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1.
JAMA Psychiatry ; 2020 May 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32401284

RESUMO

Importance: Wisdom is a neurobiological personality trait made up of specific components, including prosocial behaviors, emotional regulation, and spirituality. It is associated with greater well-being and happiness. Objective: To evaluate the effectiveness of interventions to enhance individual components of wisdom. Data Sources: MEDLINE and PsycINFO databases were searched for articles published through December 31, 2018. Study Eligibility Criteria: Randomized clinical trials that sought to enhance a component of wisdom, used published measures to assess that component, were published in English, had a minimum sample size of 40 participants, and presented data that enabled computation of effect sizes were included in this meta-analysis. Data Extraction and Synthesis: Random-effect models were used to calculate pooled standardized mean differences (SMDs) for each wisdom component and random-effects meta-regression to assess heterogeneity of studies. Main Outcomes and Measures: Improvement in wisdom component using published measures. Results: Fifty-seven studies (N = 7096 participants) met review criteria: 29 for prosocial behaviors, 13 for emotional regulation, and 15 for spirituality. Study samples included people with psychiatric or physical illnesses and from the community. Of the studies, 27 (47%) reported significant improvement with medium to large effect sizes. Meta-analysis revealed significant pooled SMDs for prosocial behaviors (23 studies; pooled SMD, 0.43 [95% CI, 0.22-0.3]; P = .02), emotional regulation (12 studies; pooled SMD, 0.67 [95% CI, 0.21-1.12]; P = .004), and spirituality (12 studies; pooled SMD, 1.00 [95% CI, 0.41-1.60]; P = .001). Heterogeneity of studies was considerable for all wisdom components. Publication bias was present for prosocial behavior and emotional regulation studies; after adjusting for it, the pooled SMD for prosocial behavior remained significant (SMD, 0.4 [95% CI, 0.16-0.78]; P = .003). Meta-regression analysis found that effect sizes did not vary by wisdom component, although for trials on prosocial behaviors, large effect sizes were associated with older mean participant age (ß, 0.08 [SE, 0.04]), and the reverse was true for spirituality trials (ß, -0.13 [SE, 0.04]). For spirituality interventions, higher-quality trials had larger effect sizes (ß, 4.17 [SE, 1.07]), although the reverse was true for prosocial behavior trials (ß, -0.91 [SE 0.44]). Conclusions and Relevance: Interventions to enhance spirituality, emotional regulation, and prosocial behaviors are effective in a proportion of people with mental or physical illnesses and from the community. The modern behavioral epidemics of loneliness, suicide, and opioid abuse point to a growing need for wisdom-enhancing interventions to promote individual and societal well-being.

2.
Int Psychogeriatr ; 32(2): 173-182, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32017867

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Aging is associated with numerous stressors that negatively impact older adults' well-being. Resilience improves ability to cope with stressors and can be enhanced in older adults. Senior housing communities are promising settings to deliver positive psychiatry interventions due to rising resident populations and potential impact of delivering interventions directly in the community. However, few intervention studies have been conducted in these communities. We present a pragmatic stepped-wedge trial of a novel psychological group intervention intended to improve resilience among older adults in senior housing communities. DESIGN: A pragmatic modified stepped-wedge trial design. SETTING: Five senior housing communities in three states in the US. PARTICIPANTS: Eighty-nine adults over age 60 years residing in independent living sector of senior housing communities. INTERVENTION: Raise Your Resilience, a manualized 1-month group intervention that incorporated savoring, gratitude, and engagement in value-based activities, administered by unlicensed residential staff trained by researchers. There was a 1-month control period and a 3-month post-intervention follow-up. MEASUREMENTS: Validated self-report measures of resilience, perceived stress, well-being, and wisdom collected at months 0 (baseline), 1 (pre-intervention), 2 (post-intervention), and 5 (follow-up). RESULTS: Treatment adherence and satisfaction were high. Compared to the control period, perceived stress and wisdom improved from pre-intervention to post-intervention, while resilience improved from pre-intervention to follow-up. Effect sizes were small in this sample, which had relatively high baseline resilience. Physical and mental well-being did not improve significantly, and no significant moderators of change in resilience were identified. CONCLUSION: This study demonstrates feasibility of conducting pragmatic intervention trials in senior housing communities. The intervention resulted in significant improvement in several measures despite ceiling effects. The study included several features that suggest high potential for its implementation and dissemination across similar communities nationally. Future studies are warranted, particularly in samples with lower baseline resilience or in assisted living facilities.

