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1.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34574435

RESUMO

The aim of this study was to investigate the longitudinal relationship between shorter or irregular sleep duration (SD) in early childhood and increased risk of injury at primary school age using data from a nationwide survey in Japan. We categorized SD into seven groups: 6 h, 7 h, 8 h, 9 hrs, 10 or 11 h, >12 h, and irregular, based on questionnaire responses collected at 5.5 years old. The relationship between SD and incidence of injury at 5.5-nine years of age is shown. In addition, we completed a stratified analysis on children with or without problematic behavior at eight years old. We included 32,044 children, of which 6369 were classified as having an injury and 25,675 as not having an injury. Logistic regression model showed that shorter or irregular SD categories were associated with an increased adjusted odds ratio (aOR) for injuries (6 h: aOR 1.40, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.19-1.66, 7 h: aOR 1.10, 95% CI, 0.98-1.23, 8 h: aOR 1.13, 95% CI, 1.02-1.26, irregular: aOR 1.26, 95% CI 1.10-1.43). The same tendency was observed with shorter or irregular SD in subgroups with or without behavioral problems. Shorter or irregular sleep habits during early childhood are associated with injury during primary school age.


Assuntos
Comportamento Problema , Sono , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Humanos , Japão/epidemiologia , Instituições Acadêmicas , Inquéritos e Questionários
2.
BMC Emerg Med ; 21(1): 104, 2021 09 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34530735

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Patients with traumatic cardiac arrest (TCA) are known to have poor prognoses. In 2003, the joint committee of the National Association of EMS Physicians and the American College of Surgeons Committee on Trauma proposed stopping unsuccessful cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) sustained for > 15 min after TCA. However, in 2013, a specific time-limit for terminating resuscitation was dropped, due to the lack of conclusive studies or data. We aimed to define the association between emergency medical services transport time and survival to demonstrate the survival curve of TCA. METHODS: A retrospective review of the Japan Trauma Data Bank. Inclusion criteria were age ≥ 16, at least one trauma with Abbreviated Injury Scale score (AIS) ≥ 3, and CPR performed in a prehospital setting. Exclusion criteria were burn injury, AIS score of 6 in any region, and missing data. Estimated survival rate and risk ratio for survival were analyzed according to transport time for all patients. Analysis was also performed separately on patients with sustained TCA at arrival. RESULTS: Of 292,027 patients in the database, 5336 were included in the study with 4141 sustained TCA. Their median age was 53 years (interquartile range (IQR) 36-70), and 67.2% were male. Their median Injury Severity Score was 29 (IQR 22-41), and median transport time was 11 min (IQR 6-17). Overall survival after TCA was 4.5%; however, survival of patients with sustained TCA at arrival was only 1.2%. The estimated survival rate and risk ratio for sustained TCA rapidly decreased after 15 min of transport time, with estimated survival falling below 1%. CONCLUSION: The chances of survival for sustained TCA declined rapidly while the patient is transported with CPR support. Time should be one reasonable factor for considering termination of resuscitation in patients with sustained TCA, although clinical signs of life, and type and severity of trauma should be taken into account clinically.


Assuntos
Reanimação Cardiopulmonar , Serviços Médicos de Emergência , Parada Cardíaca Extra-Hospitalar , Taxa de Sobrevida , Tempo para o Tratamento , Adulto , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Escala de Gravidade do Ferimento , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos
3.
Case Rep Emerg Med ; 2021: 9940395, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34239738

RESUMO

Introduction: Most physicians are not familiar with postoperative changes to the orbit, so radiologists and clinicians may sometimes find it challenging to conduct a proper radiological assessment of the globe of the eye and orbital abnormalities. We present a patient with head trauma who had surgery for retinal detachment with implantation of silicone encircling bands. This case report may help clinicians recognize imaging characteristics after ophthalmic surgery to prevent misdiagnosis and unnecessary workup. Case Report. An 18-year-old man with severe head trauma was admitted to our hospital. Initial computed tomography (CT) revealed a high attenuation of intraocular silicone that could be mistaken for a hemorrhage. Ophthalmological examination and detailed ophthalmic history confirmed silicone oil in his eye for treatment of retinal detachment. Knowledge of the anatomical changes and radiological appearance of postsurgical findings following retinal detachment, including the surgical materials of silicone oil or bands, can prevent unnecessary alarm. Conclusion: Implanted ophthalmic devices, for example, silicone oil, appear similar to hemorrhages on CT and magnetic resonance imaging and cause diagnostic confusion. When in doubt, it is useful to assess the clinical presentation and obtain an accurate medical history.

