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1.
Patient ; 2021 May 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33942248

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: A third of new human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infections occur among young people and the majority of young people living with HIV are in sub-Saharan Africa. We examined the strength of Nigerian youth preferences related to HIV testing and HIV self-testing (HIVST). METHODS: Discrete choice experiments were conducted among Nigerian youth (age 14-24 years). Participants completed one of two discrete choice experiments: (1) preferred qualities of HIV testing (cost, location of test, type of test, person who conducts the test, and availability of HIV medicine at the testing site) and (2) preferred qualities of HIVST kits (cost, test quality, type of test, extra items, and support if tested positive). A random parameter logit model measured the strength of preferences. RESULTS: A total of 504 youth participated: mean age 21 years (standard deviation 2 years), 38% male, and 35% had a higher than secondary school education. There was a strong preference overall to test given the scenarios presented, although male individuals were less likely to test for HIV or use HIVST kits. Youth preferred HIV testing services (with attributes in order of importance) that are free, blood-based testing, available in private/public hospitals or home, for HIV medications to be available in the same location as testing, and a doctor conducts the test. Participants preferred HIVST kits (with attributes in order of importance) that are available from community health centers, free, approved by the World Health Organization, include other sexually transmitted infection testing, have the option of an online chat, and oral-based HIVST. CONCLUSIONS: The HIV home testing was equally preferred to testing in a hospital, suggesting a viable market for HIVST if kits account for youth preferences. Male youth were less likely to choose to test for HIV or use HIVST kits, underscoring the need for further efforts to encourage HIV testing among young male individuals.

2.
Sex Transm Infect ; 2021 Apr 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33927008

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Self-testing for STIs such as HIV and syphilis may empower sexual minorities and expand uptake of STI testing. While much is known about HIV self-testing (HIVST), less is known about syphilis self-testing, particularly in low-income settings. The objective of this study is to determine context-specific facilitators and barriers for self-testing and to assess the usability of syphilis self-testing in Zimbabwe among men who have sex with men (MSM). METHODS: This mixed methods study was conducted in Harare as part of a larger syphilis self-testing trial. The study included in-depth interviews (phase I) followed by usability testing and a second interview (phase II). In-depth interviews were conducted with MSM and key informants prior to syphilis self-testing. The same MSM then used the syphilis self-test, quantitatively assessed its usability and participated in a second in-depth interview. Phase I data were analysed using a thematic approach, guided by an adapted social ecological model conceptual framework. Phase II interviews were analysed using rapid assessment procedure methodology, and usability was assessed using a pre-established index, adapted from existing HIVST scales. RESULTS: Twenty MSM and 10 key informants were recruited for phase I in-depth interviews, and 16 of these MSM participated in phase II by completing a syphilis self-test kit. Facilitating factors for self-testing included the potential for increased privacy, convenience, autonomy, and avoidance of social and healthcare provider stigma. Barriers included the fear to test and uncertainty about linkage to care and treatment. Data from the Usability Index suggested high usability (89.6% on a 0-100 scale) among the men who received the self-test. CONCLUSIONS: MSM in Zimbabwe were willing to use syphilis self-test kits and many of the barriers and facilitators were similar to those observed for HIVST. Syphilis self-testing may increase syphilis test uptake among sexual minorities in Zimbabwe and other low-income and middle-income countries.

3.
Sex Transm Infect ; 2021 Apr 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33846277

RESUMO

Population health surveys are rarely comprehensive in addressing sexual health, and population-representative surveys often lack standardised measures for collecting comparable data across countries. We present a sexual health survey instrument and implementation considerations for population-level sexual health research. The brief, comprehensive sexual health survey and consensus statement was developed via a multi-step process (an open call, a hackathon, and a modified Delphi process). The survey items, domains, entire instruments, and implementation considerations to develop a sexual health survey were solicited via a global crowdsourcing open call. The open call received 175 contributions from 49 countries. Following review of submissions from the open call, 18 finalists and eight facilitators with expertise in sexual health research, especially in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs), were invited to a 3-day hackathon to harmonise a survey instrument. Consensus was achieved through an iterative, modified Delphi process that included three rounds of online surveys. The entire process resulted in a 19-item consensus statement and a brief sexual health survey instrument. This is the first global consensus on a sexual and reproductive health survey instrument that can be used to generate cross-national comparative data in both high-income and LMICs. The inclusive process identified priority domains for improvement and can inform the design of sexual and reproductive health programs and contextually relevant data for comparable research across countries.