3.
Hepatology ; 71(2): 522-538, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31228214

RESUMO

Chronic alcohol consumption causes increased intestinal permeability and changes in the intestinal microbiota composition, which contribute to the development and progression of alcohol-related liver disease. In this setting, little is known about commensal fungi in the gut. We studied the intestinal mycobiota in a cohort of patients with alcoholic hepatitis, patients with alcohol use disorder, and nonalcoholic controls using fungal-specific internal transcribed spacer amplicon sequencing of fecal samples. We further measured serum anti-Saccharomyces cerevisiae antibodies (ASCA) as a systemic immune response to fungal products or fungi. Candida was the most abundant genus in the fecal mycobiota of the two alcohol groups, whereas genus Penicillium dominated the mycobiome of nonalcoholic controls. We observed a lower diversity in the alcohol groups compared with controls. Antibiotic or steroid treatment was not associated with a lower diversity. Patients with alcoholic hepatitis had significantly higher ASCA levels compared to patients with alcohol use disorder and to nonalcoholic controls. Within the alcoholic hepatitis cohort, patients with levels of at least 34 IU/mL had a significantly lower 90-day survival (59%) compared with those with ASCA levels less than 34 IU/mL (80%) with an adjusted hazard ratio of 3.13 (95% CI, 1.11-8.82; P = 0.031). Conclusion: Patients with alcohol-associated liver disease have a lower fungal diversity with an overgrowth of Candida compared with controls. Higher serum ASCA was associated with increased mortality in patients with alcoholic hepatitis. Intestinal fungi may serve as a therapeutic target to improve survival, and ASCA may be useful to predict the outcome in patients with alcoholic hepatitis.

4.
J Hepatol ; 72(3): 391-400, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31606552

RESUMO

BACKGROUND & AIMS: Alcohol-associated liver disease is a leading indication for liver transplantation and a leading cause of mortality. Alterations to the gut microbiota contribute to the pathogenesis of alcohol-associated liver disease. Patients with alcohol-associated liver disease have increased proportions of Candida spp. in the fecal mycobiome, yet little is known about the effect of intestinal Candida on the disease. Herein, we evaluated the contributions of Candida albicans and its exotoxin candidalysin in alcohol-associated liver disease. METHODS: C. albicans and the extent of cell elongation 1 (ECE1) were analyzed in fecal samples from controls, patients with alcohol use disorder and those with alcoholic hepatitis. Mice colonized with different and genetically manipulated C. albicans strains were subjected to the chronic-plus-binge ethanol diet model. Primary hepatocytes were isolated and incubated with candidalysin. RESULTS: The percentages of individuals carrying ECE1 were 0%, 4.76% and 30.77% in non-alcoholic controls, patients with alcohol use disorder and patients with alcoholic hepatitis, respectively. Candidalysin exacerbates ethanol-induced liver disease and is associated with increased mortality in mice. Candidalysin enhances ethanol-induced liver disease independently of the ß-glucan receptor C-type lectin domain family 7 member A (CLEC7A) on bone marrow-derived cells, and candidalysin does not alter gut barrier function. Candidalysin can damage primary hepatocytes in a dose-dependent manner in vitro and is associated with liver disease severity and mortality in patients with alcoholic hepatitis. CONCLUSIONS: Candidalysin is associated with the progression of ethanol-induced liver disease in preclinical models and worse clinical outcomes in patients with alcoholic hepatitis. LAY SUMMARY: Candidalysin is a peptide toxin secreted by the commensal gut fungus Candida albicans. Candidalysin enhances alcohol-associated liver disease independently of the ß-glucan receptor CLEC7A on bone marrow-derived cells in mice without affecting intestinal permeability. Candidalysin is cytotoxic to primary hepatocytes, indicating a direct role of candidalysin on ethanol-induced liver disease. Candidalysin might be an effective target for therapy in patients with alcohol-associated liver disease.

