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1.
PLoS One ; 14(10): e0223907, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31603948

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Overweight and obesity in preschoolers might develop into childhood and even adulthood obesity. Overweight and obesity have been shown to be negatively related with cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) in children and adults but few studies did among preschoolers. We aimed to evaluate whether excess body adipose is negatively associated with CRF in both the submaximal and maximal effort of preschool children in exercise testing and to examine if there is difference to achieve maximal effort during exercise testing between preschoolers with normal and excess body adipose. METHODS: Data of 106 preschoolers aged 4-6 that received symptom-limited treadmill exercise testing was analyzed. Anthropometry was measured by vector bioelectrical impedance analysis. Excess body adipose was defined as (1) 'overweight' and 'obesity' by body mass index (BMI), (2) fat mass index (FMI) greater than the sex- and age-specific 75th percentile of whole subjects, and (3) fat-free mass index (FFMI) smaller than the sex- and age-specific 25th percentile. CRF was indicated by metabolic equivalent (MET) at anaerobic threshold (AT MET), peak MET, oxygen uptake efficiency slope (OUES) calculated by the 50% (OUES-50) and the entire (OUES-100) duration of the exercise testing. RESULTS: Preschoolers with excess body adipose by three different definitions (BMI, FMI, and FFMI) all had poorer ability to perform maximal effort (p = 0.004, 0.043, and 0.007, respectively). Preschoolers with excess body adipose by BMI and FFMI classifications had lower OUES-50 (p = 0.018, and 0.001, respectively), and lower OUES-100 (p = 0.004, and 0.001, respectively) than peers with normal body adipose during exercise testing while those with excess body adipose by FMI classification showed no significant differences from peers with normal body adipose in both OUES-50 and OUES-100. CONCLUSIONS: Preschoolers with excess body adipose had lower CRF significantly during treadmill exercise testing. Weight control and health promotion should start as early as possible.

2.
Haemophilia ; 25(5): 876-884, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31282066

RESUMO

AIM: Low bone mineral density occurs more commonly in patients with haemophilia (PWH) than the general population. However, the risk of haemophilia-related osteoporotic fractures has not been well established. We aim to explore the relationship between haemophilia and the development of osteoporotic fractures following haemophilia. METHODS: This was a nationwide population-based cohort study based on the data in the Taiwan National Health Insurance Research Database (TNHIRD). Patients who were diagnosed with haemophilia were selected. A comparison cohort was formed of patients without haemophilia who were matched according to age and sex. The incidence rate and the hazard ratios (HRs) of new-onset osteoporotic fractures were calculated for both cohorts. RESULTS: The haemophilia cohort consisted of 75 patients, and the comparison cohort comprised 300 matched control patients without haemophilia. The risk of osteoporotic fractures was higher in the haemophilia cohort than in the comparison cohort (HR = 5.41, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 2.42-12.1, P < 0.001). After adjustments for age, sex, comorbidities, urbanizations and socio-economic status, PWH were 4.37 times more likely to develop osteoporotic fractures (95% CI = 1.88-10.17, P = 0.001) as compared to matched cohort. In addition, the incidence of newly diagnosed osteoporotic fractures was significantly increased after 5-year follow-up durations. CONCLUSION: Though our study by TNHIRD presented methodologic flaws by its design nature, we observed that haemophilia may increase the risk of osteoporotic fractures and the cumulative incidence was significantly higher for PWH diagnosed more than 5 years. Clinicians should pay particular attention to osteoporotic fractures following haemophilia in PWH as they age.