4.
J Int AIDS Soc ; 24(4): e25697, 2021 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33821553

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The COVID-19 pandemic is impacting HIV care globally, with gaps in HIV treatment expected to increase HIV transmission and HIV-related mortality. We estimated how COVID-19-related disruptions could impact HIV transmission and mortality among men who have sex with men (MSM) in four cities in China, over a one- and five-year time horizon. METHODS: Regional data from China indicated that the number of MSM undergoing facility-based HIV testing reduced by 59% during the COVID-19 pandemic, alongside reductions in ART initiation (34%), numbers of all sexual partners (62%) and consistency of condom use (25%), but initial data indicated no change in viral suppression. A mathematical model of HIV transmission/treatment among MSM was used to estimate the impact of disruptions on HIV infections/HIV-related deaths. Disruption scenarios were assessed for their individual and combined impact over one and five years for 3/4/6-month disruption periods, starting from 1 January 2020. RESULTS: Our model predicted new HIV infections and HIV-related deaths would be increased most by disruptions to viral suppression, with 25% reductions (25% virally suppressed MSM stop taking ART) for a three-month period increasing HIV infections by 5% to 14% over one year and deaths by 7% to 12%. Observed reductions in condom use increased HIV infections by 5% to 14% but had minimal impact (<1%) on deaths. Smaller impacts on infections and deaths (<3%) were seen for disruptions to facility HIV testing and ART initiation, but reduced partner numbers resulted in 11% to 23% fewer infections and 0.4% to 1.0% fewer deaths. Longer disruption periods (4/6 months) amplified the impact of disruption scenarios. When realistic disruptions were modelled simultaneously, an overall decrease in new HIV infections occurred over one year (3% to 17%), but not for five years (1% increase to 4% decrease), whereas deaths mostly increased over one year (1% to 2%) and five years (1.2 increase to 0.3 decrease). CONCLUSIONS: The overall impact of COVID-19 on new HIV infections and HIV-related deaths is dependent on the nature, scale and length of the various disruptions. Resources should be directed to ensuring levels of viral suppression and condom use are maintained to mitigate any adverse effects of COVID-19-related disruption on HIV transmission and control among MSM in China.


Assuntos
/epidemiologia , Infecções por HIV/prevenção & controle , Homossexualidade Masculina , China/epidemiologia , Infecções por HIV/transmissão , Humanos , Masculino , Sexo Seguro
6.
Sex Transm Dis ; 2021 Mar 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33675595

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Sub-Saharan African HIV programs have had limited success in engaging men. Crowdsourcing contests may be a useful method to spur men's engagement in HIV services. We evaluated contributions and social media response to a crowdsourcing contest focused on increasing men's engagement in Eswatini HIV services. METHODS: We conducted a crowdsourcing contest to gain insight from the public on how HIV campaigns can more effectively engage young (20-40 years old) men in HIV services. Eligible submissions included images, songs, videos, and internet memes. We used standard qualitative methods to examine textual themes from submissions. We examined social media response using Facebook analytics, comparing the number of people reached through crowdsourced HIV messages and the number of people reached through conventional HIV messages. RESULTS: We received 144 submissions from 83 participants. They represented 55 towns and all four regions of Eswatini. The contest page gained 461 followers on Facebook. Emergent themes included appealing to men's roles as protectors by suggesting that they need to take care of their own health to continue safeguarding their families. Crowdsourced messages reached a mean of 88 individuals across four posts; conventional messages reached a mean of 75 individuals across four posts. CONCLUSIONS: Crowdsourcing contest submissions provided insight on how to encourage men to engage in Eswatini HIV services. Crowdsourcing contests can be effective in collecting messages from men to create more locally relevant communication materials for HIV programs.