5.
Nature ; 575(7783): 505-511, 2019 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31723265

RESUMO

Chronic liver disease due to alcohol-use disorder contributes markedly to the global burden of disease and mortality1-3. Alcoholic hepatitis is a severe and life-threatening form of alcohol-associated liver disease. The gut microbiota promotes ethanol-induced liver disease in mice4, but little is known about the microbial factors that are responsible for this process. Here we identify cytolysin-a two-subunit exotoxin that is secreted by Enterococcus faecalis5,6-as a cause of hepatocyte death and liver injury. Compared with non-alcoholic individuals or patients with alcohol-use disorder, patients with alcoholic hepatitis have increased faecal numbers of E. faecalis. The presence of cytolysin-positive (cytolytic) E. faecalis correlated with the severity of liver disease and with mortality in patients with alcoholic hepatitis. Using humanized mice that were colonized with bacteria from the faeces of patients with alcoholic hepatitis, we investigated the therapeutic effects of bacteriophages that target cytolytic E. faecalis. We found that these bacteriophages decrease cytolysin in the liver and abolish ethanol-induced liver disease in humanized mice. Our findings link cytolytic E. faecalis with more severe clinical outcomes and increased mortality in patients with alcoholic hepatitis. We show that bacteriophages can specifically target cytolytic E. faecalis, which provides a method for precisely editing the intestinal microbiota. A clinical trial with a larger cohort is required to validate the relevance of our findings in humans, and to test whether this therapeutic approach is effective for patients with alcoholic hepatitis.

6.
Eur J Psychotraumatol ; 10(1): 1679964, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31723377

RESUMO

Background: Insomnia is common in service members and associated with many mental and physical health problems. Recently, longitudinal data have been used to assess the impact of disturbed sleep on mental health outcomes. These studies have consistently shown relationships between sleep disturbance and development of mental illness. Objective: The present study examined the longitudinal relationship between sleep disturbance and PTSD symptomatology in a cohort of Marines and Navy Corpsmen deployed to Iraq and Afghanistan (n = 2,404) assessed prior to deployment, as well as at -3 and 6 months post-deployment. Additionally, we aimed to investigate the extent to which these relationships are moderated by combat-stress severity, and to what extent these findings are replicated in a second, separate cohort of Marines and Navy corpsmen (n = 938) assessed with identical measures prior to deployment and within 3 months of return. Method: The present study employed latent variable path models to examine the relationships between pre-deployment sleep disturbance and post-deployment re-experiencing symptoms. Initial cross-lagged path models were conducted on discovery and replication samples to validate the hypothesized predictive relationships. Follow up moderation path models were then conducted to include the effect of combat-stress severity on these relationships. Results: Initial cross-lagged models supported a significant relationship between pre-deployment sleep disturbance and future re-experiencing PTSD symptoms at all time points. Initial moderation models showed a small moderator effect of combat-stress severity, though the main predictive relationship between pre-deployment sleep disturbance and PTSD symptoms remained significant. The moderator effect was not significant in the replication sample. Conclusions: The results of this study support pre-deployment sleep disturbance as a risk factor for development of post-deployment PTSD symptoms. Interventions aimed at normalizing sleep may be important in preventive measures for PTSD.

7.
Gen Psychiatr ; 32(4): e100069, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31552383

RESUMO

Power analysis is a key component for planning prospective studies such as clinical trials. However, some journals in biomedical and psychosocial sciences ask for power analysis for data already collected and analysed before accepting manuscripts for publication. In this report, post hoc power analysis for retrospective studies is examined and the informativeness of understanding the power for detecting significant effects of the results analysed, using the same data on which the power analysis is based, is scrutinised. Monte Carlo simulation is used to investigate the performance of posthoc power analysis.

