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1.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34728349

RESUMO

Angiography alone is the most commonly used imaging modality for guidance of percutaneous coronary interventions. Angiography is limited, however, by several factors, including that it only portrays a low resolution, two-dimensional outline of the lumen and does not inform on plaque composition and functional stenosis severity. Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is an intracoronary imaging technique that has superior spatial resolution compared to all other imaging modalities. High-resolution imaging of the vascular wall enables precise measurement of vessel wall and luminal dimensions, more accurately informing about the anatomic severity of epicardial stenoses, and also provides input for computational models to assess functional severity. The very high-resolution images also permit plaque characterization that may be informative for prognostication. Moreover, periprocedural imaging provides valuable information to guide lesion preparation, stent implantation and to evaluate acute stent complications for which iterative treatment might reduce the occurrence of major adverse stent events. As such, OCT represent a potential future all-in-one tool that provides the data necessary to establish the indications, procedural planning and optimization, and final evaluation of percutaneous coronary revascularization.

2.
Lancet ; 2021 Nov 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34742368

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Compared with visual angiographic assessment, pressure wire-based physiological measurement more accurately identifies flow-limiting lesions in patients with coronary artery disease. Nonetheless, angiography remains the most widely used method to guide percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). In FAVOR III China, we aimed to establish whether clinical outcomes might be improved by lesion selection for PCI using the quantitative flow ratio (QFR), a novel angiography-based approach to estimate the fractional flow reserve. METHODS: FAVOR III China is a multicentre, blinded, randomised, sham-controlled trial done at 26 hospitals in China. Patients aged 18 years or older, with stable or unstable angina pectoris or patients who had a myocardial infarction at least 72 h before screening, who had at least one lesion with a diameter stenosis of 50-90% in a coronary artery with a reference vessel of at least 2·5 mm diameter by visual assessment were eligible. Patients were randomly assigned to a QFR-guided strategy (PCI performed only if QFR ≤0·80) or an angiography-guided strategy (PCI based on standard visual angiographic assessment). Participants and clinical assessors were masked to treatment allocation. The primary endpoint was the 1-year rate of major adverse cardiac events, a composite of death from any cause, myocardial infarction, or ischaemia-driven revascularisation. The primary analysis was done in the intention-to-treat population. The trial was registered with ClinicalTrials.gov (NCT03656848). FINDINGS: Between Dec 25, 2018, and Jan 19, 2020, 3847 patients were enrolled. After exclusion of 22 patients who elected not to undergo PCI or who were withdrawn by their physicians, 3825 participants were included in the intention-to-treat population (1913 in the QFR-guided group and 1912 in the angiography-guided group). The mean age was 62·7 years (SD 10·1), 2699 (70·6%) were men and 1126 (29·4%) were women, 1295 (33·9%) had diabetes, and 2428 (63·5%) presented with an acute coronary syndrome. The 1-year primary endpoint occurred in 110 (Kaplan-Meier estimated rate 5·8%) participants in the QFR-guided group and in 167 (8·8%) participants in the angiography-guided group (difference, -3·0% [95% CI -4·7 to -1·4]; hazard ratio 0·65 [95% CI 0·51 to 0·83]; p=0·0004), driven by fewer myocardial infarctions and ischaemia-driven revascularisations in the QFR-guided group than in the angiography-guided group. INTERPRETATION: In FAVOR III China, among patients undergoing PCI, a QFR-guided strategy of lesion selection improved 1-year clinical outcomes compared with standard angiography guidance. FUNDING: Beijing Municipal Science and Technology Commission, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences, and the National Clinical Research Centre for Cardiovascular Diseases, Fuwai Hospital.

