Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 56
Filtrar
1.
Arch Pathol Lab Med ; 145(2): 222-226, 2021 02 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33501497

RESUMO

CONTEXT.­: The Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) cancer registry program is currently evaluating the use of archival, diagnostic, formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tissue obtained through SEER cancer registries, functioning as honest brokers for deidentified tissue and associated data. To determine the feasibility of this potential program, laboratory policies for sharing tissue for research needed to be assessed. OBJECTIVE.­: To understand the willingness of pathology laboratories to share archival diagnostic tissue for cancer research and related policies. DESIGN.­: Seven SEER registries administered a 27-item questionnaire to pathology laboratories within their respective registry catchment areas. Only laboratories that processed diagnostic FFPE specimens and completed the questionnaire were included in the analysis. RESULTS.­: Of the 153 responding laboratories, 127 (83%) responded that they process FFPE specimens. Most (n = 88; 69%) were willing to share tissue specimens for research, which was not associated with the number of blocks processed per year by the laboratories. Most laboratories retained the specimens for at least 10 years. Institutional regulatory policies on sharing deidentified tissue varied considerably, ranging from requiring a full Institutional Review Board review to considering such use exempt from Institutional Review Board review, and 43% (55 of 127) of the laboratories did not know their terms for sharing tissue for research. CONCLUSIONS.­: This project indicated a general willingness of pathology laboratories to participate in research by sharing FFPE tissue. Given the variability of research policies across laboratories, it is critical for each SEER registry to work with laboratories in their catchment area to understand such policies and state legislation regulating tissue retention and guardianship.

2.
J Rural Health ; 2020 Nov 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33210370

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To determine differences in exceptional survival (ES)-survival of 5 years or more past diagnosis-between stage IV non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients residing in the Appalachian versus non-Appalachian regions of Kentucky. METHODS: This was a population-based, retrospective case-control study of Kentucky patients, diagnosed with stage IV NSCLC between January 1, 2000, and December 31, 2011. The data were drawn from the Kentucky Cancer Registry. FINDINGS: Findings from the multivariable logistic regression revealed no significant differences in the odds of ES between patients who resided in Appalachian versus non-Appalachian Kentucky. Being female and undergoing surgery only as the first course of treatment were associated with higher odds of ES. Increasing age, unspecified histology, having poorly differentiated or undifferentiated carcinomas, and receiving radiation therapy only as the first course of treatment were associated with decreased odds of ES. CONCLUSION: Differences in the odds of ES among stage IV NSCLC patients were not related to residence in Appalachian versus non-Appalachian Kentucky. ES was associated with other nongenetic and treatment factors that warrant further investigations.

4.
Ann Surg Oncol ; 2020 Jul 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32712893

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cancer patients treated in community hospitals receive less guideline-recommended care and experience poorer outcomes than those treated in academic medical centers or National Cancer Institute-Designated Cancer Centers. The Markey Cancer Center Affiliate Network (MCCAN) was designed to address this issue in Kentucky, the state with the highest cancer incidence and mortality rates in the U.S. METHODS: Using data obtained from the Kentucky Cancer Registry, the study evaluated the impact of patients treated in MCCAN hospitals on four evidence-based Commission on Cancer (CoC) quality measures using a before-and-after matched-cohort study design. Each group included 13 hospitals matched for bed size, cancer patient volume, community population, and region (Appalachian vs. non-Appalachian). Compliance with quality measures was assessed for the 3 years before the hospital joined MCCAN (T1) and the 3 years afterward (T2). RESULTS: In T1, the control hospitals demonstrated greater compliance with two quality measures than the MCCAN hospitals. In T2, the MCCAN hospitals achieved greater compliance in three measures than the control hospitals. From T1 to T2, the MCCAN hospitals significantly increased compliance on three measures (vs. 1 measure for the control hospitals). Although most of the hospitals were not accredited by the CoC in T1, 92% of the MCCAN hospitals had achieved accreditation by the end of T2 compared with 23% of the control hospitals. CONCLUSION: After the MCCAN hospitals joined the Network, their compliance with quality measures and achievement of CoC accreditation increased significantly compared with the control hospitals. The unique academic/community-collaboration model provided by MCCAN was able to make a significant impact on improvement of cancer care. Future research is needed to adapt and evaluate similar interventions in other states and regions.