8.
J Psychiatr Res ; 117: 31-37, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31276836

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Persons with schizophrenia and schizoaffective disorder (PwS) have high rates of cardiometabolic pathology that contributes to premature mortality. Adiponectin is a metabolic hormone affecting insulin sensitivity and inflammation, and is active in the brain. High-molecular weight (HMW) adiponectin is considered a more sensitive marker of metabolic dysfunction than total adiponectin, but has been poorly studied in schizophrenia. METHODS: This was a cross-sectional study of 100 PwS, age range 26-68 years (46 women), and 93 age- and sex-comparable non-psychiatric comparison (NC) subjects. Assessments included measures of psychopathology, physical health, cognitive function, and circulating biomarkers of metabolic dysfunction (HMW adiponectin, lipids, insulin resistance) and inflammation (high-sensitivity C-reactive protein or hs-CRP, Tumor Necrosis Factor-α, Interleukin-6, and Interleukin-10). RESULTS: HMW adiponectin levels were lower in PwS compared to NCs. Lower HMW adiponectin levels were associated with higher body mass index (BMI), higher Framingham risk for coronary heart disease, higher number of metabolic syndrome criteria, greater insulin resistance, lower HDL cholesterol, and higher hs-CRP in both groups. Only in PwS, lower HMW adiponectin correlated with younger age. In the best-fit regression models of HMW adiponectin, lower levels were associated with lower HDL cholesterol and minority race/ethnicity in both groups; but with younger age, non-smoking, higher insulin resistance, and a diagnosis of schizoaffective disorder only among PwS, and with male sex, better cognitive functioning, and higher hs-CRP levels in NCs only. DISCUSSION: HMW adiponectin may be a promising biomarker of cardiometabolic health, especially among PwS. Adiponectin is a potential target for lifestyle and pharmacological interventions. Research on the possible role of HMW adiponectin in modifying cardiometabolic pathology in schizophrenia is needed.

9.
Gen Psychiatr ; 32(3): e100081, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31360911

RESUMO

The p value has been widely used as a way to summarise the significance in data analysis. However, misuse and misinterpretation of the p value is common in practice. Our result shows that if the model specification is wrong, the distribution of the p value may be inappropriate, which makes the decision based on the p value invalid.

10.
Gen Psychiatr ; 32(1): e100038, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31179424

RESUMO

SAS and other popular statistical packages provide support for survey data with sampling weights. For example, PROC MEANS and PROC LOGISTIC in SAS have their counterparts PROC SURVEYMEANS and PROC SURVEYLOGISTIC to facilitate analysis of data from complex survey studies. On the other hand, PROC MEANS and many other classic SAS procedures also provide an option for including weights and yield identical point estimates, but different standard errors (SEs), as their corresponding survey procedures. This paper takes an in-depth look at different types of weights and provides guidance on use of different SAS procedures.

11.
Front Psychiatry ; 10: 251, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31065243

RESUMO

Higher prevalence of physical comorbidity and premature mortality in persons with schizophrenia (PwS) results primarily from heightened cardiovascular and metabolic risks. The literature suggests that insulin resistance precedes the development of obesity, smoking, and use of antipsychotic medications, although these likely play a compounding role later in the course of the disorder. It is thus important to discover the clinical characteristics of PwS with high insulin resistance, as these individuals may represent an etiopathologically distinct subgroup with a distinct course and treatment needs. We conducted a cross-sectional study and compared insulin resistance between 145 PwS and 140 nonpsychiatric comparison (NC) participants, similar in age, sex, and race distribution. In addition, we examined correlates of insulin resistance in PwS. As expected, PwS had higher levels of insulin resistance [Homeostatic Model Assessment of Insulin Resistance (HOMA-IR)] and body mass index (BMI) compared to the NC participants. HOMA-IR in the PwS was most associated with negative symptoms, BMI, and non-White race/ethnicity. The mechanistic relationships between insulin resistance and negative symptoms in schizophrenia patients warrant further investigation, and future studies should examine outcomes of PwS with this cluster of physical and mental symptoms and determine how management of insulin resistance might improve health of these individuals.