3.
Front Cardiovasc Med ; 8: 715995, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34805298

RESUMO

Introduction: Cyclic plaque structural stress has been hypothesized as a mechanism for plaque fatigue and eventually plaque rupture. A novel approach to derive cyclic plaque stress in vivo from optical coherence tomography (OCT) is hereby developed. Materials and Methods: All intermediate lesions from a previous OCT study were enrolled. OCT cross-sections at representative positions within each lesion were selected for plaque stress analysis. Detailed plaque morphology, including plaque composition, lumen and internal elastic lamina contours, were automatically delineated. OCT-derived vessel and plaque morphology were included in a 2-dimensional finite element analysis, loaded with patient-specific intracoronary pressure tracing data, to calculate the changes in plaque structural stress (ΔPSS) on vessel wall over the cardiac cycle. Results: A total of 50 lesions from 41 vessels were analyzed. A significant ΔPSS gradient was observed across the plaque, being maximal at the proximal shoulder (45.7 [32.3, 78.6] kPa), intermediate at minimal lumen area (MLA) (39.0 [30.8, 69.1] kPa) and minimal at the distal shoulder (35.1 [28.2, 72.3] kPa; p = 0.046). The presence of lipidic plaques were observed in 82% of the diseased segments. Larger relative lumen deformation and ΔPSS were observed in diseased segments, compared with normal segments (percent diameter change: 8.2 ± 4.2% vs. 6.3 ± 2.3%, p = 0.04; ΔPSS: 59.3 ± 48.2 kPa vs. 27.5 ± 8.2 kPa, p < 0.001). ΔPSS was positively correlated with plaque burden (r = 0.37, p < 0.001) and negatively correlated with fibrous cap thickness (r = -0.25, p = 0.004). Conclusions: ΔPSS provides a feasible method for assessing plaque biomechanics in vivo from OCT images, consistent with previous biomechanical and clinical studies based on different methodologies. Larger ΔPSS at proximal shoulder and MLA indicates the critical sites for future biomechanical assessment.

4.
IEEE Trans Image Process ; 30: 9429-9441, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34757906

RESUMO

Accurate coronary lumen segmentation on coronary-computed tomography angiography (CCTA) images is crucial for quantification of coronary stenosis and the subsequent computation of fractional flow reserve. Many factors including difficulty in labeling coronary lumens, various morphologies in stenotic lesions, thin structures and small volume ratio with respect to the imaging field complicate the task. In this work, we fused the continuity topological information of centerlines which are easily accessible, and proposed a novel weakly supervised model, Examinee-Examiner Network (EE-Net), to overcome the challenges in automatic coronary lumen segmentation. First, the EE-Net was proposed to address the fracture in segmentation caused by stenoses by combining the semantic features of lumens and the geometric constraints of continuous topology obtained from the centerlines. Then, a Centerline Gaussian Mask Module was proposed to deal with the insensitiveness of the network to the centerlines. Subsequently, a weakly supervised learning strategy, Examinee-Examiner Learning, was proposed to handle the weakly supervised situation with few lumen labels by using our EE-Net to guide and constrain the segmentation with customized prior conditions. Finally, a general network layer, Drop Output Layer, was proposed to adapt to the class imbalance by dropping well-segmented regions and weights the classes dynamically. Extensive experiments on two different data sets demonstrated that our EE-Net has good continuity and generalization ability on coronary lumen segmentation task compared with several widely used CNNs such as 3D-UNet. The results revealed our EE-Net with great potential for achieving accurate coronary lumen segmentation in patients with coronary artery disease. Code at http://github.com/qiyaolei/Examinee-Examiner-Network.

5.
Cardiol J ; 2021 Nov 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34811717

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Investigating the prognostic value of the Murray law-based quantitative flow ratio (µQFR) on the clinical outcome after treatment of in-stent restenosis (ISR) with a drug-coated balloon (DCB). METHODS: Patients participating in a previous randomized clinical trial for DCB-ISR were post-hoc analyzed. The primary endpoint was vessel-oriented composite endpoint (VOCE), defined as cardiac death, target vessel-related myocardial infarction, and ischemia-driven target vessel revascularization. µQFRs at baseline and after DCB angioplasty was calculated, and its prognostic value as a predictor of VOCE was explored in Cox regression. RESULTS: A total of 169 lesions in 169 patients were analyzed. At one-year follow-up, 20 VOCEs occurred in 20 patients. Receiver-operating characteristic curve analysis identified a post-procedural µQFR of ≤ 0.89 as the best cut-off to predict VOCE (area under curve [AUC]: 0.74; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.67-0.80; p < 0.001), superior to post-procedural in-stent percent diameter stenosis (DS), which reported an AUC of 0.61 (95% CI: 0.53-0.68; p = 0.18). Post-procedural µQFR was significantly lower in patients with VOCE compared with those without (0.88 [interquartile range: 0.79-0.94] vs. 0.96 [interquartile range: 0.91-0.98], respectively; p < 0.001). After correction for potential confounders, post-procedural µQFR ≤ 0.89 was associated with a 6-fold higher risk of VOCE than lesions with µQFR > 0.89 (hazard ratio: 5.94; 95% CI: 2.33-15.09; p < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: Post-procedural µQFR may become a promising predictor of clinical outcome after treatment of DES-ISR lesions by DCB angioplasty.