Assuntos
Hemofilia A/complicações , Fraturas por Osteoporose/etiologia , Idoso , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Fatores de Risco
3.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 97(46): e13296, 2018 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30431617

RESUMO

The oxygen uptake efficiency slope (OUES) is a well-established substitute for maximum oxygen uptake ((Equation is included in full-text article.)O2 max) in submaximal exercise effort among adolescents and adults. Few studies have analyzed the exercise capacity (EC) and OUES of children aged 4 to 6 (preschoolers). Body fat has been proved to negatively affect EC among schoolchildren. The purposes of this study were to assess the capacity of preschoolers in achieving (Equation is included in full-text article.)O2 max and evaluate the correlation of peak metabolic equivalent (peak MET) and peak oxygen consumption (peak O2) with OUES. We also evaluated if body fat affected EC among preschoolers.Forty-three preschoolers under the ramped Bruce protocol of treadmill exercise testing had been retrospectively studied. The criteria for achieving (Equation is included in full-text article.)O2 max included respiratory exchange ratio (RER) >1.1, heart rate (HR) >85% of age-predicted maximum, and HR >200 bpm. OUES was calculated by the 75% (OUES-75) and the entire (OUES-100) duration of the testing and normalized by body surface area. Body fat was measured using vector bioelectrical impedance analysis. The fat mass (FM) index and fat-free mass index (FFMI) were defined as FM or FFM (kg) divided by height squared (m), respectively.The mean age of the participants was 5.70 ±â€Š0.56. Seventy-nine percent of preschoolers met at least 1 criterion, 36.84% met 2 criteria, and none met all 3 criteria for (Equation is included in full-text article.)O2. OUES-75 was moderately positively correlated with peak MET (P = .034; Spearman's rho = 0.324) and peak O2 (P <.001; Spearman's rho = 0.667). OUES-100 was moderately to highly positively correlated with peak MET (P <.001; Spearman's rho = 0.592) and peak O2 (P <.001; Spearman's rho = 0.825). There were moderate to high positive correlations between FFMI and peak O2 (P <.001; Spearman's rho = 0.668), OUES-75 (P <.001; Spearman's rho = 0.642), and OUES-100 (P < .001; Spearman's rho = 0.670).None of the preschoolers reached all 3 criteria for (Equation is included in full-text article.)O2max. OUES-75 and OUES-100 might be indicators of peak O2 at submaximal effort. Preschoolers with higher FFMI had better EC during treadmill exercise testing.


Assuntos
Teste de Esforço/métodos , Tolerância ao Exercício/fisiologia , Equivalente Metabólico/fisiologia , Consumo de Oxigênio/fisiologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Estudos Retrospectivos
4.
J Pediatr ; 201: 128-133, 2018 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30029863

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To compare exercise capacity measured by direct cardiopulmonary exercise testing (CPET) of children with Kawasaki disease with different coronary artery diameter z scores (CA z score). STUDY DESIGN: This was a retrospective study that recruited children with Kawasaki disease after the acute stage receiving CPETs determined by CPET with treadmill. CA z score was based on a model using the Lambda-Mu-Sigma method. Max-Z was defined as the maximum z score of the proximal left anterior descending CA (LCA) or right CA (RCA). Children with Kawasaki disease with a Max z <2.0 and ≥2.0 were defined as Kawasaki disease group 1 and Kawasaki disease group 2, respectively. RESULTS: We recruited 32 boys and 17 girls with a mean age of 12.39 ± 3.61 years. Kawasaki disease group 1 (n = 36) had significantly higher peak metabolic equivalent (peak-MET) and peak rate pressure product (PRPP) than Kawasaki disease group 2 (n-13) (P = .046, P < .001). Max-Z correlated with peak-MET moderately and negatively (P < .001, Spearman rho= - .506). Max-Z correlated with PRPP modestly and negatively (P = .011, Spearman rho= - .360). CONCLUSIONS: Children after Kawasaki disease with a coronary artery Max-Z ≥ 2.0 had significantly lower peak exercise capacity than those with a Max-Z < 2.0. Max-Z might be used as an indicator of CA reserve and exercise capacity during peak exercise after the acute stage of Kawasaki disease.