7.
Sex Health ; 18(1): 5-12, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33632381

RESUMO

As donor financial support decreases, ending the HIV epidemic in Asia will require novel and sustainable approaches. Social innovation, a community-engaged process that links social change and health improvement, may be useful for helping to end the HIV epidemic in Asia. A scoping review to examine social innovation strategies in sexual health for the Asian region was conducted. The research identified focused on three types of social innovation: (1) microfinance; (2) social entrepreneurship; and (3) social enterprise. Microfinance provides financial opportunities (e.g. banking services, job opportunities) to spur local entrepreneurship and healthier behaviours. Social entrepreneurship uses business principles and tools (e.g. crowdsourcing, human-centred design) to improve health. Social enterprise is a business with a social mission. Further research is needed to measure the efficacy and cost-effectiveness of social innovation strategies in improving HIV services.

8.
J Int AIDS Soc ; 24(2): e25673, 2021 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33605081

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Given the synergistic relationship between HIV and sexually transmitted infections (STI), the integration of services has the potential to reduce the incidence of both HIV and STIs. We explored the extent to which STI testing has been offered within HIV pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) programmes worldwide. METHODS: We conducted a systematic review of PrEP programmes implementing STI testing services in nine databases. We approached PrEP implementers for additional unpublished data and implementation details. Descriptive statistics were used to present the characteristics of STI testing within PrEP programmes. Content analysis of the input from PrEP implementers was conducted to summarize the barriers to and facilitators of STI testing. RESULTS: Of 9,161 citations, 91 studies conducted in 32 countries were included: 69% from high-income countries (HICs) and 64% from programmes targeting men who have sex with men (MSM) and transgender women (TGW) only. The majority of programmes (70%, 64/91) conducted STI testing before the initiation of PrEP. The most common STIs tested were gonorrhoea (86%, 78/91), chlamydia (84%, 76/91) and syphilis (84%, 76/91). The majority provided STI testing at three-month intervals (70%, 53/76, for syphilis; 70% 53/78, for chlamydia; 68%, 53/78, for gonorrhoea). Relative to low- and middle-income countries (LMICs), a higher proportion of PrEP programmes in HICs offered testing for gonorrhoea (92% vs. 71%, p < 0.05), chlamydia (92% vs. 64%, p < 0.01), syphilis (87% vs. 75%, p < 0.05), hepatitis A (18% vs. 4%, p < 0.05) and hepatitis C (43% vs. 21%, p < 0.05); offered testing for a higher number of STIs (mean 3.75 vs. 3.04, p < 0.05); and offered triple (throat, genital/urine and anorectal) anatomical site screening (54% vs. 18%, p < 0.001). Common implementation challenges included costs, access to STI diagnostics, programme logistics of integrating STI testing into PrEP delivery models and lack of capacity building for staff involved in PrEP provision. CONCLUSIONS: Significant gaps and challenges remain in the provision of STI testing services within HIV PrEP programmes. We recommend more active integration of STI testing and management into PrEP programmes, supported by standardized practice guidelines, staff capacity building training and adequate funding. This could lead to improved sexual health and HIV outcomes in key populations.

