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1.
Sci Rep ; 9(1): 953, 2019 01 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30700755

RESUMO

The profound changes in global SO2 emissions over the last decades have affected atmospheric composition on a regional and global scale with large impact on air quality, atmospheric deposition and the radiative forcing of sulfate aerosols. Reproduction of historical atmospheric pollution levels based on global aerosol models and emission changes is crucial to prove that such models are able to predict future scenarios. Here, we analyze consistency of trends in observations of sulfur components in air and precipitation from major regional networks and estimates from six different global aerosol models from 1990 until 2015. There are large interregional differences in the sulfur trends consistently captured by the models and observations, especially for North America and Europe. Europe had the largest reductions in sulfur emissions in the first part of the period while the highest reduction came later in North America and East Asia. The uncertainties in both the emissions and the representativity of the observations are larger in Asia. However, emissions from East Asia clearly increased from 2000 to 2005 followed by a decrease, while in India a steady increase over the whole period has been observed and modelled. The agreement between a bottom-up approach, which uses emissions and process-based chemical transport models, with independent observations gives an improved confidence in the understanding of the atmospheric sulfur budget.

2.
Atmos Chem Phys ; 18(14): 10199-10218, 2018 Jul 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30450115

RESUMO

The evaluation and intercomparison of air quality models is key to reducing model errors and uncertainty. The projects AQMEII3 and EURODELTA-Trends, in the framework of the Task Force on Hemispheric Transport of Air Pollutants and the Task Force on Measurements and Modelling, respectively (both task forces under the UNECE Convention on the Long Range Transport of Air Pollution, LTRAP), have brought together various regional air quality models to analyze their performance in terms of air concentrations and wet deposition, as well as to address other specific objectives. This paper jointly examines the results from both project communities by intercomparing and evaluating the deposition estimates of reduced and oxidized nitrogen (N) and sulfur (S) in Europe simulated by 14 air quality model systems for the year 2010. An accurate estimate of deposition is key to an accurate simulation of atmospheric concentrations. In addition, deposition fluxes are increasingly being used to estimate ecological impacts. It is therefore important to know by how much model results differ and how well they agree with observed values, at least when comparison with observations is possible, such as in the case of wet deposition. This study reveals a large variability between the wet deposition estimates of the models, with some performing acceptably (according to previously defined criteria) and others underestimating wet deposition rates. For dry deposition, there are also considerable differences between the model estimates. An ensemble of the models with the best performance for N wet deposition was made and used to explore the implications of N deposition in the conservation of protected European habitats. Exceedances of empirical critical loads were calculated for the most common habitats at a resolution of 100 × 100 m2 within the Natura 2000 network, and the habitats with the largest areas showing exceedances are determined. Moreover, simulations with reduced emissions in selected source areas indicated a fairly linear relationship between reductions in emissions and changes in the deposition rates of N and S. An approximate 20 % reduction in N and S deposition in Europe is found when emissions at a global scale are reduced by the same amount. European emissions are by far the main contributor to deposition in Europe, whereas the reduction in deposition due to a decrease in emissions in North America is very small and confined to the western part of the domain. Reductions in European emissions led to substantial decreases in the protected habitat areas with critical load exceedances (halving the exceeded area for certain habitats), whereas no change was found, on average, when reducing North American emissions in terms of average values per habitat.

3.
J Environ Monit ; 6(7): 646-55, 2004 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-15237297

RESUMO

The European Monitoring and Evaluation Programme (EMEP) has been established to provide information to Parties to the Convention on Long Range Transboundary Air Pollution on deposition and concentration of air pollutants, as well as on the quantity and significance of long-range transmission of pollutants and transboundary fluxes. To achieve its objectives with the required scientific credibility and technical underpinning, a close integration of the programme's main elements is performed. These elements are emission inventories, chemical transport modelling, and the monitoring of atmospheric chemistry and deposition fluxes, which further are integrated towards abatement policy development. A critical element is the air pollution monitoring that is performed across Europe with a focus not only on health effect aspects and compliance monitoring, but also on process studies and source receptor relationships. Without a strong observational basis a predictive modelling capacity cannot be developed and validated. Thus the modelling success strongly depends on the quality and quantity of available observations. Particulate matter (PM) is a relatively recent addition to the EMEP monitoring programme, and the network for PM mass observations is still evolving. This article presents the current status of EMEP aerosol observations, followed by a critical evaluation in view of EMEP's main objectives and its model development requirements. Specific recommendations are given for improving the PM monitoring programme within EMEP.


Assuntos
Aerossóis/análise , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Monitoramento Ambiental , Atmosfera/química , Meio Ambiente , Europa (Continente) , Humanos , Cooperação Internacional , Tamanho da Partícula , Saúde Pública
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