5.
Arch Pathol Lab Med ; 2020 Jun 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32496836

RESUMO

CONTEXT.­: The Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) cancer registry program is currently evaluating the use of archival, diagnostic, formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tissue obtained through SEER cancer registries, functioning as honest brokers for deidentified tissue and associated data. To determine the feasibility of this potential program, laboratory policies for sharing tissue for research needed to be assessed. OBJECTIVE.­: To understand the willingness of pathology laboratories to share archival diagnostic tissue for cancer research and related policies. DESIGN.­: Seven SEER registries administered a 27-item questionnaire to pathology laboratories within their respective registry catchment areas. Only laboratories that processed diagnostic FFPE specimens and completed the questionnaire were included in the analysis. RESULTS.­: Of the 153 responding laboratories, 127 (83%) responded that they process FFPE specimens. Most (n = 88; 69%) were willing to share tissue specimens for research, which was not associated with the number of blocks processed per year by the laboratories. Most laboratories retained the specimens for at least 10 years. Institutional regulatory policies on sharing deidentified tissue varied considerably, ranging from requiring a full Institutional Review Board review to considering such use exempt from Institutional Review Board review, and 43% (55 of 127) of the laboratories did not know their terms for sharing tissue for research. CONCLUSIONS.­: This project indicated a general willingness of pathology laboratories to participate in research by sharing FFPE tissue. Given the variability of research policies across laboratories, it is critical for each SEER registry to work with laboratories in their catchment area to understand such policies and state legislation regulating tissue retention and guardianship.

6.
J Surg Oncol ; 121(8): 1191-1200, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32227342

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: A previous analysis of breast cancer care after the 2014 Medicaid expansion in Kentucky demonstrated delays in treatment despite a 12% increase in insurance coverage. This study sought to identify factors associated with treatment delays to better focus efforts for improved breast cancer care. METHODS: The Kentucky Cancer Registry was queried for adult women diagnosed with invasive breast cancer between 2010 and 2016 who underwent up-front surgery. Demographic, tumor, and treatment characteristics were assessed to identify factors independently associated with treatment delays. RESULTS: Among 6225 patients, treatment after Medicaid expansion (odds ratio [OR] = 2.18, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.874-2.535, P < .001), urban residence (OR = 1.362, 95% CI = 1.163-1.594, P < .001), treatment at an academic center (OR = 1.988, 95% CI = 1.610-2.455, P < .001), and breast reconstruction (OR = 3.748, 95% CI = 2.780-5.053, P < .001) were associated with delay from diagnosis to surgery. Delay in postoperative chemotherapy was associated with older age (OR = 1.155,95% CI = 1.002-1.332, P = .0469), low education level (OR = 1.324, 95% CI = 1.164-1.506, P < .001), hormone receptor positivity (OR = 1.375, 95% CI = 1.187-1.593, P < .001), and mastectomy (OR = 1.312, 95% CI = 1.138-1.513, P < .001). Delay in postoperative radiation was associated with younger age (OR = 1.376, 95% CI = 1.370-1.382, P < .001), urban residence (OR = 1.741, 95% CI = 1.732-1.751, P < .001), treatment after Medicaid expansion (OR = 2.007, 95% CI = 1.994-2.021, P < .001), early stage disease (OR = 5.661, 95% CI = 5.640-5.682, P < .001), and mastectomy (OR = 1.884, 95% CI = 1.870-1.898, P < .001). CONCLUSIONS: Patient, tumor, and socioeconomic factors influence the timing of breast cancer treatment. Improving timeliness of treatment will likely require improvements in outreach, education, and healthcare infrastructure.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/terapia , Medicaid/estatística & dados numéricos , Tempo para o Tratamento/estatística & dados numéricos , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Neoplasias da Mama/economia , Neoplasias da Mama/epidemiologia , Quimioterapia Adjuvante , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde , Humanos , Cobertura do Seguro/estatística & dados numéricos , Kentucky/epidemiologia , Modelos Logísticos , Mastectomia , Mastectomia Segmentar , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Radioterapia Adjuvante , Sistema de Registros , Estados Unidos
7.
South Med J ; 113(1): 29-36, 2020 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31897496

