (DCV/ASV) therapy. One of the patients failed to respond to subsequent DCV/ASV and beclabuvir therapy, and the remaining two patients failed to respond to subsequent glecaprevir and pibrentasvir therapy. All three patients completed 24-week SOF/VEL + RBV therapy. Serum HCV RNA became negative at the end of the therapy in all three patients. Two patients with NS5A-P32del and NS5A-L31F + P32del achieved sustained virological response 12 weeks after completion of treatment (SVR12), but HCV relapsed in the remaining NS5A-L13V + P32del patient. Direct sequence analysis detected no additional variants within either the NS5A or NS5B regions at the time of relapse. In conclusion, three patients with prior NS5A-P32del-associated DAA treatment failure received 24 weeks of SOF/VEL + RBV therapy, and two of the patients achieved SVR12.


Assuntos
Hepatite C Crônica , Hepatite C , Antivirais/uso terapêutico , Carbamatos , Quimioterapia Combinada , Genótipo , Hepacivirus/genética , Hepatite C/tratamento farmacológico , Hepatite C Crônica/tratamento farmacológico , Compostos Heterocíclicos de 4 ou mais Anéis , Humanos , Ribavirina/uso terapêutico , Sofosbuvir/uso terapêutico , Resultado do Tratamento
15.
J Clin Invest ; 130(6): 3205-3220, 2020 06 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32163375

RESUMO

In patients with HBV and HCV coinfection, HBV reactivation leading to severe hepatitis has been reported with the use of direct-acting antivirals (DAAs) to treat HCV infection. Here we studied the molecular mechanisms behind this viral interaction. In coinfected cell culture and humanized mice, HBV replication was suppressed by HCV coinfection. In vitro, HBV suppression was attenuated when interferon (IFN) signaling was blocked. In vivo, HBV viremia, after initial suppression by HCV superinfection, rebounded following HCV clearance by DAA treatment that was accompanied by a reduced hepatic IFN response. Using blood samples of coinfected patients, IFN-stimulated gene products including C-X-C motif chemokine 10 (CXCL10), C-C motif chemokine ligand 5 (CCL5), and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) were identified to have predictive value for HBV reactivation after HCV clearance. Taken together, our data suggest that HBV reactivation is a result of diminished hepatic IFN response following HCV clearance and identify serologic markers that can predict HBV reactivation in DAA-treated HBV-HCV-coinfected persons.


Assuntos
Coinfecção/imunologia , Hepacivirus/fisiologia , Vírus da Hepatite B/fisiologia , Hepatite B/imunologia , Hepatite C/imunologia , Interferons/imunologia , Ativação Viral/imunologia , Animais , Quimiocina CCL5/imunologia , Quimiocina CXCL10/imunologia , Coinfecção/patologia , Coinfecção/virologia , Hepatite B/patologia , Hepatite B/virologia , Hepatite C/patologia , Hepatite C/virologia , Humanos , Fígado/imunologia , Fígado/patologia , Fígado/virologia , Camundongos
16.
Mol Clin Oncol ; 12(1): 60-68, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31814977

RESUMO

Although sorafenib is the standard treatment for patients with advanced hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), the predictive factors sorafenib tolerance in intermediate-stage HCC cannot be accurately determined. The aim of the current study was to identify the predictive characteristics for the continuation of sorafenib treatment (≥400 mg) in patients with transarterial chemoembolization (TACE)-refractory intermediate HCC and to identify candidates for second-line sorafenib treatment. A total of 33 TACE-refractory intermediate patients with HCC that were treated with sorafenib, and who had reached progressive disease (PD), were analyzed in the present retrospective study. Of 33 patients, 6 patients (18.1%) were able to continue sorafenib treatment (≥400 mg) until PD, however, a total of 27 patients (71.9%) were unable to continue treatment (<400 mg). The current study compared the baseline characteristics parameters to sorafenib ≥400 mg and <400 mg using a logistic regression model. The overall survival (OS) of patients receiving sorafenib ≥400 mg treatment was significantly increased compared with patients receiving sorafenib treatment <400 mg [554.5 days (228-674) vs. 219 days (134-369); P=0.0315). A univariate analysis was performed and indicated that Age (<75 years; P=0.021), total cholesterol (>180 mg/dl; P=0.026) and cholinesterase (ChE; ≥220 U/l; P=0.024) were significant factors, and a multivariate analysis indicated that ChE (≥220 U/l) was a significant prognostic factor (HR: 11.9; 95% CI: 1.19-118.0; P=0.004). Both progression-free survival [279 (204-403) vs. 117.5 (63-197) days; P=0.0136] and OS [470 (277-679) vs. 171.5 (80-236) days; P=0.0004] were significantly increased in patients with ChE levels ≥220 U/l compared with patients exhibiting ChE levels <220 U/l. Baseline high value of ChE in intermediate-stage HCC predicts the ability to continue sorafenib treatment at ≥400 mg.