Assuntos
Vasos Coronários/diagnóstico por imagem , Teste de Esforço/métodos , Tolerância ao Exercício , Síndrome de Linfonodos Mucocutâneos/diagnóstico , Adolescente , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Vasos Coronários/fisiopatologia , Ecocardiografia Doppler em Cores , Eletrocardiografia , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Masculino , Síndrome de Linfonodos Mucocutâneos/fisiopatologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Espirometria
5.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 97(24): e11110, 2018 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29901631

RESUMO

RATIONALE: Neurological melioidosis, an extremely rare condition, is caused by the gram-negative bacterium Burkholderia pseudomallei. If treatment is suboptimal or delayed, this infection can produce diverse clinical symptoms and result in death. PATIENT CONCERNS: A healthy 65-year-old female who had been treated with antipsychotic medication for neurotic depression for over 2 years presented with acute-onset fever, headache, lead-pipe rigidity of all limbs, and delirium. DIAGNOSES: Melioidosis meningitis was diagnosed by performing blood examinations and cerebrospinal fluid analysis and cultures. INTERVENTIONS: Intravenous ceftazidime (2 g/8 h for 3 weeks) was administered in-hospital and 240 mg trimethoprim/1200 mg sulfamethoxazole and 100 mg minocycline twice daily administered out-hospital. OUTCOMES: The patient fully recovered after antibiotic therapy without cognitive deficits and associated neurological complications. LESSONS: Because melioidosis is endemic in Southern Taiwan and the use of antipsychotics might mask the symptoms, physicians dealing with patients from endemic areas with a medical history of antipsychotics should always consider the possibility of neurological melioidosis and provide prompt empirical management to suspicious cases.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Antipsicóticos/efeitos adversos , Burkholderia pseudomallei/isolamento & purificação , Melioidose/diagnóstico , Meningites Bacterianas/diagnóstico , Idoso , Antipsicóticos/uso terapêutico , Ceftazidima/uso terapêutico , Líquido Cefalorraquidiano/microbiologia , Transtorno Depressivo/tratamento farmacológico , Diagnóstico Diferencial , Feminino , Humanos , Melioidose/tratamento farmacológico , Meningites Bacterianas/tratamento farmacológico , Minociclina/uso terapêutico , Síndrome Maligna Neuroléptica/diagnóstico , Combinação Trimetoprima e Sulfametoxazol/uso terapêutico
6.
Int J Rehabil Res ; 40(3): 215-219, 2017 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28410336

RESUMO

A predischarge submaximal exercise test is often recommended after acute myocardial infarction (AMI) as part of phase I cardiac rehabilitation. In this study, a submaximal exercise parameter, oxygen uptake efficiency slope (OUES), was used to monitor the benefit of early mobilization within 48 h after AMI. An early mobilization protocol within 48 h after AMI has been initiated since 1 September 2012 in our center. Patients with onset time of AMI within 1 year before and 1 year after initiation of the early mobilization protocol were recruited for comparisons. Sixty patients were analyzed on the basis of this criterion, and were subjected to predischarge submaximal exercise tests. The OUES calculated with 100% exercise duration (OUES100) and calculated with the first 50% of exercise duration (OUES50) were obtained and analyzed. Both OUES100 and OUES50 of the AMI patients with early mobilization were significantly higher than those without early mobilization (P=0.025 and 0.007, respectively). The OUES100 and OUES50 were also highly correlated (r=0.891, P<0.001). The subgroup analysis using patients within 3 months before and 3 months after initiation of the protocol also showed a significant difference. OUES could be used to measure the exercise capacity and monitor the effect of phase I cardiac rehabilitation in patients soon after AMI. Early mobilization within 48 h following AMI significantly enhanced the patient's exercise capacity.


Assuntos
Reabilitação Cardíaca/métodos , Teste de Esforço/métodos , Infarto do Miocárdio/fisiopatologia , Infarto do Miocárdio/reabilitação , Consumo de Oxigênio/fisiologia , Idoso , Deambulação Precoce , Tolerância ao Exercício/fisiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Alta do Paciente , Estudos Retrospectivos
7.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 95(2): e2444, 2016 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26765431

