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1.
J Sci Food Agric ; 100(1): 394-400, 2020 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31637726

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The present study examined the potential for 'Smart Food' with respect to contributing to the Sustainable Development Goal 2 of ending malnutrition by 2030, using a small-scale capacity building case study in Oe Be Village, Myingyan district, Mandalay region, Myanmar. Within the study site, refined white rice is the major staple, followed by vegetables and animal source food in inadequate quantities. The protein intake in this particular dry zone community meets only 50% of the daily requirement and even less for those children aged less than 23 months. Therefore, to determine the acceptance and opportunity for legumes and millets which are produced locally, nutritious formulations were introduced for various age groups. In addition, a sensory evaluation of the recipes was conducted to test the acceptance of the nutritious products. RESULTS: Two weeks of the inclusion of millets and pigeonpea in the diets of children aged 6-23 months had a positive impact on wasting, stunting and underweight (P = 0.002, 0.014 and 0.023, respectively). Moreover, the acceptability of these new food products by the children was found to be high. These results indicate an unexplored opportunity for specific millets rich in iron, zinc and calcium, as well as for pigeonpea rich in protein, if prepared in a culturally acceptable way. CONCLUSION: The impact and acceptability of this small scale and short-term intervention indicate the potential for Smart Food products in filling the nutrition gap arising from the traditional food consumption habits in the dry zones of Myanmar. © 2019 Society of Chemical Industry.


Assuntos
Cajanus/metabolismo , Milhetes/metabolismo , Cajanus/química , Cálcio na Dieta/análise , Cálcio na Dieta/metabolismo , Pré-Escolar , Dieta , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Ferro/análise , Ferro/metabolismo , Masculino , Milhetes/química , Mianmar , Estado Nutricional , População Rural
2.
Toxins (Basel) ; 11(12)2019 Dec 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31835420

RESUMO

A knowledge, attitude and practice (KAP) study was conducted in three districts of Malawi to test whether the training had resulted in increased knowledge and adoption of recommended pre- and post-harvest crop management practices, and their contribution to reducing aflatoxin contamination in groundnut, maize and sorghum. The study was conducted with 900 farmers at the baseline and 624 farmers at the end-line, while 726 and 696 harvested crop samples were collected for aflatoxin testing at the baseline and end-line, respectively. Results show that the knowledge and practice of pre- and post-harvest crop management for mitigating aflatoxin were inadequate among the farmers at the baseline but somewhat improved after the training as shown at the end-line. As a result, despite unfavorable weather, the mean aflatoxin contamination level in their grain samples decreased from 83.6 to 55.8 ppb (p < 0.001). However, it was also noted that increased knowledge did not significantly change farmers' attitude toward not consuming grade-outs because of economic incentive incompatibility, leaving potential for improving the practices further. This existing gap in the adoption of aflatoxin mitigation practices calls for approaches that take into account farmers' needs and incentives to attain sustainable behavioral change.

3.
Ecol Food Nutr ; : 1-20, 2019 Nov 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31778086

RESUMO

The study aimed to quantify the immediate effects of dietary diversification, food safety, and hygiene interventions on child undernutrition in four rural villages in Kongwa district of central Tanzania. One hundred mothers with their children of less than 24 months old were recruited for this study. The difference-in-difference (DID) method was used to assess the effects of intensive intervention through a learning-by-doing process on the topic of aflatoxin free diversified food utilization and improved hygiene practices. Periodic anthropometric measurements were conducted on the 0th, 7th, 14th, and 21st days, and DID estimator showed the significant and positive average marginal effects of the intervention on Z-Scores being 0.459, 0.252, and 0.493 for wasting, stunting, and underweight, respectively. Notably, at the end of the study, the mean aflatoxin M1 level in urine samples decreased by 64% in the intervention group, while it decreased by 11% in the control group. The study provides quantitative evidence on intensive 21-day training for mothers incorporating integrated technologies yielded positive impacts on their children's nutritional outcomes.

4.
Nutrients ; 11(9)2019 Sep 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31484377

RESUMO

The study assessed the potential for use of millets in mid-day school meal programs for better nutritional outcomes of children in a peri-urban region of Karnataka, India, where children conventionally consumed a fortified rice-based mid-day meal. For a three-month period, millet-based mid-day meals were fed to 1500 adolescent children at two schools, of which 136 were studied as the intervention group and were compared with 107 other children in two other schools that did not receive the intervention. The intervention design was equivalent to the parallel group, two-arm, superiority trial with a 1:1 allocation ratio. The end line allocation ratio was 1.27:1 due to attrition. It was found that there was statistically significant improvement in stunting (p = 0.000) and the body mass index (p = 0.003) in the intervention group and not in the control group (p = 0.351 and p = 0.511, respectively). The sensory evaluation revealed that all the millet-based menu items had high acceptability, with the highest scores for the following three items: finger millet idli, a steam cooked fermented savory cake; little and pearl millet bisi belle bath, a millet-lentil hot meal; and upma, a pearl and little millet-vegetable meal. These results suggest significant potential for millets to replace or supplement rice in school feeding programs for improved nutritional outcomes of children.