6.
Circ Cardiovasc Qual Outcomes ; 14(11): e008055, 2021 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34666500

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In clinical trials, the optimal method of adjudicating revascularization events as clinically or nonclinically indicated (CI) is to use an independent Clinical Events Committee (CEC). However, the Academic Research Consortium-2 currently recommends using physiological assessment. The level of agreement between these methods of adjudication remains unknown. METHODS: Data for all CEC adjudicated revascularization events among the 3457 patients followed-up for 2-years in the TALENT trial, and 3-years in the DESSOLVE III, PIONEER, and SYNTAX II trial were collected and readjudicated according to a quantitative flow ratio (QFR) analysis of the revascularized vessels, by an independent core lab blinded to the results of the conventional CEC adjudication. The κ statistic was used to assess the level of agreement between the 2 methods. RESULTS: In total, 351 CEC-adjudicated repeat revascularization events occurred, with retrospective QFR analysis successfully performed in 212 (60.4%). According to QFR analysis, 104 events (QFR ≤0.80) were adjudicated as CI revascularizations and 108 (QFR >0.80) were not. The agreement between CEC and QFR based adjudication was just fair (κ=0.335). Between the 2 methods of adjudication, there was a disagreement of 26.4% and 7.1% in CI and non-CI revascularization, respectively. Overall, the concordance and discordance rates were 66.5% and 33.5%, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: In this event-level analysis, QFR based adjudication had a relatively low agreement with CEC adjudication with respect to whether revascularization events were CI or not. CEC adjudication appears to overestimate CI revascularization as compared with QFR adjudication. Direct comparison between these 2 strategies in terms of revascularization adjudication is warranted in future trials. Registration: URL: https://www.clinicaltrials.gov; Unique identifier: TALENT trial: NCT02870140, DESSOLVE III trial: NCT02385279, SYNTAX II: NCT02015832, and PIONEER trial: NCT02236975.


Assuntos
Doença da Artéria Coronariana , Estenose Coronária , Angiografia Coronária , Vasos Coronários , Humanos , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Estudos Retrospectivos
7.
Cardiol J ; 2021 Oct 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34708865

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The relation between cardiac motion artefact (CMA) in optical coherence tomography (OCT) and the phases of cardiac cycle is unclear. METHODS: Optical coherence tomography pullbacks containing metallic stents were co-registered with angiography and retrospectively analyzed. The beginning of three phases, namely ejection, rapid-inflow and diastasis, was identified in angiography. Rotation, shortening, elongation and repetition were qualitatively labelled as CMA artefacts. Platforms with coaxial longitudinal connectors (ML8 and Magmaris) entered a quantitative sub-study, consisting of measuring the length of their connector at the beginning of each phase. RESULTS: A total of 261 stents (127 patients) were analyzed, including 105 stents for quantitative sus-tudy. CMA was detected in 61 (23.4%) stents: rotation in 6 (2.3%), shortening in 50 (19.2%), elongation in 51 (19.5%) and repetition in 12 (4.6%). Shortening was always observed during ejection phase, while elongation and repetition were always observed during rapid-inflow. Rotation occurred in both ejection and rapid-inflow phases, while no artefact was reported during diastasis. Longitudinal connectors measured in early ejection phase and in early rapid-inflow phase were shorter and longer, respectively, than those measured in diastasis, irrespective of the presence of CMA in the qualitative assessment. CONCLUSIONS: Cardiac motion artefact is prevalent in OCT studies, but shortening and elongation of vascular structures occur during early ejection and during early rapid-inflow, respectively, to a greater or lesser extent in all cases. Diastasis is free of CMA and hence the period in which longitudinal measurements can be more accurately quantified.

8.
Cardiol J ; 2021 Aug 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34355775

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Coronary flow reserve (CFR) has prognostic value in patients with coronary artery disease. However, its measurement is complex, and automatic methods for CFR computation are scarcely available. We developed an automatic method for CFR computation based on coronary angiography and assessed its feasibility. METHODS: Coronary angiographies from the Corelab database were annotated by experienced analysts. A convolutional neural network (CNN) model was trained for automatic segmentation of the main coronary arteries during contrast injection. The segmentation performance was evaluated using 5-fold cross-validation. Subsequently, the CNN model was implemented into a prototype software package for automatic computation of the CFR (CFRauto) and applied on a different sample of patients with angiographies performed both at rest and during maximal hyperemia, to assess the feasibility of CFRauto and its agreement with the manual computational method based on frame count (CFRmanual). RESULTS: Altogether, 137,126 images of 5913 angiographic runs from 2407 patients were used to develop and evaluate the CNN model. Good segmentation performance was observed. CFRauto was successfully computed in 136 out of 149 vessels (91.3%). The average analysis time to derive CFRauto was 18.1 ± 10.3 s per vessel. Moderate correlation (r = 0.51, p < 0.001) was observed between CFRauto and CFRmanual, with a mean difference of 0.12 ± 0.53. CONCLUSIONS: Automatic computation of the CFR based on coronary angiography is feasible. This method might facilitate wider adoption of coronary physiology in the catheterization laboratory to assess microcirculatory function.