9.
J Int AIDS Soc ; 24(2): e25666, 2021 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33569913

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Youth engagement in HIV research is generally recognized as essential, but often neglected or minimally implemented in practice. Engagement is a process of working collaboratively with diverse groups of people to address common issues. We conducted a scoping review of youth HIV prevention interventions in sub-Saharan Africa to identify and categorize forms and levels of youth engagement across the lifespan of intervention research. METHODS: We followed Arksey and O'Malley's framework for organizing a scoping review. We searched seven databases for related articles on identified intervention studies through May 28th 2020. Included studies focused on youth (10 to 24 years old) HIV prevention interventions in sub-Saharan Africa. Two reviewers independently examined citations and full manuscripts for inclusion. Data were extracted on study characteristics, location, description of youth engagement and extent of engagement. Youth engagement approaches were categorized based on Hart's ladder as substantial engagement (strong youth decision-making power), moderate engagement (shared decision making with adults), minimal engagement (no youth decision-making power) or no engagement. RESULTS: We identified 3149 citations and included 112 studies reporting on 74 unique HIV interventions. Twenty-two interventions were in low-income countries, 49 in middle-income countries, and three were in both. Overall, only nine interventions (12%) had substantial or moderate youth engagement, two-thirds (48, 65%) had minimal youth engagement and 17 interventions (23%) had no youth engagement. We also identified specific engagement strategies (e.g. youth-led research, crowdsourcing) that were feasible in multiple settings and resulted in substantial engagement. CONCLUSIONS: We found limited youth engagement in youth HIV prevention intervention studies in sub-Saharan Africa. However, several activities resulted in substantial youth engagement and could be relevant in many low-and-middle-income-country (LMIC) settings.

10.
HIV Med ; 2021 Jan 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33511687

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: An intervention developed through participatory crowdsourcing methods increased HIV self-testing among men who have sex with men [MSM; relative risk (RR) = 1.89]. We estimated the long-term impact of this intervention on HIV transmission among MSM in four cities (Guangzhou, Shenzhen, Jinan and Qingdao). METHODS: A mathematical model of HIV transmission, testing and treatment among MSM in China was parameterized using city-level demographic and sexual behaviour data and calibrated to HIV prevalence, diagnosis and antiretroviral therapy (ART) coverage data. The model was used to project the HIV infections averted over 20 years (2016-2036) from the intervention to increase self-testing, compared with current testing rates. RESULTS: Running the intervention once would avert < 2.2% infections over 20 years. Repeating the intervention (RR = 1.89) annually would avert 6.4-10.7% of new infections, while further increases in the self-testing rate (hypothetical RR = 3) would avert 11.7-20.7% of new infections. CONCLUSIONS: Repeated annual interventions would give a three- to seven-fold increase in long-term impact compared with a one-off intervention. Other interventions will be needed to more effectively reduce the HIV burden in this population.

11.
Syst Rev ; 10(1): 37, 2021 01 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33485393

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Global responses to the COVID-19 pandemic have exposed and exacerbated existing socioeconomic and health inequities that disproportionately affect the sexual health and well-being of many populations, including people of color, ethnic minority groups, women, and sexual and gender minority populations. Although there have been several reviews published on COVID-19 and health disparities across various populations, none has focused on sexual health. We plan to conduct a scoping review that seeks to fill several of the gaps in the current knowledge of sexual health in the COVID-19 era. METHODS: A scoping review focusing on sexual health and COVID-19 will be conducted. We will search (from January 2020 onwards) CINAHL, Africa-Wide Information, Web of Science Core Collection, Embase, Gender Studies Database, Gender Watch, Global Health, WHO Global Literature on Coronavirus Disease Database, WHO Global Index Medicus, PsycINFO, MEDLINE, and Sociological Abstracts. Grey literature will be identified using Disaster Lit, Google Scholar, governmental websites, and clinical trials registries (e.g., ClinicalTrial.gov , World Health Organization, International Clinical Trials Registry Platform, and International Standard Randomized Controlled Trial Number Registry). Study selection will conform to the Joanna Briggs Institute Reviewers' Manual 2015 Methodology for JBI Scoping Reviews. Only English language, original studies will be considered for inclusion. Two reviewers will independently screen all citations, full-text articles, and abstract data. A narrative summary of findings will be conducted. Data analysis will involve quantitative (e.g., frequencies) and qualitative (e.g., content and thematic analysis) methods. DISCUSSION: Original research is urgently needed to mitigate the risks of COVID-19 on sexual health. The planned scoping review will help to address this gap. SYSTEMATIC REVIEW REGISTRATIONS: Systematic Review Registration: Open Science Framework osf/io/PRX8E.