4.
Acute Med Surg ; 8(1): e651, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33968415

RESUMO

Aim: Although uncommon, medical emergencies arise in general dental practice. Inadequate data on their severity and frequency makes targeting medical education for general dental practitioners difficult. This also makes planning for unexpected events challenging for practitioners and makes collaborating with emergency physicians burdensome. We aimed to clarify the incidence and characteristics of a dental outpatient department's medical emergencies. Methods: This single-center, retrospective, observational study was undertaken with patients who visited the dental outpatient department of Okayama University Hospital during the 8-year period. The primary outcome of the study was to identify the incidence and characteristics of medical emergencies in the dental outpatient department. Then we examined the timing of medical emergencies, administered medications, and final disposition (home/admission). Results: During the period, 1,146,929 patients were enrolled. Forty-two patients (0.0037%) were consulted as medical emergencies. More than 60% of the incidents were vasovagal syncope, and dehydration and hypoglycemia were the second most prevalent at 9.5%. The most common types of dental treatments were tooth extraction (45.2%), followed by general dental treatment (28.6%), and other dental surgery such as implant placement (14.3%). Types of medical emergencies occurred equally before, during, and after dental treatment. Antihypertensive agents, sedatives, or glucose were used. For patients with emergencies, 90.5% recovered during the day and returned home, and 9.5% were hospitalized. Conclusion: The incidence of medical emergencies was low in our dental outpatient department. Knowledge of basic management principles, regular education for emergency care, and practicing first aid skills are mandatory for safe patient management.

5.
Arch Acad Emerg Med ; 9(1): e16, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33870203

RESUMO

Plastic bronchitis is an uncommon disorder marked by the production of bronchial casts and acute respiratory failure development. In pediatric cases, influenza infection sometimes results in the obstruction of bronchi and leads to this potentially life-threatening condition. We report the case of a five-year-old boy with plastic bronchitis related to influenza A infection, which could only be recovered by the use of extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO). ECMO could effectively provide sufficient oxygenation for patients suffering from severe reversible acute respiratory failure. If patients infected with the influenza virus present acute respiratory distress with total lung atelectasis, clinicians should consider the diagnosis of plastic bronchitis and the subsequent treatment interventions with ECMO in a severe cases.

6.
Acta Med Okayama ; 74(6): 513-520, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33361871

RESUMO

Few studies have investigated the influence of the Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic on emer-gency medical service (EMS) systems, especially in areas less affected or unaffected by COVID-19. In this study, we investigated changes in prehospital EMS activity and transport times during the COVID-19 pandemic. All patients transported by EMS in the city of Okayama from March-May 2019 or March-May 2020 were included. Interfacility transports were excluded. The primary outcome was the time from a patient's first emergency call until hospital arrival (total prehospital time). Secondary outcomes included three segments of total prehospital time: the response time, on-scene time, and transportation time. Total prehospital time and the durations of each segment were compared between corresponding months in 2020 (COVID19-affected) and 2019 (control). The results showed that total prehospital times in April 2020 were significantly higher than those in 2019 (33.8 ± 11.6 vs. 32.2 ± 10.8 min, p < 0.001). Increases in total prehospital time were caused by longer response time (9.3 ± 3.8 vs. 8.7 ± 3.7 min, p < 0.001) and on-scene time (14.4 ± 7.9 vs. 13.5 ± 6.2min, p < 0.001). The COVID-19 pandemic was thus shown to affect EMS and delayed arrival/response even in a minimally affected region. A system to minimize transportation delays should be developed for emerging pandemics.


