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1.
Semin Cancer Biol ; 2022 Jan 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35066156

RESUMO

Surgical resection continues to be the mainstay treatment for solid cancers even though chemotherapy and immunotherapy have significantly improved patient overall survival and progression-free survival. Numerous studies have shown that surgery induces the dissemination of circulating tumor cells (CTCs) and that the resultant inflammatory response promotes occult tumor growth and the metastatic process by forming a supportive tumor microenvironment (TME). Surgery-induced platelet activation is one of the initial responses to a wound and the formation of fibrin clots can provide the scaffold for recruited inflammatory cells. Activated platelets can also shield CTCs to protect them from blood shear forces and promote CTCs evasion of immune destruction. Similarly, neutrophils are recruited to the fibrin clot and enhance cancer metastatic dissemination and progression by forming neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs). Activated macrophages are also recruited to surgical sites to facilitate the metastatic spread. More importantly, the body's response to surgical insult results in the recruitment and expansion of immunosuppressive cell populations (i.e. myeloid-derived suppressor cells and regulatory T cells) and in the suppression of natural killer (NK) cells that contribute to postoperative cancer recurrence and metastasis. In this review, we seek to provide an overview of the pro-tumorigenic mechanisms resulting from surgery's impact on these cells in the TME. Further understanding of these events will allow for the development of perioperative therapeutic strategies to prevent surgery-associated metastasis.

2.
Surgery ; 2021 Dec 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34876291

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Neighborhood factors may influence cancer care through physical, economic, and social means. This study assesses the impact of neighborhood socioeconomic status on diagnosis, treatment, and survival in pancreatic cancer. METHODS: Patients with pancreatic adenocarcinoma were identified in the 2010-2016 Surveillance Epidemiology and End Results database. Neighborhood socioeconomic status (divided into tertiles) was based on an National Cancer Institute census tract-level composite score, including income, education, housing, and employment. Multivariate models predicted metastasis at time of diagnosis and receipt of surgery for early-stage disease. Overall survival compared via Kaplan-Meier and Cox proportional hazards. RESULTS: Fifteen thousand four hundred and thirty-six patients (29.7%) lived in low neighborhood socioeconomic status, 17,509 (33.7%) in middle neighborhood socioeconomic status, and 19,010 (36.6%) in high neighborhood socioeconomic status areas. On multivariate analysis, neighborhood socioeconomic status was not associated with metastatic disease at diagnosis (low neighborhood socioeconomic status odds ratio 1.02, 95% confidence interval 0.97-1.07; ref: high neighborhood socioeconomic status). However, low neighborhood socioeconomic status was associated with decreased likelihood of surgery for localized/regional disease (odds ratio 0.60, 95% confidence interval 0.54-0.68; ref: high neighborhood socioeconomic status) and worse overall survival (low neighborhood socioeconomic status hazard ratio 1.18, 95% confidence interval 1.15-1.21; ref: high neighborhood socioeconomic status). CONCLUSION: Patients from resource-poor neighborhoods are less likely to receive stage-appropriate therapy for pancreatic cancer and have an 18% higher risk of death.

3.
Front Oncol ; 11: 768009, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34868996

RESUMO

The effective management of biliary tract cancers (BTCs) has been hampered by limited options for systemic therapy. In recent years, the focus on precision medicine has made technologies such as next-generation sequencing (NGS) accessible to clinicians to identify targetable mutations in BTCs in tumor tissue (primarily) as well as blood, and to treat them with targeted therapies when possible. It has also expanded our understanding of functional pathways associated with genetic alterations and opened doors for identifying novel targets for treatment. Recent advances in the precision medicine approach allowed us to identify new molecular markers in BTCs, such as epigenetic changes (methylation and histone modification) and non-DNA markers such as messenger RNA, microRNA, and long non-coding RNA. It also made detecting these markers from non-traditional sources such as blood, urine, bile, and cytology (from fine-needle aspiration and biliary brushings) possible. As these tests become more accessible, we can see the integration of different molecular markers from all available sources to aid physicians in diagnosing, assessing prognosis, predicting tumor response, and screening BTCs. Currently, there are a handful of approved targeted therapies and only one class of immunotherapy agents (immune checkpoint inhibitors or ICIs) to treat BTCs. Early success with new targets, vascular endothelial growth factor receptor (VEGFR), HER2, protein kinase receptor, and Dickkopf-1 (DKK1); new drugs for known targets, fibroblast growth factor receptors (FGFRs) such as futabatinib, derazantinib, and erdafitinib; and ICIs such as durvalumab and tremelimumab is encouraging. Novel immunotherapy agents such as bispecific antibodies (bintrafusp alfa), arginase inhibitors, vaccines, and cellular therapy (chimeric antigen receptor-T cell or CAR-T, natural killer cells, tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes) have the potential to improve outcomes of BTCs in the coming years.