Assuntos
/enzimologia , Grupos Étnicos , Pandemias , Saúde Sexual , Minorias Sexuais e de Gênero , /psicologia , Feminino , Saúde Global , Humanos , Masculino , Grupos Minoritários
12.
AIDS Behav ; 25(6): 1984-1992, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33471242

RESUMO

We assessed if same-sex sexual behavior disclosure of index men who have sex with men (MSM) was related to number of HIV self-testing (HIVST) kits requested by index participants, and number of test results successfully uploaded by alters in a network-based HIVST intervention. Index participants are men who accessed and distributed HIVST kits and alters are index's social contacts who received kits. We analyzed treatment arm data [N = 106, mean age = 27 (SD = 5.3)] of an intervention conducted among MSM in Guangzhou, China, May 2019-December 2019. Index MSM who disclosed sexual behavior to their family tended to request more kits [adjusted incidence rate ratio (aIRR) 1.42, 95% CI 1.06, 1.90, p < .05]. Index men who disclosed sexual behavior to their family (aIRR 2.47, 95% CI 1.17, 5.24, p < .05) tended to yield an increase in number of alter test results uploaded. Findings have implications for the development of network-based interventions for key populations.


Assuntos
Infecções por HIV , Minorias Sexuais e de Gênero , Adulto , China/epidemiologia , Revelação , Feminino , Infecções por HIV/diagnóstico , Infecções por HIV/prevenção & controle , Homossexualidade Masculina , Humanos , Masculino , Comportamento Sexual , Rede Social
13.
BMC Public Health ; 21(1): 67, 2021 01 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33413246

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: HIV self-testing (HIVST) provides young people with a convenient, discreet, and empowering way to know their HIV status. However, there is limited knowledge of young people's preferences for HIVST services and potential factors that may influence the uptake of HIVST among this population. The purpose of this research was to use qualitative methods to examine HIVST preferences among Nigerian youth. METHODS: Semi-structured in-depth interviews with a purposive sample of young people 14-24 years old were conducted in Lagos, Nigeria. Data were analyzed thematically to identify themes and domains related to preferences and factors influencing the use of HIV self-testing. RESULTS: A total of 65 youth with mean age of 21 years, were interviewed, and the majority were females (56%). Four themes emerged as the most important characteristics that may influence young people's preferences for HIV self-testing: 1) Cost (i.e. majority of participants noted that they would pay between NGN500 to NGN1,500 naira (USD1.38-USD4.16) for oral HIV self-testing kits); 2) Testing method (i.e. although blood-based sample kits were more popular than oral-based self-testing kits, most preferred the oral-based option due to its perceived benefits and for some, phobia of needles); 3) Access location (i.e. participants suggested they preferred to obtain the HIVST kits from youth-friendly centers, pharmacies, private health facilities, and online stores); and 4) Continuing care and support (i.e. participants highlighted the importance of linkage to care with trained youth health workers for positive or negative test results or toll-free helpline). CONCLUSION: HIV self-testing preferences among Nigerian youth appear to be influenced by several factors including lower cost, less invasive testing method, location of testing, and linkage to care and support post testing. Findings underscore the need to address young people's HIV self-testing preferences as a foundation for implementing programs and research to increase the uptake of HIVST.