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Uterine cancer is the nation's most common gynecologic malignancy, but it is understudied in the geographically and socioeconomically diverse state of Kentucky (KY). Our aim was to assess the frequency, distribution, and survival of uterine corpus malignancies in KY, and specifically the differences between Appalachia (AP) and non-Appalachia (NAP) KY. METHODS: This population-based cohort study used Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results data and the Kentucky Cancer Registry to study uterine corpus malignancy between January 1, 2000 and December 31, 2014. The analysis looked at the incidence between diagnoses in AP and NAP. The evaluation criteria included tumor histology (type I, type II, sarcoma, and mixed uterine malignancy), age, race, smoking status, stage at diagnosis, insurance status, and county of residence at diagnosis. RESULTS: The overall age-adjusted incidence rate and survival are similar for US and KY populations; however, histologic types and distribution differ. Compared with the United States, the incidence of corpus cancers in KY is higher for type I (P = 0.03), but lower for type II (P = 0.003), sarcoma (P = 0.006), and mixed (P < 0.001). AP KY has a higher incidence of type I (P < 0.0001) and mixed malignancy (P = 0.04), younger age at diagnosis (P < 0.0001), larger non-Hispanic white population (P < 0.0001), fewer smokers (P = 0.002), and more uninsured and Medicaid recipients (P < 0.0001) compared with NAP KY. The hazard ratio for death is similar in AP and NAP KY (0.896; 95% confidence interval 0.795-1.009). CONCLUSIONS: Type I and mixed uterine corpus cancers have a higher age-adjusted incidence and a younger age at diagnosis in AP compared with NAP KY.


Assuntos
Disparidades nos Níveis de Saúde , Neoplasias Uterinas/epidemiologia , Adulto , Idoso , Região dos Apalaches/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Kentucky/epidemiologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Programa de SEER , Taxa de Sobrevida , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
8.
Int J Cancer ; 146(3): 861-873, 2020 02 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31037736

RESUMO

Alcohol consumption is an established risk factor for colorectal cancer (CRC). However, while studies have consistently reported elevated risk of CRC among heavy drinkers, associations at moderate levels of alcohol consumption are less clear. We conducted a combined analysis of 16 studies of CRC to examine the shape of the alcohol-CRC association, investigate potential effect modifiers of the association, and examine differential effects of alcohol consumption by cancer anatomic site and stage. We collected information on alcohol consumption for 14,276 CRC cases and 15,802 controls from 5 case-control and 11 nested case-control studies of CRC. We compared adjusted logistic regression models with linear and restricted cubic splines to select a model that best fit the association between alcohol consumption and CRC. Study-specific results were pooled using fixed-effects meta-analysis. Compared to non-/occasional drinking (≤1 g/day), light/moderate drinking (up to 2 drinks/day) was associated with a decreased risk of CRC (odds ratio [OR]: 0.92, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.88-0.98, p = 0.005), heavy drinking (2-3 drinks/day) was not significantly associated with CRC risk (OR: 1.11, 95% CI: 0.99-1.24, p = 0.08) and very heavy drinking (more than 3 drinks/day) was associated with a significant increased risk (OR: 1.25, 95% CI: 1.11-1.40, p < 0.001). We observed no evidence of interactions with lifestyle risk factors or of differences by cancer site or stage. These results provide further evidence that there is a J-shaped association between alcohol consumption and CRC risk. This overall pattern was not significantly modified by other CRC risk factors and there was no effect heterogeneity by tumor site or stage.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Colorretais/etiologia , Etanol/efeitos adversos , Idoso , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/efeitos adversos , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Humanos , Estilo de Vida , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Razão de Chances , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Risco
9.
Adv Nutr ; 11(3): 630-643, 2020 05 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31800007

RESUMO

Some evidence indicates that carotenoids may reduce the risk of bladder cancer (BC), but the association is unclear. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of case-control and cohort studies investigating the relation between carotenoid intake or circulating carotenoid concentrations and BC risk in men and women. All relevant epidemiologic studies were identified by a search of PubMed and Scopus databases, and the Cochrane Library from inception to April 2019 with no restrictions. A random-effects model was used to calculate pooled RRs and their 95% CIs across studies for high compared with low categories of intake or circulating concentrations. We also performed a dose-response meta-analysis using the Greenland and Longnecker method and random-effects models. A total of 22 studies involving 516,740 adults were included in the meta-analysis. The pooled RRs of BC for the highest compared with the lowest category of carotenoid intake and circulating carotenoid concentrations were 0.88 (95% CI: 0.76, 1.03) and 0.36 (95% CI: 0.12, 1.07), respectively. The pooled RR of BC for the highest compared with lowest circulating lutein and zeaxanthin concentrations was 0.53 (95% CI: 0.33, 0.84). Dose-response analysis showed that BC risk decreased by 42% for every 1 mg increase in daily dietary ß-cryptoxanthin intake (RR: 0.58; 95% CI: 0.36, 0.94); by 76% for every 1 µmol/L increase in circulating concentration of α-carotene (RR: 0.24; 95% CI: 0.08, 0.67); by 27% for every 1 µmol/L increase in circulating concentration of ß-carotene (RR: 0.73; 95% CI: 0.57, 0.94); and by 56% for every 1 µmol/L increase in circulating concentrations of lutein and zeaxanthin (RR: 0.44; 95% CI: 0.28, 0.67). Dietary ß-cryptoxanthin intake and circulating concentrations of α-carotene, ß-carotene, and lutein and zeaxanthin were inversely associated with BC risk. The protocol was registered at PROSPERO as CRD42019133240.