Assuntos
COVID-19/epidemiologia , Serviços Médicos de Emergência , SARS-CoV-2 , Transporte de Pacientes , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Tempo
8.
Respir Med Case Rep ; 31: 101224, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32995263

RESUMO

Stenotrophomonas maltophilia (S. maltophilia) is a Gram-negative, multidrug-resistant organism that both opportunistically infects the bloodstream and leads to pneumonia in immunosuppressed patients, including those with hematologic malignancies. In patients with severe respiratory failure, venovenous extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (VV ECMO) can stabilize the respiratory status. However, whether ECMO in patients with hematologic malignancies improves the clinical outcomes is still controversial because ECMO increases the risk of the exacerbation of sepsis and bleeding. We report a case of a 46-year-old man with Stenotrophomonas maltophilia hemorrhagic pneumonia acquired during consolidation chemotherapy for acute myeloid leukemia in whom VV ECMO lead to a good clinical outcome. The stabilization of his respiratory status achieved with VV ECMO allowed time for trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole antibiotic therapy to improve the pneumonia. We suggest the background of patients, including comorbidities and general conditions, should be taken into account when considering the clinical indications of ECMO.

9.
Respir Med Case Rep ; 31: 101182, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32802737

RESUMO

Thyroid storm is a potentially fatal intensification of thyrotoxicosis normally marked by tachycardia, hyperthermia, impaired mental status, and severe agitation. It can be initiated by numerous causes. Failure to promptly diagnose the condition may lead to high mortality. Early diagnosis and treatment of thyroid storm are essential to prevent further life-threatening complications. A 10-year-old girl was admitted to our emergency center for intensive care. The patient presented tachypnea with stridor, paradoxical abdominal breathing, and "barking" cough. The patient was diagnosed as upper airway obstruction complicated by thyroid storm associated with influenza infection. Following immediate airway management, the patient was administered a short-acting beta-blocker, hydrocortisone, thiamazole, and saturated solution of potassium iodide was initiated. The patient was extubated on day 8 and transferred to a local hospital on day 11 without adverse complications. When examining patients with influenza infection, emergency doctors should be more attentive not to miss other critical diagnoses. The present case was initially diagnosed as croup due to influenza infection. Sharing our experience may help emergency physicians treat similar cases of pediatric airway compromise due to thyroid storm.

10.
Acta Med Okayama ; 74(4): 285-291, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32843759

RESUMO

The importance of centralizing treatment services for severely ill children has been well established, but such entralization remains difficult in Japan. We aimed to compare the trauma and illness severity and mortality of children admitted to two common types of ICUs for children. According to the type of management and disposition of the medical provider, we classified ICUs as pediatric ICUs [PICUs] or general ICUs, and analyzed differences in endogenous and exogenous illness settings between them. Overall, 1,333 pediatric patients were included, with 1,143 patients admitted to PICUs and 190 patients to general ICUs. The Pediatric Cerebral Performance Category score (PCPC) at discharge was significantly lower in the PICU group (adjusted OR: 0.45; 95%CI: 0.23-0.88). Death and unfavorable neurological outcomes occurred less often in the PICU group (adjusted OR: 0.29; 95%CI: 0.14-0.60). However, when limited to exogenous illness, PCPC scores (adjusted OR: 0.38; 95%CI: 0.07-1.99) or death/unfavorable outcomes (adjusted OR: 0.72; 95%CI: 0.08-6.34) did not differ between the groups. PCPC deterioration and overall sequelae/death rates were lower in PICUs for children with endogenous illnesses, although the outcomes of exogenous illness were similar between the 2 unit types. Further studies on the necessity of centralization are warranted.


Assuntos
Cuidados Críticos/métodos , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva Pediátrica/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Mortalidade Hospitalar , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva Pediátrica/normas , Japão , Masculino , Avaliação de Resultados em Cuidados de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Sistema de Registros
11.
Acute Med Surg ; 7(1): e501, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32431842

RESUMO

Ischemia reperfusion (IR) injury occurs when blood supply, perfusion, and concomitant reoxygenation is restored to an organ or area following an initial poor blood supply after a critical time period. Ischemia reperfusion injury contributes to mortality and morbidity in many pathological conditions in emergency medicine clinical practice, including trauma, ischemic stroke, myocardial infarction, and post-cardiac arrest syndrome. The process of IR is multifactorial, and its pathogenesis involves several mechanisms. Reactive oxygen species are considered key molecules in reperfusion injury due to their potent oxidizing and reducing effects that directly damage cellular membranes by lipid peroxidation. In general, IR injury to an individual organ causes various pro-inflammatory mediators to be released, which could then induce inflammation in remote organs, thereby possibly advancing the dysfunction of multiple organs. In this review, we summarize IR injury in emergency medicine. Potential therapies include pharmacological treatment, ischemic preconditioning, and the use of medical gases or vitamin therapy, which could significantly help experts develop strategies to inhibit IR injury.