16.
Lancet HIV ; 7(12): e844-e852, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33275917

RESUMO

Adolescents in low and middle-income countries (LMICs) have a high prevalence of HIV, therefore, it is important that they are included in HIV research. However, ethical challenges regarding consent can hinder adolescent research participation. We examined examples from the Prevention and Treatment Through a Comprehensive Care Continuum for HIV-affected Adolescents in Resource Constrained Settings (PATC3H) research consortium, which investigates adolescent HIV prevention and treatment in seven LMICs: Brazil, Kenya, Mozambique, Nigeria, South Africa, Uganda, and Zambia. PATC3H researchers were asked to identify ethical and practical challenges of adolescent consent to research participation in these countries. We also did a scoping review of strategies that could improve adolescent participation in LMIC HIV studies. Examples from PATC3H research highlighted many ethical challenges that affect adolescent participation, including inconsistent or absent consent guidance, guidelines that fail to account for the full array of adolescents' lives, and variation in how ethical review committees assess adolescent studies. Our scoping review identified three consent-related strategies to expand adolescent inclusion: waiving parental consent requirements, allowing adolescents to independently consent, and implementing surrogate decision making. Our analyses suggest that these strategies should be further explored and incorporated into ethical and legal research guidance to increase adolescent inclusion in LMIC HIV research.

17.
Trials ; 21(1): 931, 2020 Nov 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33203449

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Men who have sex with men (MSM) are an important HIV key population in China. However, HIV testing rates among MSM remain suboptimal. Digital crowdsourced media interventions may be a useful tool to reach this marginalized population. We define digital crowdsourced media as using social media, mobile phone applications, Internet, or other digital approaches to disseminate messages developed from crowdsourcing contests. The proposed cluster randomized controlled trial (RCT) study aims to assess the effectiveness of a digital crowdsourced intervention to increase HIV testing uptake and decrease risky sexual behaviors among Chinese MSM. METHODS: A two-arm, cluster-randomized controlled trial will be implemented in eleven cities (ten clusters) in Shandong Province, China. Targeted study participants will be 250 MSM per arm and 50 participants per cluster. MSM who are 18 years old or above, live in the study city, have not been tested for HIV in the past 3 months, are not living with HIV or have never been tested for HIV, and are willing to provide informed consent will be enrolled. Participants will be recruited through banner advertisements on Blued, the largest gay dating app in China, and in-person at community-based organizations (CBOs). The intervention includes a series of crowdsourced intervention materials (24 images and four short videos about HIV testing and safe sexual behaviors) and HIV self-test services provided by the study team. The intervention was developed through a series of participatory crowdsourcing contests before this study. The self-test kits will be sent to the participants in the intervention group at the 2nd and 3rd follow-ups. Participants will be followed up quarterly during the 12-month period. The primary outcome will be self-reported HIV testing uptake at 12 months. Secondary outcomes will include changes in condomless sex, self-test efficacy, social network engagement, HIV testing social norms, and testing stigma. DISCUSSION: Innovative approaches to HIV testing among marginalized population are urgently needed. Through this cluster randomized controlled trial, we will evaluate the effectiveness of a digital crowdsourced intervention, improving HIV testing uptake among MSM and providing a resource in related public health fields. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ChiCTR1900024350 . Registered on 6 July 2019.

18.
medRxiv ; 2020 Nov 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33173931

RESUMO

While social innovations in health have shown promise in closing the healthcare delivery gap, especially in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs), more research is needed to evaluate, scale up, and sustain social innovations. Research checklists can standardize and improve reporting of research findings, promote transparency, and increase replicability of study results and findings. This article describes the development of a 17-item social innovation in health research checklist to assess and report social innovation projects and provides examples of good reporting. The checklist is adapted from the TIDieR checklist and will facilitate more complete and transparent reporting and increase end user engagement. Summary points: While many social innovations have been developed and shown promise in closing the healthcare delivery gap, more research is needed to evaluate social innovationThe Social Innovation in Health Research Checklist, the first of its kind, is a 17-item checklist to improve reporting completeness and promote transparency in the development, implementation, and evaluation of social innovations in healthThe research checklist was developed through a three-step process, including a global open call for ideas, a scoping review, and a three-round modified Delphi processUse of this research checklist will enable researchers, innovators and partners to learn more about the process and results of social innovation in health research.