12.
Am J Geriatr Psychiatry ; 27(9): 895-907, 2019 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31078382

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To examine associations of sociodemographic and clinical factors with cognitive, physical, and mental health among independent living older adults in a continuing care senior housing community (CCSHC). METHODS: This was a cross-sectional study at the independent living sector of a CCSHC in San Diego County, California. Participants included English-speaking adults aged 65-95 years, of which two-thirds were women. Of the 112 subjects recruited, 104 completed basic study assessments. The authors computed composite measures of cognitive, physical, and mental health. The authors also assessed relevant clinical correlates including psychosocial factors such as resilience, loneliness, wisdom, and social support. RESULTS: The CCSHC residents were similar to a randomly selected community-based sample of older adults on most standardized clinical measures. In the CCSHC, physical health correlated with both cognitive function and mental health, but there was no significant correlation between cognitive and mental health. Cognitive function was significantly associated with physical mobility, satisfaction with life, and wisdom, whereas physical health was associated with age, self-rated physical functioning, mental well-being, and resilience. Mental health was significantly associated with income, optimism, self-compassion, loneliness, and sleep disturbances. CONCLUSION: Different psychosocial factors are significantly associated with cognitive, physical, and mental health. Longitudinal studies of diverse samples of older adults are necessary to determine risk factors and protective factors for specific domains of health. With rapidly growing numbers of older adults who require healthcare as well as supportive housing, CCSHCs will become increasingly important sites for studying and promoting the health of older adults.

13.
Psychiatry Res ; 275: 162-168, 2019 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30925304

RESUMO

This paper aims to compare mental and physical health, cognitive functioning, and selected biomarkers of aging reflecting metabolic pathology and inflammation, in outpatients with schizophrenia from two residential settings: residential care facilities (RCFs) and living with someone in a house/apartment. This cross-sectional study examined community-dwelling adults with schizophrenia either in RCFs (N = 100) or in a house/apartment with someone (N = 76), recruited for two NIH-funded studies in San Diego. Assessments included measures of mental/physical health, cognitive function, and metabolic (glycosylated hemoglobin, cholesterol) and inflammatory (C-Reactive Protein, Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha, Interleukin-6) biomarkers of aging. General logistic models were used to analyze factors associated with residential status. RCF residents had several indicators of worse prognosis (never being married, higher daily antipsychotic dosages, increased comorbidities and higher Framingham risk for coronary heart disease) than individuals living with someone. However, RCF residents had better mental well-being and lower BMI, as well as comparable biomarkers of aging as those living with someone. While the cross-sectional nature of the study does not allow us to infer causality, it is possible that the supportive environment of RCFs may have a positive impact on mental and physical health of persons with schizophrenia. Longitudinal follow-up studies are needed to test this hypothesis.


Assuntos
Envelhecimento/psicologia , Cognição , Pacientes Ambulatoriais/psicologia , Esquizofrenia/fisiopatologia , Psicologia do Esquizofrênico , Adulto , Idoso , Envelhecimento/metabolismo , Biomarcadores/análise , Comorbidade , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Vida Independente/psicologia , Vida Independente/estatística & dados numéricos , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Características de Residência/estatística & dados numéricos , Instituições Residenciais/estatística & dados numéricos
14.
Schizophr Res ; 208: 360-369, 2019 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30773419

RESUMO

Recent decades have seen growing empirical research in wisdom as a complex, trait-based psychological characteristic. Wisdom has been shown to possess individual and societal benefits through associations with health and well-being, but it has not yet been evaluated in people with schizophrenia (PwS). In the current study, we administered a widely used, validated 3-dimensional wisdom scale that includes three interrelated dimensions: cognitive, reflective, and affective. We examined group differences in wisdom, as well as relationships between wisdom and sociodemographics, clinical symptoms, neurocognitive and functional performance, and mental and physical health in 65 stable adult outpatients with chronic schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder and 96 non-psychiatric comparison participants (NPCPs). Results showed that PwS had lower wisdom scores than NPCPs and that wisdom moderated relationships between diagnostic group and neurocognitive and functional performance; PwS with higher levels of wisdom demonstrated better cognitive performance than did PwS with lower levels of wisdom. In addition, wisdom was positively correlated with performances on multiple neurocognitive tasks in PwS, but not in NPCPs. Finally, reflective wisdom - representing accurate/unbiased introspection and perspective-taking - correlated with all mental health variables in PwS. Our results were limited by a cross-sectional design, but suggest that wisdom, especially reflective wisdom, may be associated with better cognitive performance and better physical and mental health in PwS. It is conceivable that interventions to enhance wisdom may have broad cognitive and mental and physical health benefits in individuals with chronic psychotic disorders.