12.
J Intensive Care ; 7: 38, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31384469

RESUMO

Background: The length of stay (LOS) in intensive care units (ICUs) has been used as a good indicator not only for resource consumption but also for health outcomes of patients. However, data regarding pediatric LOS in Japanese ICUs are limited. The primary aim of this study was to characterize the Japanese pediatric ICU patients based on their LOS. Second, we aimed to develop a simple scoring system to predict long-stay pediatric ICU patients on admission. Methods: We performed a retrospective cohort study using consecutive pediatric data (aged < 16 years) registered in the Japanese Registry of Pediatric Acute Care (JaRPAC) from October 2013 to September 2016, which consisted of descriptive and diagnostic information. The factors for long-stay patients (LSPs; LOS > 14 days) were identified using multiple regression analysis, and subsequently, a simple predictive scoring system was developed based on the results. The validity of the score was prospectively tested using data from the JaRPAC registration from October 2016 to September 2017. Results: Overall, 4107 patients were included. Although LSPs were few (8.0% [n = 330]), they consumed 38.0% of ICU bed days (9750 for LSPs versus 25,659 overall). Mortality was seven times higher in LSPs than in short-stay patients (9.1% versus 1.3%). An 11-variable simple predictive scoring system was constructed, including Pediatric Index of Mortality 2 ≥ 1 (2 points), liver dysfunction (non-post operation) (2 points), post-cardiopulmonary resuscitation (1 point), circulatory disorder (1 point), post-operative management of liver transplantation (1 point), encephalitis/encephalopathy (1 point), myocarditis/cardiomyopathy (1 point), congenital heart disease (non-post operation) (1 point), lung tissue disease (1 point), Pediatric Cerebral Performance Category scores ≥ 2 (1 point), and age < 2 years (1 point). A score of ≥ 3 points yielded an area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) of 0.79, sensitivity of 87.0%, and specificity of 59.4% in the original dataset. Reproducibility was confirmed with the internal validation dataset (AUC 0.80, sensitivity 92.6%, and specificity 60.2%). Conclusions: Pediatric LSPs possess a significant presence in Japanese ICUs with high rates of bed utilization and mortality. The newly developed predictive scoring system may identify pediatric LSPs on admission.

13.
Case Rep Emerg Med ; 2019: 3158969, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31263607

RESUMO

Rectus sheath hematoma is an unusual but well-known clinical problem. Our hospital admitted a 54-year-old woman complaining of harsh right-sided hypogastric pain that started while muscle training. Computed tomography of the abdomen and pelvis demonstrated a right rectus sheath hematoma. As the hematoma did not increase, the patient was conservatively treated. Despite increased awareness of rectus sheath hematoma, its early diagnosis and treatment still present a challenge to emergency physicians. Swift acknowledgement of this rare cause of abdominal pain may avoid more intrusive examination, unnecessary hospitalization, and laparotomy. Careful consideration of the patient's medical history and a high index of suspicion are needed to diagnose this complication.

14.
Case Rep Emerg Med ; 2019: 4383086, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31316840

RESUMO

Orbital emphysema occurs when air enters the soft tissue surrounding the orbit. Although orbital blowout fractures are often caused by face trauma, nontraumatic orbital fractures can also occur but have been rarely described. Here, a case of orbital and palpebral emphysema caused by forceful nose-blowing is presented. Examination uncovered gross swelling of the right eye and discernable subcutaneous emphysema. The patient had normal eye movement and visual acuity. Orbital computed tomography (CT) revealed orbital emphysema secondary to an orbit floor fracture into the maxillary sinus, resulting from high intranasal pressure upon blowing her nose. The patient received conservative management with antibiotics and was given instructions not to sneeze or blow her nose. She fully recovered and all her symptoms completely resolved.