19.
Open Forum Infect Dis ; 7(10): ofaa360, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33072806

RESUMO

Background: Most people around the world do not have access to facility-based diagnostic testing, and the gap in availability of diagnostic tests is a major public health challenge. Self-testing, self-sampling, and institutional testing outside conventional clinical settings are transforming infectious disease diagnostic testing in a wide range of low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). We examined the delivery models of infectious disease diagnostic testing outside clinics to assess the impact on test uptake and linkage to care. Methods: We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis, searching 6 databases and including original research manuscripts comparing testing outside clinics with conventional testing. The main outcomes were test uptake and linkage to care, delivery models, and adverse outcomes. Data from studies with similar interventions and outcomes within thematic areas of interest were pooled, and the quality of evidence was assessed using GRADE. This study was registered in PROSPERO (CRD42019140828).We identified 10 386 de-duplicated citations, and 76 studies were included. Data from 18 studies were pooled in meta-analyses. Studies focused on HIV (48 studies), chlamydia (8 studies), and multiple diseases (20 studies). HIV self-testing increased test uptake compared with facility-based testing (9 studies: pooled odds ratio [OR], 2.59; 95% CI, 1.06-6.29; moderate quality). Self-sampling for sexually transmitted infections increased test uptake compared with facility-based testing (7 studies: pooled OR, 1.74; 95% CI, 0.97-3.12; moderate quality). Conclusions. Testing outside of clinics increased test uptake without significant adverse outcomes. These testing approaches provide an opportunity to expand access and empower patients. Further implementation research, scale-up of effective service delivery models, and policies in LMIC settings are needed.

20.
BMC Infect Dis ; 20(1): 732, 2020 Oct 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33028241

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Adolescent sexual debut and non-consensual sex have been linked to higher sexual risk and STI infection in adulthood among men who have sex with men (MSM) in high-income countries. This study aimed to examine adolescent and non-consensual anal sexual debut among Chinese MSM and to evaluate factors associated with adolescent sexual debut and non-consensual anal sex. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted recently among Chinese men assigned male sex at birth, ≥18 years old, and who had ever engaged in anal sex with a man. Participants answered questions regarding socio-demographics, condomless sex, age at anal sexual debut with a man, and whether the first anal sex was consensual. Factors associated with an adolescent sexual debut (< 18 years old) and non-consensual sex at sexual debut were evaluated. We defined adolescent sexual debut as having anal sex with another man at 17 years old or younger, and the participants were asked whether their first male-to-male anal sex was non-consensual. RESULTS: Overall, 2031 eligible men completed the survey. The mean age of sexual debut was 20.7 (SD = 4.3) years old. 17.6% (358/2031) of men reported adolescent sexual debut, and 5.0% (101/2031) reported a non-consensual sexual debut. The adolescent sexual debut was associated with having more male sexual partners (adjusted OR 1.10, 95% CI 1.06-1.15) and condomless anal sex in the last three months (AOR = 1.71, 95% CI 1.34-2.18). MSM whose sexual debut was non-consensual were more likely to have condomless anal sex (AOR = 1.76, 95% CI 1.17-2.66), and to have reported an adolescent sexual debut (AOR = 2.72, 95% CI 1.75-4.21). CONCLUSIONS: Many Chinese MSM reported adolescent sexual debut and non-consensual sex, both of which are associated with sexual risk behaviors and drive STI transmission. These findings highlight the need for designing tailored interventions for MSM who experienced adolescent sexual debut and non-consensual sex at debut.


Assuntos
Homossexualidade Masculina/estatística & dados numéricos , Comportamento Sexual/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Adulto , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Asiático , China , Preservativos , Estudos Transversais , Infecções por HIV/patologia , Humanos , Masculino , Razão de Chances , Assunção de Riscos , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
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