5.
Mycotoxin Res ; 34(3): 195-204, 2018 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29679369

RESUMO

Aflatoxin-lysine (AFB1-lys) adduct levels in blood samples collected from 230 individuals living in three districts of Malawi (Kasungu, Mchinji, and Nkhotakota) and aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) levels in groundnut and maize samples collected from their respective homesteads were determined using indirect competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (IC-ELISA) methods. AFB1-lys adducts were detected in 67% of blood samples, with a mean concentration of 20.5 ± 23.4 pg/mg of albumin. AFB1 was detected in 91% of groundnut samples and in 70% of maize samples, with mean AFB1 levels of 52.4 and 16.3 µg/kg, respectively. All participants of this study reported consuming maize on a daily basis and consuming groundnuts regularly (mean consumption frequency per week: 3.2 ± 1.7). According to regression analysis, a frequency of groundnut consumption of more than four times per week, being female, and being a farmer were significant (p < 0.05) contributors to elevated AFB1-lys adduct levels in the blood. This is the first report on AFB1-lys adducts in blood samples of residents in Malawi. The results reinforce the urgent need for interventions, aiming at a reduction of aflatoxin exposure of the population.


Assuntos
Aflatoxina B1/análise , Aflatoxinas/análise , Albuminas/análise , Arachis/química , Contaminação de Alimentos/análise , Soro/química , Zea mays/química , Adolescente , Adulto , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática , Feminino , Voluntários Saudáveis , Humanos , Malaui , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , População Rural , Adulto Jovem
6.
Public Health Nutr ; 21(6): 1156-1166, 2018 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29338801

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The present study examined the impacts of training on nutrition, hygiene and food safety designed by the Nutrition Working Group, Child Survival Collaborations and Resources Group (CORE). DESIGN: Adapted from the 21d Positive Deviance/Hearth model, mothers were trained on the subjects of appropriate complementary feeding, water, sanitation and hygiene (WASH) practices, and aflatoxin contamination in food. To assess the impacts on child undernutrition, a randomised controlled trial was implemented on a sample of 179 mothers and their children (<2 years old) in two districts of Malawi, namely Mzimba and Balaka. Settings A 21d intensive learning-by-doing process using the positive deviance approach. SUBJECTS: Malawian children and mothers. RESULTS: Difference-in-difference panel regression analysis revealed that the impacts of the comprehensive training were positive and statistically significant on the Z-scores for wasting and underweight, where the effects increased constantly over time within the 21d time frame. As for stunting, the coefficients were not statistically significant during the 21d programme, although the level of significance started increasing in 2 weeks, indicating that stunting should also be alleviated in a slightly longer time horizon. CONCLUSIONS: The study clearly suggests that comprehensive training immediately guides mothers into improved dietary and hygiene practices, and that improved practices take immediate and progressive effects in ameliorating children's undernutrition.


Assuntos
Ciências da Nutrição Infantil/educação , Educação em Saúde/métodos , Transtornos da Nutrição do Lactente/epidemiologia , Transtornos da Nutrição do Lactente/prevenção & controle , Mães/educação , Adulto , Aflatoxinas/urina , Características da Família , Feminino , Inocuidade dos Alimentos , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Malaui , Masculino , Desnutrição/epidemiologia , Desnutrição/prevenção & controle , Síndrome de Emaciação/epidemiologia , Síndrome de Emaciação/prevenção & controle
7.
Mycotoxin Res ; 33(4): 323-331, 2017 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28785910

RESUMO

The staple crops, maize, sorghum, bambara nut, groundnut, and sunflower common in semi-arid agro-pastoral farming systems of central Tanzania are prone to aflatoxin contamination. Consumption of such crop produce, contaminated with high levels of aflatoxin B1 (AFB1), affects growth and health. In this paper, aflatoxin contamination in freshly harvested and stored crop produce from central Tanzania was examined, including the efficacy of aflatoxin mitigation technologies on grain/kernal quality. A total of 312 farmers were recruited, trained on aflatoxin mitigation technologies, and allowed to deploy the technologies for 2 years. After 2 years, 188 of the 312 farmers were tracked to determine whether they had adopted and complied with the mitigation practices. Aflatoxigenic Aspergillus flavus and aflatoxin B1 contamination in freshly harvested and stored grains/kernels were assessed. A. flavus frequency and aflatoxin production by fungi were assayed by examining culture characteristics and thin-layer chromatography respectively. AFB1 was assayed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The average aflatoxin contamination in freshly harvested samples was 18.8 µg/kg, which is above the acceptable standard of 10 µg/kg. Contamination increased during storage to an average of 57.2 µg/kg, indicating a high exposure risk. Grains and oilseeds from maize, sorghum, and sunflower produced in aboveground reproductive structures had relatively low aflatoxin contamination compared to those produced in geocarpic structures of groundnut and bambara nut. Farmers who adopted recommended post-harvest management practices had considerably lower aflatoxin contamination in their stored kernels/grains. Furthermore, the effects of these factors were quantified by multivariate statistical analyses. Training and behavioral changes by farmers in their post-harvest practice minimize aflatoxin contamination and improve food safety. Moreover, if non-trained farmers receive mitigation training, aflatoxin concentration is predicted to decrease by 28.9 µg/kg on average.


Assuntos
Aflatoxina B1/análise , Aspergillus flavus/química , Produtos Agrícolas/microbiologia , Contaminação de Alimentos/análise , Agricultura , Grão Comestível , Inocuidade dos Alimentos , Helianthus , Sorghum , Tanzânia , Zea mays
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