10.
Cancer ; 125(21): 3729-3737, 2019 11 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31381143

RESUMO

Population-based cancer registries have improved dramatically over the last 2 decades. These central cancer registries provide a critical framework that can elevate the science of cancer research. There have also been important technical and scientific advances that help to unlock the potential of population-based cancer registries. These advances include improvements in probabilistic record linkage, refinements in natural language processing, the ability to perform genomic sequencing on formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tissue, and improvements in the ability to identify activity levels of many different signaling molecules in FFPE tissue. This article describes how central cancer registries can provide a population-based sample frame that will lead to studies with strong external validity, how central cancer registries can link with public and private health insurance claims to obtain complete treatment information, how central cancer registries can use informatics techniques to provide population-based rapid case ascertainment, how central cancer registries can serve as a population-based virtual tissue repository, and how population-based cancer registries are essential for guiding the implementation of evidence-based interventions and measuring changes in the cancer burden after the implementation of these interventions.


Assuntos
Neoplasias/diagnóstico , Neoplasias/terapia , Vigilância da População/métodos , Sistema de Registros/estatística & dados numéricos , Pesquisa Biomédica/métodos , Pesquisa Biomédica/estatística & dados numéricos , Fixadores/química , Formaldeído/química , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala/métodos , Humanos , Inclusão em Parafina/métodos , Fixação de Tecidos/métodos
11.
J Community Health ; 44(3): 552-560, 2019 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30767102

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To examine smoking and use of smoking cessation aids among tobacco-associated cancer (TAC) or non-tobacco-associated cancer (nTAC) survivors. Understanding when and if specific types of cessation resources are used can help with planning interventions to more effectively decrease smoking among all cancer survivors, but there is a lack of research on smoking cessation modalities used among cancer survivors. METHODS: Kentucky Cancer Registry data on incident lung, colorectal, pancreatic, breast, ovarian, and prostate cancer cases diagnosed 2007-2011, were linked with health administrative claims data (Medicaid, Medicare, private insurers) to examine the prevalence of smoking and use of smoking cessation aids 1 year prior and 1 year following the cancer diagnosis. TACs included colorectal, pancreatic, and lung cancers; nTAC included breast, ovarian, and prostate cancers. RESULTS: There were 10,033 TAC and 13,670 nTAC survivors. Smoking before diagnosis was significantly higher among TAC survivors (p < 0.0001). Among TAC survivors, smoking before diagnosis was significantly higher among persons who: were males (83%), aged 45-64 (83%), of unknown marital status (84%), had very low education (78%), had public insurance (89%), Medicaid (85%) or were uninsured (84%). Smoking cessation counseling and pharmacotherapy were more common among TAC than nTAC survivors (p < 0.01 and p = 0.05, respectively). DISCUSSION: While smoking cessation counseling and pharmacotherapy were higher among TAC survivors, reducing smoking among all cancer survivors remains a priority, given cancer survivors are at increased risk for subsequent chronic diseases, including cancer. Tobacco cessation among all cancer survivors (not just those with TAC) can help improve prognosis, quality of life and reduce the risk of further disease. Health care providers can recommend for individual, group and telephone counseling and/or pharmacotherapy recommendations. These could also be included in survivorship care plans.


Assuntos
Sobreviventes de Câncer/estatística & dados numéricos , Abandono do Hábito de Fumar/métodos , Fumar/epidemiologia , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Sobreviventes de Câncer/psicologia , Aconselhamento , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prevalência , Qualidade de Vida , Abandono do Hábito de Fumar/psicologia , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Produtos do Tabaco , Estados Unidos , Adulto Jovem
12.
J Registry Manag ; 46(4): 128-132, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32822337

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Rectal squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) is a rare malignancy, and the causal role of human papillomavirus (HPV) in these cancers is thought to be similar to anal cancer. We compared type-specific prevalence of HPV in rectal SCC to anal cancer. In rectal SCC, we evaluated the agreement between HPV prevalence and positivity for p16, a marker of oncogenic activity. METHODS: A stratified random sample of rectal SCCs and anal cancers diagnosed between 2014 and 2015 were identified from 3 statewide cancer registries in Iowa, Kentucky, and Louisiana. HPV testing was performed at the HPV laboratory at the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. HPV types were described using hierarchical attribution to HPV16 and other oncogenic types, weighted for sampling design. In rectal SCC, we computed concordance and Cohen's kappa coefficient (κ) between HPV status and p16 positivity. RESULTS: A total of 39 rectal and 72 anal cancers were analyzed. HPV16 was the most common type in both rectal and anal cancer and did not differ significantly between sites (71.4% vs 82.1%; P = .32). Concordance between the presence of any HPV type and p16 positivity in rectal SCC was 92% with κ = 0.77. CONCLUSIONS: Rectal SCC and anal cancer have similar type-specific HPV prevalence, with HPV16 found most frequently. Substantial agreement between p16 and HPV status in rectal SCC lends additional support for the etiologic role of HPV in both anal and rectal cancer. Larger studies could be conducted to replicate these findings.