9.
Heart Vessels ; 2021 Jul 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34287687

RESUMO

Optical coherence tomography (OCT)-angiography coregistration during stent implantation may be useful to avoid geographical mismatch and incomplete lesion coverage. Untreated lipid-rich plaque at stent edge is associated with subsequent stent edge restenosis. The present study sought to compare the frequency of untreated lipid-rich plaque at the stent edge between OCT-guided percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) with and without OCT-angiography coregistration. We investigated 398 patients who underwent OCT-guided stent implantation (n = 198 in the coregistration group, and n = 200 in the no coregistration group). In OCT after PCI, untreated lipid-lich plaque was identified by the maximum lipid arc > 180˚ in the 5-mm stent edge segment. The PCI-targeted lesion characteristics and stent length were not different between the coregistration group and the no coregistration group. The frequency of untreated lipid-rich plaque in either proximal or distal stent edge segment was significantly lower in the coregistration group than in the no coregistration group (16% vs. 26%, P = 0.015). The frequency of stent-edge dissection (5% vs. 6%, P = 0.516) and untreated stenosis (2% vs. 3%, P = 0.724) was low and without significant differences between the two groups. In OCT-guided PCI, the use of OCT-angiography coregistration was associated with a reduced frequency of untreated lipid-rich plaque at stent edges. OCT-angiography coregistration has a positive impact on PCI results.

10.
EuroIntervention ; 2021 07 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34219667

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Quantitative flow ratio (QFR) is a tool for physiological lesion assessment based on invasive coronary angiography. AIMS: We aimed to assess the reproducibility of QFR computed from the same angiograms as assessed by multiple observers from different, international sites. METHODS: We included 50 patients previously enrolled in dedicated QFR studies. QFR was computed twice, one month apart by five blinded observers. The main analysis was the coefficient of variation (CV) as a measure of intra- and interobserver reproducibility. Key secondary analysis was identification of clinical and procedural characteristics predicting reproducibility. RESULTS: The intraobserver CV ranged from 2.3% (1.5-2.8) to 10.2% (6.6-12.0) among the observers. The interobserver CV was 9.4% (8.0-10.5). The QFR observer, low angiographic quality, and low FFR were independent predictors of a large absolute difference between repeated QFR measurements defined as a difference larger than the median difference (>0.03). CONCLUSIONS: The inter- and intra-observer reproducibility for QFR computed from the same angiograms ranged from high to poor among multiple observers from different sites with an average agreement of 0.01±0.08 for repeated measurements. The reproducibility was dependent on the observer, angiographic quality and the coronary artery stenosis severity as assessed with FFR.

11.
Front Cardiovasc Med ; 8: 667310, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34222366

RESUMO

A novel method for four-dimensional superficial wall strain and stress (4D-SWS) is derived from the arterial motion as pictured by invasive coronary angiography. Compared with the conventional finite element analysis of cardiovascular biomechanics using the estimated pulsatile pressure, the 4D-SWS approach can calculate the dynamic mechanical state of the superficial wall in vivo, which could be directly linked with plaque rupture or stent fracture. The validation of this approach using in silico models showed that the distribution and maximum values of superficial wall stress were similar to those calculated by conventional finite element analysis. The in vivo deformation was validated on 16 coronary arteries, from the comparison of centerlines predicted by the 4D-SWS approach against the actual centerlines reconstructed from angiograms at a randomly selected time-point, which demonstrated a good agreement of the centerline morphology between both approaches (scaling: 0.995 ± 0.018 and dissimilarity: 0.007 ± 0.014). The in silico vessel models with softer plaque and larger plaque burden presented more variation in mean lumen diameter and resulted in higher superficial wall stress. In more than half of the patients (n = 16), the maximum superficial wall stress was found at the proximal lesion shoulder. Additionally, in three patients who later suffered from acute coronary syndrome, the culprit plaque rupture sites co-localized with the site of highest superficial wall stress on their baseline angiography. These representative cases suggest that angiography-based superficial wall dynamics have the potential to identify coronary segments at high-risk of plaque rupture and fracture sites of implanted stents. Ongoing studies are focusing on identifying weak spots in coronary bypass grafts, and on exploring the biomechanical mechanisms of coronary arterial remodeling and aneurysm formation. Future developments involve integration of fast computational techniques to allow online availability of superficial wall strain and stress in the catheterization laboratory.