15.
J Thorac Dis ; 11(4): 1519-1527, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31179095

RESUMO

Background: Hemorrhagic shock and resuscitation (HSR) is known to cause inflammatory reactions in the lung parenchyma and acute lung injury, increasing the risk of complications that can lead to death. Hydrogen gas has shown to inhibit the formation and eliminate reactive oxygen species (ROS), which are known to cause reperfusion injury. Hence, the purpose of this study was to investigate the protective effect of 2% inhaled hydrogen gas on post-HSR lung injury. Methods: Rats weighing 300-500 g were divided into three groups: sham, HSR, and hydrogen (H2)/HSR groups. In the latter two groups, HSR was induced via femoral vein cannulation. Gas containing 2% hydrogen gas was inhaled only by those in the H2/HSR group. Lung tissue and abdominal aorta blood were obtained for histologic examination and arterial blood gas analyses, respectively. Neutrophil infiltration and proinflammatory mediators were also measured. Results: PO2 was lower in the HSR and H2/HSR groups than in the sham group. Blood lactate level was not significantly different between the sham and H2/HSR groups, but it was significantly higher in the HSR group. Infiltration of inflammatory cells into the lung tissues was more frequent in the HSR group. Myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity was significantly different among the three groups (highest in the HSR group). All proinflammatory mediators, except IL-6, showed a significant difference among the three groups (highest in the HSR group). Conclusions: Inhalation of 2% hydrogen gas after HSR minimized the extent of lung injury by decreasing MPO activity and reducing infiltration of inflammatory cells into lung tissue.

17.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 98(16): e15187, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31008940

RESUMO

RATIONALE: Eclampsia, an obstetric emergency frequently seen in pregnant or puerperal women, is a risk factor for posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome (PRES). Most cases of eclampsia occur postpartum. We report a woman with PRES associated with eclampsia 10 weeks post-delivery, the latest onset ever reported. PATIENT CONCERNS: A 23-year-old healthy woman presented headache and nausea 10 weeks after delivery. Two days later, she generalized tonic-clonic seizure. Her brain MRI presented the foci which is typical of PRES. DIAGNOSIS: The patient was diagnosed as PRES associated with eclampsia. INTERVENTIONS: The patient received levetiracetam and edaravone. OUTCOMES: Her clinical course was uneventful and she fully recovered without neurological complications LESSONS:: The possible diagnosis of late onset postpartum eclampsia, even weeks post-delivery, should be considered, since initiation of early treatment averts severe complications and decreases mortality. Sharing our experience may increase awareness of PRES induced by late-onset postpartum eclampsia.


Assuntos
Eclampsia , Síndrome da Leucoencefalopatia Posterior/etiologia , Transtornos Puerperais/etiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Gravidez , Adulto Jovem
20.
Respir Med Case Rep ; 26: 87-90, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30560050

RESUMO

Background: Although the cause of acute eosinophilic pneumonia (AEP) has not yet been fully clarified, cigarette smoking is reported to be a risk factor for developing AEP. The heat-not-burn cigarette (HNBC) was developed to reduce the adverse effects of smoke on the user's surroundings. However, the health risks associated with HNBCs have not yet been clarified. We report a successfully treated case of fatal AEP presumably induced by HNBC use. Presentation of case: A 16-year-old man commenced HNBC smoking two weeks before admission and subsequently suffered from shortness of breath that gradually worsened. The patient was transferred to emergency department and immediately intubated because of respiratory failure. Computed tomography showed mosaic ground-glass shadows on the distal side of both lungs with a PaO2/FIO2 ratio of 76. The patient required veno-venous extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) for severe respiratory failure. He was diagnosed with AEP by clinical course and detection of eosinophils in sputum; thus, methylprednisolone was administrated. The patient was weaned off ECMO four days after initiation and extubated the day after. He fully recovered without sequelae. Conclusion: As far as we know, our patient is the first case of AEP induced by HNBC use successfully treated with ECMO. Emergency physicians must be aware that HNBCs can induce fatal AEP.

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