4.
Surgery ; 2021 Nov 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34857388

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The objective of this study is to examine the associations among neighborhood socioeconomic status, trimodal treatment, and disease-specific mortality among inflammatory breast cancer patients using data from the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results program. METHODS: Patients diagnosed with inflammatory breast cancer (T4d) from 2010 to 2016 were identified in the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results program. The cohort was stratified into neighborhood socioeconomic status groups (low, middle, high) based on National Cancer Institute census tract-level index. Trimodal treatment was defined as receipt of modified radical mastectomy, chemotherapy, and radiation therapy. Bivariable analysis, log-rank test, and a Cox proportional hazards model (hazard ratio, 95% confidence interval) were conducted to evaluate the relationship between neighborhood socioeconomic status, trimodal treatment, and disease-specific mortality. RESULTS: In total, 4,374 patients met study criteria. There was no difference between the neighborhood socioeconomic status groups in receipt of trimodal treatment (P = .19). On multivariable analysis, there was no association between low neighborhood socioeconomic status (hazard ratio 1.13, 0.98-1.30; ref high neighborhood socioeconomic status) or middle neighborhood socioeconomic status (hazard ratio 1.01, 0.88-1.64; ref high neighborhood socioeconomic status) and disease-specific mortality. Notably, triple negative subtype (hazard ratio 2.66, 2.21-3.20; ref luminal A) and Black race (hazard ratio 1.41, 1.16-1.72; ref White) were associated with a higher disease-specific mortality. CONCLUSION: For inflammatory breast cancer patients in the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results program, disease-specific mortality appears to be driven by tumor biology and patient characteristics instead of treatment disparities or neighborhood socioeconomic status.

5.
HPB (Oxford) ; 2021 Oct 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34764009

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Neoadjuvant therapy (NT) is increasingly utilized for patients with localized pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC). Given the importance of completing multimodality therapy, the purpose of this qualitative study was to characterize physician perspectives on barriers and facilitators to delivering NT. METHODS: A purposive sample of surgical, medical, and radiation oncologists participated in semi-structured interviews. Interviews were transcribed and coded by 3 independent researchers, iteratively identifying themes until saturation was achieved. RESULTS: Participants (n = 27) were heterogeneous in specialty, years of experience, practice setting, gender, and geography. The most commonly cited advantage of NT was the ability to downstage patients. The most commonly cited barriers included lack of access and limited evidence. Patient preference for immediate surgery was frequently cited as a barrier, but most participants felt that patients eventually understood the treatment recommendation after informed discussion. Recommendations to enhance the delivery of NT included improved patient education, communication, and better evidence. CONCLUSION: In this qualitative study, indications for, barriers to, and opportunities to improve the delivery of NT for localized PDAC were identified. These results highlight the need for better evidence and protocol standardization for NT as well as methods of improving care coordination, communication, and education to improve patient-centered outcomes.