15.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 116(6): 2021-2026, 2019 02 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30670647

RESUMO

How and when education improves cognitive capacity is an issue of profound societal importance. Education and later-life education-related factors, such as occupational complexity and engagement in cognitive-intellectual activities, are frequently considered indices of cognitive reserve, but whether their effects are truly causal remains unclear. In this study, after accounting for general cognitive ability (GCA) at an average age of 20 y, additional education, occupational complexity, or engagement in cognitive-intellectual activities accounted for little variance in late midlife cognitive functioning in men age 56-66 (n = 1009). Age 20 GCA accounted for 40% of variance in the same measure in late midlife and approximately 10% of variance in each of seven cognitive domains. The other factors each accounted for <1% of the variance in cognitive outcomes. The impact of these other factors likely reflects reverse causation-namely, downstream effects of early adult GCA. Supporting that idea, age 20 GCA, but not education, was associated with late midlife cortical surface area (n = 367). In our view, the most parsimonious explanation of our results, a meta-analysis of the impact of education, and epidemiologic studies of the Flynn effect is that intellectual capacity gains due to education plateau in late adolescence/early adulthood. Longitudinal studies with multiple cognitive assessments before completion of education would be needed to confirm this speculation. If cognitive gains reach an asymptote by early adulthood, then strengthening cognitive reserve and reducing later-life cognitive decline and dementia risk may really begin with improving educational quality and access in childhood and adolescence.


Assuntos
Cognição/fisiologia , Educação , Adolescente , Idoso , Transtornos Cognitivos , Disfunção Cognitiva , Reserva Cognitiva , Demência , Humanos , Estilo de Vida , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Adulto Jovem
16.
Am J Geriatr Psychiatry ; 27(1): 21-31, 2019 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30442531

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Persons with schizophrenia, and women in particular, are at high risk for sleep disturbances and inflammatory activation. The sleep-inflammation link has been reported to be stronger in women within the general population. This study sought to examine the sleep-inflammation link in persons with schizophrenia and its relationship with demographic, clinical and cognitive variables. DESIGN: Cross-sectional case-control study. PARTICIPANTS: Community-dwelling outpatients with schizophrenia (N=144, 46% women) and non-psychiatric comparison (NC) participants (N=134, 52% women), age 26-65 years. MEASUREMENTS: Reported sleep disturbances (sleep quality and duration), and mental and physical health were assessed. Cognitive assessments included executive functioning (Delis-Kaplan Executive Function System) and global cognitive functioning (Telephone Interview for Cognitive Status - modified.) Inflammatory biomarkers included pro-inflammatory cytokines [high sensitivity C-Reactive Protein (hs-CRP), Interleukin (IL)-6, Tumor Necrosis Factor-α (TNF-α)] and an anti-inflammatory cytokine (IL-10). RESULTS: The schizophrenia group had longer sleep duration, worse sleep quality, and increased levels of hs-CRP, IL-6, and TNF-α compared to NCs. Women with schizophrenia were less likely to have good sleep quality and had elevated levels of hs-CRP and IL-6 compared to men with schizophrenia. In the schizophrenia group, worse sleep quality and global cognitive functioning were associated with higher hs-CRP and IL-6 levels. Female sex and younger age were also associated with higher hs-CRP levels. CONCLUSIONS: Sleep disturbances and increased inflammation, which were common in schizophrenia, were associated in persons with schizophrenia. Moreover, women with schizophrenia had worse sleep quality and inflammation than men. Further examination of the sleep-inflammation links, their contribution to clinical outcomes, and sex-specific factors is warranted.