12.
EuroIntervention ; 2021 06 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34105514

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Optical flow ratio (OFR) is a novel method for fast computation of fractional flow reserve (FFR) from optical coherence tomography (OCT) images. AIMS: We aimed to evaluate the accuracy of OFR in predicting post-percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) FFR and to evaluate the impact of stent expansion on within-stent OFR pressure drop (In-stent OFR). METHODS: Post-PCI OFR was computed in patients with both OCT and FFR interrogation immediately after PCI. Calculation of post-PCI OFR (called simulated residual OFR) from pre-PCI OCT pullbacks after elimination of the stenotic segment by virtual stenting was performed in a subgroup of patients who had pre-PCI OCT images. Stent underexpansion was quantified by the minimum expansion index (MEI) of the stented segment. RESULTS: A total of 125 paired comparisons between post-PCI OFR and FFR were obtained in 119 patients, among which simulated residual OFR was obtained in 64 vessels. Mean post-PCI FFR was 0.92 ± 0.05. Post-PCI OFR showed good correlation (r = 0.74, p<0.001) and agreement (mean difference = -0.01 ± 0.03, p = 0.051) with FFR. The accuracy in predicting post-PCI FFR≤0.90 was 84% for post-PCI OFR. Simulated residual OFR significantly correlated with post-PCI FFR (r = 0.42, p<0.001). MEI showed moderate correlation (r=-0.49, p<0.001) with In-stent OFR. CONCLUSIONS: Post-PCI OFR showed good diagnostic concordance with post-PCI FFR. Simulated residual OFR significantly correlated with post-PCI FFR. Stent underexpansion significantly correlated with in-stent pressure drop.

13.
Eur Heart J ; 42(27): 2695-2707, 2021 07 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33822922

RESUMO

Percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) guided by coronary physiology provides symptomatic benefit and improves patient outcomes. Nevertheless, over one-fourth of patients still experience recurrent angina or major adverse cardiac events following the index procedure. Coronary angiography, the current workhorse for evaluating PCI efficacy, has limited ability to identify suboptimal PCI results. Accumulating evidence supports the usefulness of immediate post-procedural functional assessment. This review discusses the incidence and possible mechanisms behind a suboptimal physiology immediately after PCI. Furthermore, we summarize the current evidence base supporting the usefulness of immediate post-PCI functional assessment for evaluating PCI effectiveness, guiding PCI optimization, and predicting clinical outcomes. Multiple observational studies and post hoc analyses of datasets from randomized trials demonstrated that higher post-PCI functional results are associated with better clinical outcomes as well as a reduced rate of residual angina and repeat revascularization. As such, post-PCI functional assessment is anticipated to impact patient management, secondary prevention, and resource utilization. Pre-PCI physiological guidance has been shown to improve clinical outcomes and reduce health care costs. Whether similar benefits can be achieved using post-PCI physiological assessment requires evaluation in randomized clinical outcome trials.


Assuntos
Doença da Artéria Coronariana , Reserva Fracionada de Fluxo Miocárdico , Intervenção Coronária Percutânea , Angina Pectoris , Angiografia Coronária , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/cirurgia , Custos de Cuidados de Saúde , Humanos , Resultado do Tratamento
14.
Catheter Cardiovasc Interv ; 97 Suppl 2: 1040-1047, 2021 05 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33660921

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: We aimed to evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of computation of fractional flow reserve (FFR) from a single angiographic view in patients with intermediate coronary stenosis. BACKGROUND: Computation of quantitative flow ratio (QFR) from a single angiographic view might increase the feasibility of routine use of computational FFR. In addition, current QFR solutions assume a linear tapering of the reference vessel size, which might decrease the diagnostic accuracy in the presence of the physiologically significant bifurcation lesions. METHODS: An artificial intelligence algorithm was proposed for automatic delineation of lumen contours of major epicardial coronary arteries including their side branches. A step-down reference diameter function was reconstructed based on the Murray bifurcation fractal law and used for QFR computation. Validation of this Murray law-based QFR (µQFR) was performed on the FAVOR II China study population. The µQFR was computed separately in two angiographic projections, starting with the one with optimal angiographic image quality. Hemodynamically significant coronary stenosis was defined by pressure wire-derived FFR ≤0.80. RESULTS: The µQFR was successfully computed in all 330 vessels of 306 patients. There was excellent correlation (r = 0.90, p < .001) and agreement (mean difference = 0.00 ± 0.05, p = .378) between µQFR and FFR. The vessel-level diagnostic accuracy for µQFR to identify hemodynamically significant stenosis was 93.0% (95% CI: 90.3 to 95.8%), with sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value, positive likelihood ratio, and negative likelihood ratio of 87.5% (95% CI: 80.2 to 92.8%), 96.2% (95% CI: 92.6 to 98.3%), 92.9% (95% CI: 86.5 to 96.9%), 93.1% (95% CI: 88.9 to 96.1%), 23.0 (95% CI: 11.6 to 45.5), 0.13 (95% CI: 0.08 to 0.20), respectively. Use of suboptimal angiographic image view slightly decreased the diagnostic accuracy of µQFR (AUC = 0.97 versus 0.92, difference = 0.05, p < .001). Intra- and inter-observer variability for µQFR computation was 0.00 ± 0.03, and 0.00 ± 0.03, respectively. Average analysis time for µQFR was 67 ± 22 s. CONCLUSIONS: Computation of µQFR from a single angiographic view has high feasibility and excellent diagnostic accuracy in identifying hemodynamically significant coronary stenosis. The short analysis time and good reproducibility of µQFR bear potential of wider adoption of physiological assessment in the catheterization laboratory.