6.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34806126

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to examine the link between psychological, behavioral, and social factors and survival in patients diagnosed with gastrointestinal cancer. METHODS: A cohort of gastrointestinal cancer patients were administered a battery of questionnaires that assessed trauma, depression, social support, sleep, diet, exercise, quality of life, tobacco and alcohol use, pain, and fatigue. Analyses included Pearson's correlations, analyses of variance, Kaplan Meier survival, and Cox regression analyses. RESULTS: Of the 568 patients, the majority were male (57.9%) and Caucasian (91.9%), with a mean age of 61 (S.D. = 10.7). The level of perceived social support was comparable to patients with other medical conditions. Sociodemographic predictors of social support included the number of years of education (r = 0.109, p = 0.05), marital status (F(6,387) = 5.465, p ≤ 0.001), and whether the patients' income met the family's basic needs (F(1,377) = 25.531, p < 0.001). Univariate analyses revealed that older age (p < 0.001), male gender (p = 0.007), being black (p = 0.005), diagnosis of hepatocellular carcinoma (p = 0.046), higher body mass index (p = 0.022), larger tumor size (p = 0.032), initial treatment including chemotherapy rather than surgery (p < 0.001), and lower level of perceived social support (p = 0.037) were associated with poorer survival. Using multivariate Cox regression and adjusting for all factors found to be significant in univariate survival analyses, older age (p = 0.024) and lower perceived social support (HR = 0.441, 95% CI = 0.233, 0.833; p = 0.012) were the factors that remained significantly associated with poorer survival. CONCLUSION: There are several biological and psychosocial factors that predict cancer mortality. Social support appears to be a robust factor affecting mortality in gastrointestinal cancer patients.

7.
Cancers (Basel) ; 13(21)2021 Oct 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34771497

RESUMO

Immune checkpoint inhibitors can improve the prognosis of patients with advanced malignancy; however, only a small subset of advanced colorectal cancer patients in microsatellite-instability-high or mismatch-repair-deficient colorectal cancer can benefit from immunotherapy. Unfortunately, the mechanism behind this ineffectiveness is unclear. The tumor microenvironment plays a critical role in cancer immunity, and may contribute to the inhibition of immune checkpoint inhibitors and other novel immunotherapies in patients with advanced cancer. Herein, we demonstrate that the DNase I enzyme plays a pivotal role in the degradation of NETs, significantly dampening the resistance to anti-PD-1 blockade in a mouse colorectal cancer model by attenuating tumor growth. Remarkably, DNase I decreases tumor-associated neutrophils and the formation of MC38 tumor cell-induced neutrophil extracellular trap formation in vivo. Mechanistically, the inhibition of neutrophil extracellular traps with DNase I results in the reversal of anti-PD-1 blockade resistance through increasing CD8+ T cell infiltration and cytotoxicity. These findings signify a novel approach to targeting the tumor microenvironment using DNase I alone or in combination with immune checkpoint inhibitors.

8.
Am J Surg ; 2021 Oct 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34715987

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Care patterns among patients diagnosed with pancreatic adenocarcinoma remain poorly defined. METHODS: Cluster analysis was performed on patients with pancreatic adenocarcinoma to assess time from diagnosis to death spent in different care settings (home self-care-dominant[HSC], acute in-hospital care-dominant[ACS], hospice care-dominant[HC] or mixed home and hospice care[MHH]). RESULTS: Among 32,816 patients, most belonged to the HSC group (n = 13,459, 41%), followed by MHH (n = 9,091, 28%), ACS (n = 5,737, 18%) and HC (n = 4,529, 14%). Only about 1 in 3 patients in the HSC (n = 4,028, 30%) or ACS (n = 2,206, 35%) received hospice services for at least one week before death. 16% of patients (n = 5,188) died in the hospital, which was most common among ACS patients (n = 1,640, 29%). Median daily expenditures varied according to health care utilization (HSC, $44.6, IQR 12.3-130.1 vs MHH, $162.3, IQR 60.5-351.9 vs ACS, $489.7, IQR 243.2-856.8 vs HC, $306.1, IQR 132.3-580.0; p < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: Pancreatic adenocarcinoma patients differed with regards to health care utilization, hospice use and expenditures following diagnosis.