17.
Crit Care Med ; 47(1): e8-e13, 2019 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30303843

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: A recently published simulation study suggested that women are inferior leaders of cardiopulmonary resuscitation efforts. The aim of this study was to compare female and male code leaders in regard to cardiopulmonary resuscitation outcomes in a real-world clinical setting. DESIGN: Retrospective cohort review. SETTING: Two academic, urban hospitals in San Diego, California. SUBJECTS: One-thousand eighty-two adult inpatients who suffered cardiac arrest and underwent cardiopulmonary resuscitation. INTERVENTIONS: None. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: We analyzed whether physician code leader gender was independently associated with sustained return of spontaneous circulation and survival to discharge and with markers of quality cardiopulmonary resuscitation. Of all arrests, 327 (30.1%) were run by female physician code leaders with 251 (76.8%) obtaining return of spontaneous circulation, and 122 (37.3%) surviving to discharge. Male physicians ran 757 codes obtaining return of spontaneous circulation in 543 (71.7%) with 226 (29.9%) surviving to discharge. When adjusting for variables, female physician code leader gender was independently associated with a higher likelihood of return of spontaneous circulation (odds ratio, 1.36; 95% CI, 1.01-1.85; p = 0.049) and survival to discharge (odds ratio, 1.53; 95% CI, 1.15-2.02; p < 0.01). Additionally, the odds ratio for survival to discharge was 1.62 (95% CI, 1.13-2.34; p < 0.01) for female physicians with a female code nurse when compared with male physician code leaders paired with a female code nurse. Gender of code leader was not associated with cardiopulmonary resuscitation quality. CONCLUSIONS: In contrast to data derived from a simulated setting with medical students, real life female physician leadership of cardiopulmonary resuscitation is not associated with inferior outcomes. Appropriately, trained physicians can lead high-quality cardiopulmonary resuscitation irrespective of gender.


Assuntos
Reanimação Cardiopulmonar , Parada Cardíaca/terapia , Liderança , Médicas , California , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Análise de Sobrevida
18.
Int Psychogeriatr ; 31(10): 1447-1462, 2019 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30560747

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: This study of loneliness across adult lifespan examined its associations with sociodemographics, mental health (positive and negative psychological states and traits), subjective cognitive complaints, and physical functioning. DESIGN: Analysis of cross-sectional data. PARTICIPANTS: 340 community-dwelling adults in San Diego, California, mean age 62 (SD = 18) years, range 27-101 years, who participated in three community-based studies. MEASUREMENTS: Loneliness measures included UCLA Loneliness Scale Version 3 (UCLA-3), 4-item Patient-Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System (PROMIS) Social Isolation Scale, and a single-item measure from the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression (CESD) scale. Other measures included the San Diego Wisdom Scale (SD-WISE) and Medical Outcomes Survey- Short form 36. RESULTS: Seventy-six percent of subjects had moderate-high levels of loneliness on UCLA-3, using standardized cut-points. Loneliness was correlated with worse mental health and inversely with positive psychological states/traits. Even moderate severity of loneliness was associated with worse mental and physical functioning. Loneliness severity and age had a complex relationship, with increased loneliness in the late-20s, mid-50s, and late-80s. There were no sex differences in loneliness prevalence, severity, and age relationships. The best-fit multiple regression model accounted for 45% of the variance in UCLA-3 scores, and three factors emerged with small-medium effect sizes: wisdom, living alone and mental well-being. CONCLUSIONS: The alarmingly high prevalence of loneliness and its association with worse health-related measures underscore major challenges for society. The non-linear age-loneliness severity relationship deserves further study. The strong negative association of wisdom with loneliness highlights the potentially critical role of wisdom as a target for psychosocial/behavioral interventions to reduce loneliness. Building a wiser society may help us develop a more connected, less lonely, and happier society.

19.
Stat Methods Med Res ; 28(2): 503-514, 2019 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28933251

RESUMO

Large-scale public health prevention initiatives and interventions are a very important component to current public health strategies. But evaluating effects of such large-scale prevention/intervention faces a lot of challenges due to confounding effects and heterogeneity of study population. In this paper, we will develop metrics to assess the risk for suicide events based on causal inference framework when the study population is heterogeneous. The proposed metrics deal with the confounding effect by first estimating the risk of suicide events within each of the risk levels, number of prior attempts, and then taking a weighted sum of the conditional probabilities. The metrics provide unbiased estimates of the risk of suicide events. Simulation studies and a real data example will be used to demonstrate the proposed metrics.

20.
Gen Psychiatr ; 31(1): e100004, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30582120

RESUMO

For moderate to large sample sizes, all tests yielded pvalues close to the nominal, except when models were misspecified. The signed-rank test generally had the lowest power. Within the current context of count outcomes, the signed-rank test shows subpar power when compared with tests that are contrasted based on full data, such as the GEE. Parametric models for count outcomes such as the GLMM with a Poisson for marginal count outcomes are quite sensitive to departures from assumed parametric models. There is some small bias for all the asymptotic tests, that is, the signed-ranktest, GLMM and GEE, especially for small sample sizes. Resampling methods such as permutation can help alleviate this.

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