Assuntos
Estenose Coronária , Reserva Fracionada de Fluxo Miocárdico , Inteligência Artificial , Angiografia Coronária , Estenose Coronária/diagnóstico por imagem , Vasos Coronários/diagnóstico por imagem , Fractais , Humanos , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Resultado do Tratamento
15.
Circ Cardiovasc Interv ; 14(2): e009840, 2021 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33541105

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Ultrasonic flow ratio (UFR) is a novel method for fast computation of fractional flow reserve (FFR) from intravascular ultrasound images. The objective of this study is to evaluate the diagnostic performance of UFR using wire-based FFR as the reference. METHODS: Post hoc computation of UFR was performed in consecutive patients with both intravascular ultrasound and FFR measurement in a core lab while the analysts were blinded to FFR. RESULTS: A total of 167 paired comparisons between UFR and FFR from 94 patients were obtained. Median FFR was 0.80 (interquartile range, 0.68-0.89) and 50.3% had a FFR≤0.80. Median UFR was 0.81 (interquartile range, 0.69-0.91), and UFR showed strong correlation with FFR (r=0.87; P<0.001). The area under the curve was higher for UFR than intravascular ultrasound-derived minimal lumen area (0.97 versus 0.89, P<0.001). The diagnostic accuracy, sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value, positive likelihood ratio, and negative likelihood ratio for UFR to identify FFR≤0.80 was 92% (95% CI, 87-96), 91% (95% CI, 82-96), 96% (95% CI, 90-99), 96% (95% CI, 89-99), 91% (95% CI, 93-96), 25.0 (95% CI, 8.2-76.2), and 0.10 (95% CI, 0.05-0.20), respectively. The agreement between UFR and FFR was independent of lesion locations (P=0.48), prior myocardial infarction (P=0.29), and imaging catheters (P=0.22). Intraobserver and interobserver variability of UFR analysis was 0.00±0.03 and 0.01±0.03, respectively. Median UFR analysis time was 102 (interquartile range, 87-122) seconds. CONCLUSIONS: UFR had a strong correlation and good agreement with FFR. The fast computational time and excellent analysis reproducibility of UFR bears the potential of a wider adoption of integration of coronary imaging and physiology in the catheterization laboratory.


Assuntos
Estenose Coronária , Angiografia Coronária , Estenose Coronária/diagnóstico por imagem , Vasos Coronários/diagnóstico por imagem , Reserva Fracionada de Fluxo Miocárdico , Hemodinâmica , Humanos , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Ultrassonografia de Intervenção
16.
EuroIntervention ; 17(1): 41-50, 2021 May 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33528359