10.
Ann Surg Oncol ; 2021 Oct 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34655352

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The influence of social determinants of health (SDH) on participation in clinical trials for pancreatic cancer is not well understood. In this study, we describe trends and identify disparities in pancreatic cancer clinical trial enrollment. PATIENTS AND METHODS: This is a retrospective study of stage I-IV pancreatic cancer patients in the 2004-2016 National Cancer Database. Cohort was stratified into those enrolled in clinical trials during first course of treatment versus not enrolled. Bivariate analysis and logistic regression were used to understand the relationship between SDH and clinical trial participation. RESULTS: A total of 1127 patients (0.4%) enrolled in clinical trials versus 301,340 (99.6%) did not enroll. Enrollment increased over the study period (p < 0.001), but not for Black patients or patients on Medicaid. The majority enrolled had metastatic disease (65.8%). On multivariate analysis, in addition to year of diagnosis (p < 0.001), stage (p < 0.001), and Charlson score (p < 0.001), increasing age [odds ratio (OR) 0.96, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.96-0.97], non-white race (OR 0.54, CI 0.44-0.66), living in the South (OR 0.42, CI 0.35-0.51), and Medicaid, lack of insurance, or unknown insurance (0.41, CI 0.31-0.53) were predictors of lack of participation. Conversely, treatment at an academic center (OR 6.36, CI 5.4-7.4) and higher neighborhood education predicted enrollment (OR 2.0, CI 1.55-2.67 for < 7% with no high school degree versus > 21%). DISCUSSION: Age, race, insurance, and geography are barriers to clinical trial enrollment for pancreatic cancer patients. While overall enrollment increased, Black patients and patients on Medicaid remain underrepresented. After adjusting for cancer-specific factors, SDH are still associated with clinical trial enrollment, suggesting need for targeted interventions.

12.
Cancers (Basel) ; 13(20)2021 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34680317

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Optimal patient selection for radiotherapy in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) is unestablished. Molecular profiling may select patients at high risk for locoregional recurrence (LRR) who would benefit from radiation. METHODS: We included resectable pancreatic cancer (R-PDAC) patients, divided into training and validation cohorts, treated among three institutions with surgery and adjuvant chemotherapy, and borderline resectable or locally advanced pancreatic cancer (BR/LA-PDAC) patients treated with chemotherapy with or without radiation at the primary study institution. We isolated RNA from R-PDAC surgical specimens. Using NanoString, we identified miRNAs differentially expressed between normal and malignant pancreatic tissue. ElasticNet regression identified two miRNAs most predictive of LRR in the training cohort, miR-181b/d and miR-575, which were used to generate a risk score (RS). We evaluated the association of the median-dichotomized RS with recurrence and overall survival (OS). RESULTS: We identified 183 R-PDAC and 77 BR/LA-PDAC patients with median follow up of 37 months treated between 2001 and 2014. On multivariable analysis of the R-PDAC training cohort (n = 90), RS was associated with worse LRR (HR = 1.34; 95%CI 1.27-11.38; p = 0.017) and OS (HR = 2.89; 95%CI 1.10-4.76; p = 0.027). In the R-PDAC validation cohort, RS was associated with worse LRR (HR = 2.39; 95%CI 1.03-5.54; p = 0.042), but not OS (p = 0.087). For BR/LA-PDAC, RS was associated with worse LRR (HR = 2.71; 95%CI 1.14-6.48; p = 0.025), DR (HR = 1.93; 95%CI 1.10-3.38; p = 0.022), and OS (HR = 1.97; 95%CI 1.17-3.34; p = 0.011). Additionally, after stratifying by RS and receipt of radiation in BR/LA-PDAC patients, high RS patients who did not receive radiation had worse LRR (p = 0.018), DR (p = 0.006), and OS (p < 0.001) compared to patients with either low RS or patients who received radiation, irrespective of RS. CONCLUSIONS: RS predicted worse LRR and OS in R-PDAC and worse LRR, DR, and OS in BR/LA-PDAC. This may select patients who would benefit from radiation and should be validated prospectively.