18.
Nihon Shokakibyo Gakkai Zasshi ; 116(12): 1030-1038, 2019.
Artigo em Japonês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31827043

RESUMO

A 77-year-old Japanese man with a gastrointestinal stromal tumor (GIST) had undergone a duodenectomy 11 years prior. At that time, he had an incidentally detected left renal cell carcinoma, for which he underwent a nephrectomy and was followed-up at our institution. Twenty-four months after the nephrectomy, a 13-mm low-density mass was found on abdominal computed tomography (CT). Contrast-enhanced ultrasonography indicated an irregular hyperenhancement in the vascular phase and a defect on the post-vascular image. A tumor biopsy for differential diagnosis revealed that the tumor was a GIST. Since positron emission tomography-CT and capsule endoscopy revealed no evidence of a primary lesion, we performed a partial hepatectomy without adjuvant treatment. Microscopic examination revealed that the tumor consisted of uniform spindle cells with a fascicular growth pattern. Immunohistochemical examination revealed c-kit and CD34 expressions, similar to those found in the resected duodenal GIST specimen 11 years prior. We diagnosed metastatic liver tumor from the duodenal GIST resected 11 years prior. The patient remains alive without disease recurrence 24 months after the hepatectomy. Long-term surveillance is required after resection of a high-risk primary GIST.


Assuntos
Duodeno , Tumores do Estroma Gastrointestinal , Neoplasias Hepáticas , Idoso , Hepatectomia , Humanos , Masculino , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia
19.
Hepatol Res ; 49(10): 1121-1126, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31209976

RESUMO

AIM: Rescue therapy for patients with genotype 2 (GT2) chronic hepatitis C who failed prior sofosbuvir (SOF) plus ribavirin (RBV) awaits establishment. This study aims to investigate the efficacy and safety of the fixed-dose combination of glecaprevir (300 mg)/pibrentasvir (120 mg) (GLE/PIB) for patients with GT2 chronic hepatitis C. METHODS: In this nationwide observational study undertaken by the Japanese Red Cross Liver Study Group, 28 GT2 patients with prior failure of SOF + RBV were retreated with GLE/PIB for 12 weeks. We evaluated the rate of sustained virologic response (SVR) and adverse events. RESULTS: After 4 weeks of therapy, serum hepatitis C virus RNA was below the limit of quantification in all patients. The SVR after 4 and 12 weeks of the end of treatment was validated in 100% (28/28) and 100% (28/28), respectively. The adverse events comprised pruritus (eight patients), fatigue (four patients), and appetite loss (four patients), all of which were mild in severity. CONCLUSIONS: This study establishes the efficacy of GLE/PIB as retreatment in Japanese patients with GT2 chronic hepatitis C not responding to SOF + RBV.

20.
Hepatol Res ; 49(10): 1114-1120, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31077527

RESUMO

AIM: The present study aimed to determine the real-world efficacy and safety of the non-structural protein (NS)5A inhibitor elbasvir (EBR) combined with the NS3/4A protease inhibitor grazoprevir (GZR) in patients with hepatitis C virus (HCV) genotype 1 (GT1) infection. METHODS: This study retrospectively evaluated the rate of sustained virologic response at 12 weeks post-treatment (SVR12) and the safety of EBR/GZR treatment in 159 men and 194 women with a median age of 72 years, and it assessed factors associated with the SVR12 rate. The attending physicians were responsible for selecting candidate patients for EBR/GZR in this retrospective study. RESULTS: Treatment outcomes for EBR/GZR were good in direct-acting antiviral (DAA)-naïve patients, of whom 99.4% achieved SVR. Of 353 patients, 10 (2.9%) had treatment failure. Of these patients, eight previously underwent DAA therapy, and the remaining two had NS5A-L31/Y93 double mutation. The SVR rate was 50% (8/16 patients) in patients who previously underwent DAA therapy, and 18.2% (2/11 patients) in patients with NS5A-L31/Y93 double mutation. On multivariate logistic regression analysis, NS5A-Y31/Y93 double mutation (odds ratio 356.3; 95% confidence interval, 23.91-16 940; P < 0.0001) was identified as an independent predictor of treatment failure. No serious adverse events were observed with EBR/GZR therapy. CONCLUSIONS: The SVR rate of EBR/GZR would have been 100% in patients without either a history of DAA therapy or double mutation. This combination of drugs could be safely given and is, thus, considered a highly useful first-line treatment for DAA-naïve patients with HCV.

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