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Intravascular optical coherence tomography (IVOCT) enables detailed plaque characterisation in vivo, but visual assessment is time-consuming and subjective. AIMS: This study aimed to develop and validate an automatic framework for IVOCT plaque characterisation using artificial intelligence (AI). METHODS: IVOCT pullbacks from five international centres were analysed in a core lab, annotating basic plaque components, inflammatory markers and other structures. A deep convolutional network with encoding-decoding architecture and pseudo-3D input was developed and trained using hybrid loss. The proposed network was integrated into commercial software to be externally validated on additional IVOCT pullbacks from three international core labs, taking the consensus among core labs as reference. RESULTS: Annotated images from 509 pullbacks (391 patients) were divided into 10,517 and 1,156 cross-sections for the training and testing data sets, respectively. The Dice coefficient of the model was 0.906 for fibrous plaque, 0.848 for calcium and 0.772 for lipid in the testing data set. Excellent agreement in plaque burden quantification was observed between the model and manual measurements (R2=0.98). In the external validation, the software correctly identified 518 out of 598 plaque regions from 300 IVOCT cross-sections, with a diagnostic accuracy of 97.6% (95% CI: 93.4-99.3%) in fibrous plaque, 90.5% (95% CI: 85.2-94.1%) in lipid and 88.5% (95% CI: 82.4-92.7%) in calcium. The median time required for analysis was 21.4 (18.6-25.0) seconds per pullback. CONCLUSIONS: A novel AI framework for automatic plaque characterisation in IVOCT was developed, providing excellent diagnostic accuracy in both internal and external validation. This model might reduce subjectivity in image interpretation and facilitate IVOCT quantification of plaque composition, with potential applications in research and IVOCT-guided PCI.


Assuntos
Intervenção Coronária Percutânea , Placa Aterosclerótica , Inteligência Artificial , Humanos , Placa Aterosclerótica/diagnóstico por imagem , Tomografia de Coerência Óptica
17.
Int J Cardiovasc Imaging ; 37(3): 755-766, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33044717

RESUMO

The feasibility and prognostic value of quantitative flow ratio (QFR) after percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) in ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) patients have not been assessed. The aim of this study was to investigate the prognostic utility of post-PCI QFR to predict outcomes in STEMI and determine the influence of functional results, in both culprit and nonculprit lesions, after PCI. Patients undergoing PCI of culprit lesions and receiving staged procedures of nonculprit lesions after 7 days were enrolled from 2 centers and underwent post-PCI QFR. The primary outcome was the vessel-oriented composite endpoints (VOCEs), defined as vessel-related cardiovascular death, vessel-related myocardial infarction, and target vessel revascularization. Four hundred fifteen vessels (186 culprit lesions and 219 nonculprit lesions) in 186 patients were analyzed. Measured at staged PCI, the post-PCI QFR of culprit lesions was significantly lower than that of nonculprit lesions (0.92 ± 0.10 versus 0.95 ± 0.08, p < 0.001). The multivariable model demonstrated that low post-PCI QFR was an independent predictor of 2-year VOCE (20.8% versus 5.7%; hazard ratio 2.718; 95% CI 1.347-5.486; p = 0.005). In STEMI patients with a low angiography-derived index of microcirculatory resistance (≤ 40U), a good correlation and agreement between post-PCI QFR value of culprit lesions at primary and staged procedures (r = 0.942; mean difference: - 0.0017 [- 0.074 to 0.070]) was identified. In conclusion, culprit lesions suffered from suboptimal functional results more frequently compared to nonculprit lesions after PCI in STEMI patients. Low post-PCI QFR was associated with subsequent adverse clinical outcomes. After stenting, culprit lesions may feasibly be assessed through QFR without significant microvascular dysfunction.


Assuntos
Angiografia Coronária , Vasos Coronários/diagnóstico por imagem , Stents Farmacológicos , Reserva Fracionada de Fluxo Miocárdico , Intervenção Coronária Percutânea/instrumentação , Infarto do Miocárdio com Supradesnível do Segmento ST/terapia , Idoso , Velocidade do Fluxo Sanguíneo , China , Vasos Coronários/fisiopatologia , Bases de Dados Factuais , Estudos de Viabilidade , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Microcirculação , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Intervenção Coronária Percutânea/efeitos adversos , Intervenção Coronária Percutânea/mortalidade , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Recidiva , Estudos Retrospectivos , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Infarto do Miocárdio com Supradesnível do Segmento ST/diagnóstico por imagem , Infarto do Miocárdio com Supradesnível do Segmento ST/mortalidade , Infarto do Miocárdio com Supradesnível do Segmento ST/fisiopatologia , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento
18.
EuroIntervention ; 17(7): 576-583, 2021 Sep 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33196446