13.
Breast Cancer Res Treat ; 190(1): 111-119, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34383180

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Black breast cancer patients have worse clinical outcomes than their White counterparts. There are few studies comparing clinical outcomes between Black male breast cancer (MBC) and female breast cancer (FBC) patients. The objective of this study is to examine differences in presentation, treatment, and mortality between Black MBC and FBC. METHODS: The National Cancer Database was queried for all Black MBC and FBC patients, ages 18-90, with hormone receptor-positive breast cancer diagnosed between 2010 and 2016. Hormone receptor positivity was defined as estrogen receptor-positive, progesterone-positive and HER 2-negative cancer. Sociodemographic and clinical variables were compared between MBC and FBC patients on bivariable analysis. After propensity score matching, overall survival was evaluated using the log-rank test and Cox proportional hazards. RESULTS: Compared to FBC patients, MBC patients had higher rates of metastatic disease (stage 4, MBC 4.4% vs. FBC 2.6%, p < 0.001), larger tumors (tumor size < 2 cm, MBC 32.1 vs. FBC 49.1%, p < 0.001) and a higher percentage of poorly differentiated tumors (grade 3, MBC 28.5% vs. FBC 21.4%, p < 0.001). MBC patients had lower rates of hormone therapy (MBC 66.4% vs. FBC 80.7%, p < 0.001) and neoadjuvant chemotherapy (MBC 5.8% vs. FBC 7.5%, p = 0.05) than FBC. On propensity score matched analysis, Black MBC patients had a higher overall mortality (p25 of 60 months vs. 74 months) compared to FBC patients (p = 0.0260). CONCLUSION: Among hormone receptor-positive Black MBC and FBC patients, there are sex-based disparities in stage, hormone therapy use and overall survival.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama Masculina , Neoplasias da Mama , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Neoplasias da Mama/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias da Mama/epidemiologia , Neoplasias da Mama Masculina/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias da Mama Masculina/epidemiologia , Feminino , Hormônios , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pontuação de Propensão , Adulto Jovem
15.
J Hepatol ; 75(6): 1271-1283, 2021 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34363921

RESUMO

BACKGROUND & AIMS: Regulatory T-cells (Tregs) impair cancer immunosurveillance by creating an immunosuppressive environment that fosters tumor cell survival. Our previous findings demonstrated that neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs), which are involved both in innate and adaptive immunity, are abundant in livers affected by non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). However, how NETs interact with Tregs in the development of NASH-associated hepatocellular carcinoma (NASH-HCC) is not known. METHODS: A choline-deficient, high-fat diet+diethylnitrosamine mouse model and the stelic animal model were utilized for NASH-HCC and a western diet mouse model was used for NASH development. Treg depletion was achieved using FoxP3-DTR mice. RNA sequencing was used to explore the mechanism by which NETs could regulate Treg differentiation. Bioenergetic analyses of naïve CD4+ T-cells were assessed by Seahorse. RESULTS: Although the absolute number of CD4+ T-cells is lower in NASH livers, the Treg subpopulation is selectively increased. Depleting Tregs dramatically inhibits HCC initiation and progression in NASH. There is a positive correlation between increased NET and hepatic Treg levels. RNA sequencing data reveals that NETs impact gene expression profiles in naïve CD4+ T-cells, with the most differentially expressed genes being those involved in mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation. By facilitating mitochondrial respiration, NETs can promote Treg differentiation. Metabolic reprogramming of naïve CD4+ T-cells by NETs requires toll-like receptor 4. Blockade of NETs in vivo using Pad4-/- mice or DNase I treatment reduces the activity of Tregs. CONCLUSIONS: Tregs can suppress immunosurveillance in the premalignant stages of NASH. NETs facilitate the crosstalk between innate and adaptive immunity in NASH by promoting Treg activity through metabolic reprogramming. Therapies targeting NETs and Treg interactions could offer a potential strategy for preventing HCC in patients with NASH. LAY SUMMARY: Regulatory T-cells (Tregs) can promote tumor development by suppressing cancer immunosurveillance, but their role in carcinogenesis during non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) progression is unknown. Herein, we discovered that selectively increased intrahepatic Tregs can promote an immunosuppressive environment in NASH livers. Neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) link innate and adaptive immunity by promoting Treg differentiation via metabolic reprogramming of naïve CD4+ T-cells. This mechanism could be targeted to prevent liver cancer in patients with NASH.