RESUMO

Coronary artery (CA) abnormalities influence exercise capacity (EC) of patients with Kawasaki disease (KD), and Z-score of CA is a well established method for detecting CA aneurysm. We studied the influence of KD on cardiopulmonary function and EC; meanwhile we analyzed echocardiographic findings of KD patients. We also assessed the correlation between CA Z-score and EC of KD patients to see if CA Z-score of KD patients could reflect EC during exercise.Sixty-three KD patients were recruited as KD group 1 from children (aged 5-18 y) who received transthoracic echocardiographic examinations and symptom-limited treadmill exercise test for regular follow-up of KD from January 2010 to October 2014 in 1 medical center. We then divided KD group 1 into KD group 2 (<5 y, n = 12) and KD group 3 (≥5 y, n = 51) according to time interval between KD onset to when patients received test. Control groups were matched by age, sex, and body mass index. Max-Z of CA was defined as the maximal Z-score of the proximal LCA or RCA by Dalliarre equation or Fuse calculator.All routine parameters measured during standard exercise test were similar between KD and control groups, except that peak rate pressure products (PRPPs) in KD group 1 to 3 were all lower than corresponding control groups significantly (P = 0.010, 0.020, and 0.049, respectively). PRPPs correlated with Max-Z of CA by both equations modest inversely (by Dallaire, P = 0.017, Spearman rho = -0.301; by Fuse, P = 0.014, Spearman rho = -0.309).Our study recruited larger number of KD patients and provided a newer data of EC of KD patients. Our finding suggests that after acute stage of KD, patients could maintain normal cardiorespiratory fitness. Therefore, we believe that it is important to promote cardiovascular health to KD patients and KD patients should exercise as normal peers. However, since KD patients might still have compromised coronary perfusion during exercise, it remains crucial to assess and monitor cardiovascular risk of KD patients. Max-Z of CA correlates with PRPP modest inversely and might be used as a follow-up indicator of CA reserve during exercise after acute stage of KD.


Assuntos
Ecocardiografia Doppler/métodos , Teste de Esforço/métodos , Tolerância ao Exercício/fisiologia , Síndrome de Linfonodos Mucocutâneos/diagnóstico , Adolescente , Fatores Etários , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Testes de Função Cardíaca , Humanos , Masculino , Prognóstico , Valores de Referência , Testes de Função Respiratória , Estudos Retrospectivos , Medição de Risco , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Fatores Sexuais
8.
Eur J Prev Cardiol ; 23(10): 1045-50, 2016 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26701873

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Oxygen uptake efficiency slope (OUES) and peak oxygen consumption (VO2peak) are exercise parameters that can predict cardiac morbidity in patients with numerous heart diseases. But the predictive value in patients with tetralogy of Fallot is still undetermined, especially in children. We evaluated the prognostic value of OUES and VO2peak in children with total repair of tetralogy of Fallot. DESIGN: Retrospective cohort study. METHODS: Forty tetralogy of Fallot patients younger than 12 years old were recruited. They underwent a cardiopulmonary exercise test during the follow-up period after total repair surgery. The results of the cardiopulmonary exercise test were used to predict the cardiac related hospitalization in the following two years after the test. RESULTS: OUES normalized by body surface area (OUES/BSA) and the percentage of predicted VO2peak appeared to be predictive for two-year cardiac related hospitalization. Receiver operating characteristic curve analysis demonstrated that the best threshold value for OUES/BSA was 1.029 (area under the curve = 0.70, p = 0.03), and for VO2peak was 74% of age prediction (area under the curve = 0.72, p = 0.02). The aforementioned findings were confirmed by Kaplan-Meier plots and log-rank test. CONCLUSIONS: OUES/BSA and VO2peak are useful predictors of cardiac-related hospitalization in children with total repair of tetralogy of Fallot.


Assuntos
Exercício/fisiologia , Hospitalização/estatística & dados numéricos , Consumo de Oxigênio/fisiologia , Oxigênio/metabolismo , Tetralogia de Fallot/metabolismo , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Cardíacos , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Teste de Esforço/métodos , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Masculino , Período Pós-Operatório , Prognóstico , Curva ROC , Estudos Retrospectivos , Taxa de Sobrevida/tendências , Taiwan/epidemiologia , Tetralogia de Fallot/mortalidade , Tetralogia de Fallot/cirurgia
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