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: CT-QFR is a novel coronary computed tomography angiography (CTA)-based method for on-site evaluation of patients with suspected obstructive coronary artery disease (CAD). AIMS: We aimed to compare the diagnostic performance of CT-QFR with myocardial perfusion scintigraphy (MPS) and cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) as second-line tests in patients with suspected obstructive CAD after coronary CTA. METHODS: A paired analysis of CT-QFR and MPS or CMR, with an invasive FFR-based classification as reference standard was carried out. Symptomatic patients with >50% diameter stenosis on coronary CTA were randomised to MPS or CMR and referred for invasive coronary angiography. RESULTS: The rate of coronary CTA not feasible for CT-QFR analysis was 17%. Paired patient-level data were available for 118 patients in the MPS group and 113 in the CMR group. Patient-level diagnostic accuracy was better for CT-QFR than for both MPS (82.2% [95% CI: 75.2-89.2] vs 70.3% [95% CI: 62.0-78.7], p=0.029) and CMR (77.0% [95% CI: 69.1-84.9] vs 65.5% [95% CI: 56.6-74.4], p=0.047). Following a positive coronary CTA and with the intention to diagnose, CT-QFR, CMR and MPS were equally suitable as rule-in and rule-out modalities. CONCLUSIONS: The diagnostic performance of CT-QFR as a second-line test was at least similar to MPS and CMR for the evaluation of obstructive CAD in symptomatic patients presenting with ≥50% diameter stenosis on coronary CTA.


Assuntos
Doença da Artéria Coronariana , Estenose Coronária , Reserva Fracionada de Fluxo Miocárdico , Imagem de Perfusão do Miocárdio , Angiografia por Tomografia Computadorizada , Angiografia Coronária , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/diagnóstico por imagem , Estenose Coronária/diagnóstico por imagem , Humanos , Tomografia Computadorizada Multidetectores , Valor Preditivo dos Testes
19.
EuroIntervention ; 17(2): e140-e148, 2021 Jun 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32928714

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The ability of optical coherence tomography (OCT) to identify specific types of stent has never been systematically studied. AIMS: The aim of this study was to test the accuracy of OCT imaging to identify patterns of stent platform and subsequently identify the type of stent implanted. METHODS: Consecutive patients from six international centres were retrospectively screened, searching for OCT studies with metallic stents or scaffolds. The sample was analysed by two blinded operators, applying a dedicated protocol in four steps to identify the type of stent: 1) 3D and automatic strut detection (ASD), 2) 3D tissue view, 3) longitudinal view with ASD, 4) mode "stent only" and ASD. RESULTS: A series of 212 patients underwent OCT in the study centres, finding 294 metallic stents or scaffolds in 146 patients. The protocol correctly identified 285 stents (96.9%, kappa 0.965), with excellent interobserver agreement (kappa 0.988). The performance tended to be better in recently implanted stents (kappa 0.993) than in stents implanted ≥3 months before (kappa 0.915), and in pullback speed 18 mm/s as compared with 36 mm/s (kappa 0.969 vs 0.940, respectively). CONCLUSIONS: The type of stent platform can be accurately identified in OCT by trained analysts following a dedicated protocol, combining 3D-OCT, ASD and longitudinal view. This might be clinically helpful in scenarios of device failure and for the quantification of apposition. The blinding of analysts in OCT studies should be revisited.


Assuntos
Stents , Tomografia de Coerência Óptica , Vasos Coronários , Humanos , Estudos Retrospectivos
20.
Int J Numer Method Biomed Eng ; 37(11): e3257, 2021 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31487426

RESUMO

Although fractional flow reserve (FFR) and coronary flow reserve (CFR) are both frequently used to assess the functional severity of coronary artery stenosis, discordant results of diagnosis between FFR and CFR in some patient cohorts have been reported. In the present study, a computational model was employed to quantify the impacts of various pathophysiological factors on FFR and CFR. In addition, a hyperemic myocardial ischemic index (HMIx) was proposed as a reference for comparing the diagnostic performances of FFR and CFR. Obtained results showed that CFR was more susceptible than FFR to the influence of many pathophysiological factors unrelated to coronary artery stenosis. In particular, the numerical study proved that increasing hyperemic coronary microvascular resistance significantly elevated FFR while reducing CFR despite fixed severity of coronary artery stenosis, whereas introducing aortic valve disease only caused a significant decrease in CFR with little influence on FFR. These results provided theoretical evidence for explaining some clinical observations, such as the increased risk of discordant diagnostic results between FFR and CFR in patients with increased hyperemic microvascular resistance, and significant increase in CFR after surgical relief of severe aortic valve disease. When evaluated with respect to the predictive value for hyperemic myocardial ischemia, the performance of FFR was found to be considerably compromised in the presence of severe coronary vasodilation dysfunction or aortic valve disease, whereas the relationship between CFR and HMIx remained relatively stable, suggesting that CFR may be a more reliable indicator of myocardial ischemia under complex pathophysiological conditions.


Assuntos
Estenose Coronária , Reserva Fracionada de Fluxo Miocárdico , Cateterismo Cardíaco , Estenose Coronária/diagnóstico , Vasos Coronários , Hemodinâmica , Humanos , Valor Preditivo dos Testes
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