16.
Ann Surg Oncol ; 28(13): 8028-8045, 2021 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34392460

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: "Textbook oncologic outcome" (TOO) is a composite quality measure representing the "ideal" outcome for patients undergoing cancer surgery. This study sought to assess the validity of TOO as a metric to evaluate hospital quality. METHODS: Patients who underwent curative-intent resection of gastric, pancreatic, colon, rectal, lung, esophageal, bladder, or ovarian cancer were identified in the National Cancer Database (2006-2017). Cancer site-specific TOO was defined as adequate lymph node yield, R0 resection, non-length-of-stay outlier, no hospital readmission, and receipt of guideline-concordant chemotherapy and/or radiation. Mixed-effects analyses estimated the adjusted TOO rate for each hospital stratified by cancer site. The association between hospital adjusted TOO rates and 5-year overall survival was assessed using mixed-effects Cox proportional hazards analyses. RESULTS: Among 852,988 cancer resections, the TOO rate varied across cancer sites as follows: stomach (31.8%), pancreas (25%), colon (66.9%), rectum (33.6%), lung (35.1%), esophagus (31.2%), bladder (43%), and ovary (44.7%). After characterization of adjusted hospital TOO rates into quintiles, an incremental improvement in overall survival was observed, with higher adjusted TOO rates. Similarly, with the adjusted hospital TOO rate treated as a continuous variable, there was a significant 4% to 12% improvement in overall survival for every 10% increase in the adjusted hospital TOO rate for gastric (hazard ratio [HR], 0.88; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.85-0.91), pancreatic (HR, 0.90; 95% CI, 0.88-0.93), colon (0.93; 95% CI, 0.91-0.94), rectal (HR, 0.90; 95% CI, 0.87-0.93), lung (HR, 0.96; 95% CI, 0.95-0.97), esophageal (HR, 0.93; 95% CI, 0.90-0.95), bladder (HR, 0.94; 95% CI, 0.91-0.97), and ovarian (HR, 0.96; 95% CI, 0.94-0.98) cancer. CONCLUSIONS: A direct association exists between adjusted hospital TOO rates and survival after high-risk cancer procedures. As a valid hospital metric, TOO can be used to compare the overall quality of cancer care across hospitals.


Assuntos
Oncologia Cirúrgica , Feminino , Hospitais , Humanos , Readmissão do Paciente , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Reto , Estudos Retrospectivos
17.
Cancer Med ; 10(18): 6374-6383, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34390203

RESUMO

Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is a typical inflammation-induced cancer and displays a complex interaction between the tumor microenvironment and tumor development. Immune cells in the HCC microenvironment play both pro- and anti-tumoral roles in HCC progression. An increasing number of findings indicate that metabolic reprogramming is essential for immune cell differentiation and function. In this review, we discuss the metabolic changes of different immune cells and correlate these findings to HCC progression.

18.
Breast ; 59: 314-320, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34388697

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Low socioeconomic status (SES) is associated with advanced stage, lower-quality care, and higher mortality among breast cancer patients. The purpose of this study is to examine the association between neighborhood SES (nSES), surgical management, and disease-specific mortality in de novo metastatic breast cancer (MBC) patients in the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) Program. METHODS: MBC patients ages 18 to 85+ years diagnosed from 2010 through 2016 were identified in SEER. The cohort was divided into low, middle, and high nSES based on the NCI census tract-level index. Univariable and multivariable analyses were used to examine the relationship between nSES, surgery, and disease specific mortality in MBC patients. RESULTS: There were 24,532 de novo MBC patients who met study criteria, with 28.7 % undergoing surgery. Over the study period, surgery utilization decreased across all nSES groups. However, lower nSES was associated with a higher odds of undergoing surgery (low OR 1.25 [1.15-1.36] p < 0.001; middle OR 1.09 [1.01-1.18] p = 0.022; ref high). Living in an area with lower SES was associated with a worse disease specific mortality (low HR 1.24 [1.25, 1.44; ], middle 1.20 [1.1-1.29]: ref high). Specifically, there was a 9.26 month mean survival differences between the lowest (41.02 ± 0.47 months) and highest (50.28 ± 0.47 months) nSES groups. CONCLUSION: These results suggest area of residence may contribute to differences in surgical management and clinical outcomes among de novo MBC patients. Future studies should examine the contributions of patient characteristics and preferences within the context of surgeon recommendations.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Neoplasias da Mama/cirurgia , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Renda , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Características de Residência , Classe Social , Adulto Jovem
19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34254268

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Breast cancer is the leading cause of cancer death among Hispanic women. Unfortunately, few studies disaggregate Hispanic patients by race to understand its implications on treatment and clinical outcomes such as mortality. The aim of this study is to examine surgical management and overall mortality among different subgroups of women who self-identify as Hispanic. METHODS: Hispanic female patients, ages 18-90, stages I-III, diagnosed with breast cancer between 2010 and 2015 from the National Cancer Data Base were identified. The study cohort was divided into three ethnoracial categories: (1) Hispanic White (HW), 2) Hispanic Black (HB), and 3) Hispanic Other (HO). Descriptive statistics and multivariate models were constructed to determine the relationship between sociodemographic factors, clinical variables, surgical management, and mortality when disaggregated by race. RESULTS: There were 56,675 Hispanic women who met the study criteria. Most where HW (n=50,599, 89.3%) and the rest were HB (n=1,334, 2.4%) and HO (n=4,742, 8.3%). There was no difference between the three groups on receipt of breast conservation therapy (P=0.12). HB (48.5%) and HO (46.6%) women were more likely to undergo reconstruction than those who identified as HW (38.7%) (P<0.001). Additionally, HB (38.3%) women were more likely to undergo tissue-based reconstruction than HW (29.0%) and HO women (30%) (P=0.0008). There was no difference between the groups in the utilization of contralateral prophylactic mastectomy (CPM) (P=0.078). On multivariable analysis, there was no difference in mortality between HB and HW patients (HR 1.18, 95%CI 0.92-1.51; Ref HW). However, HO women had a 24% relative risk reduction in mortality (HR 0.76, 95% CI 0.63-0.92; HW ref). CONCLUSION: Findings from this study suggest there are ethnoracial disparities in reconstruction utilization and mortality among Hispanic women. Future studies should examine how culture, language, healthcare access, and patient preferences contribute to these disparities.

20.
J Surg Oncol ; 124(5): 791-800, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34196000

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Oligometastasis, the presence of a small number of resectable metastatic tumors, usually has favorable outcomes. Here we examined whether the novel oligometastatic score (OLGS), which divides the number of colorectal liver metastases (CRLMs) by the time from colorectal resection to liver recurrence, better predicts CRLM patient survival than the commonly used clinical risk score. METHODS: A total of 143 patients who underwent curative hepatectomy for CRLMs between 2007 and 2018 were analyzed. We investigated their clinical characteristics and outcomes using OLGS. RESULTS: Of the 143 CRLM patients, 70 had synchronous CRLMs and 73 had metachronous CRLMs. Patients with metachronous CRLMs were divided into OLGS-low (n = 59) and OLGS-high (n = 14) subgroups. The 5-year overall survival (OS) rates after hepatectomy differed significantly between the subgroups (p < .001). In the multivariate Cox model, a high OLGS was an independent predictor of 5-year OS (p < .001), and the hazard ratio (HR) of the OLGS-high group (HR = 7.171) was higher than that of the high clinical risk score group (HR = 4.337). CONCLUSION: The OLGS, a simple and handy scoring system, better predicts the 5-year OS of patients with CRLMs after hepatectomy and warrants prospective validation.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Colorretais/mortalidade , Hepatectomia/mortalidade , Neoplasias Hepáticas/mortalidade , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Neoplasias Colorretais/patologia , Neoplasias Colorretais/cirurgia , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Neoplasias Hepáticas/secundário , Neoplasias Hepáticas/cirurgia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prognóstico , Estudos Retrospectivos , Software , Taxa de Sobrevida
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