13.
Cancer Causes Control ; 30(1): 41-51, 2019 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30488343

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: We evaluated five key proteins involved in various cancer-related pathways and assessed their relation to breast cancer recurrence. METHODS: We used the Kentucky Cancer Registry to retrospectively identify primary invasive breast cancer cases (n = 475) that were diagnosed and treated at University of Kentucky Medical Center between 2000 and 2007. Breast cancer recurrence was observed in 62 cases during the 5-year follow-up after diagnosis. Protein expression or activity level was analyzed from surgery tissue using immuno-histochemical assays. RESULTS: Compared to ER+/PR+/HER2- patients without recurrence, those with recurrence had higher TWIST expression (p = 0.049) but lower ABL1/ABL2 activity (p = 0.003) in primary tumors. We also found that triple-negative breast cancer patients with recurrence had higher SNAI1 expression compared to those without recurrence (p = 0.03). After adjusting for potential confounders, the higher ABL1/ABL2 activity in primary tumors was associated with a decreased risk of recurrence (OR 0.72, 95% CI 0.85-0.90) among ER+/PR+/HER2- patients. In addition, among patients with recurrence we observed that the activity level of ABL1/ABL2 was significantly increased in recurrent tumors compared to the matched primary tumors regardless of the subtype (p = 0.013). CONCLUSIONS: These findings provide evidence that the expression/activity level of various proteins may be differentially associated with risk of recurrence of breast tumor subtypes.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores Tumorais/metabolismo , Neoplasias da Mama/patologia , Neoplasias de Mama Triplo Negativas/patologia , Adulto , Idoso , Neoplasias da Mama/diagnóstico , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia , Receptor ErbB-2/metabolismo , Receptores Estrogênicos/metabolismo , Receptores de Progesterona/metabolismo , Estudos Retrospectivos
14.
South Med J ; 111(10): 579-584, 2018 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30285262

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To confirm the previously reported increased risk of leukemia among macrosomic children (those with birth weight >4 kg). METHODS: Birth certificates of Arizona, Illinois, and Kentucky children diagnosed as having acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) before age 5 years were matched with birth certificates from leukemia-free children of the same sex, race, and ethnicity who were born in the same county on or about the same day. Odds ratios (ORs) for ALL among children of low (<2.5 kg) or high (>4 kg) birth weight were calculated by conditional logistic regression. RESULTS: Children with high birth weight had an elevated risk of ALL in the first 5 years of life (OR 1.28, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.01-1.61). The excess risk was confined to non-Hispanic whites (OR 1.77, 95% CI 1.27-2.48), both boys (OR 1.57, 95% CI 1.01-2.45) and girls (OR 2.10, 95% CI 1.26-3.52). CONCLUSIONS: This study confirms the association between high birth weight and ALL previously reported by other studies in children of European ancestry. The literature on maternal risk factors for both macrosomia and ALL is reviewed, with maternal overnutrition emerging as a plausible risk factor for both outcomes.


Assuntos
Afro-Americanos/estatística & dados numéricos , Peso ao Nascer , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu/estatística & dados numéricos , Macrossomia Fetal/complicações , Hispano-Americanos/estatística & dados numéricos , Leucemia-Linfoma Linfoblástico de Células Precursoras/epidemiologia , Arizona/epidemiologia , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Macrossomia Fetal/etnologia , Humanos , Illinois/epidemiologia , Recém-Nascido , Kentucky/epidemiologia , Masculino
16.
South Med J ; 111(6): 333-341, 2018 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29863220

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Adherence to National Comprehensive Cancer Network (NCCN) guidelines for ovarian cancer treatment improves patient outcomes. The aim of this study was to assess disparities associated with ovarian cancer treatment in the state of Kentucky and central Appalachia. METHODS: Data on patients diagnosed as having ovarian cancer from 2007 through 2011 were extracted from administrative claims-linked Kentucky Cancer Registry data. NCCN compliance was defined by stage, grade, surgical procedure, and chemotherapy. Selection criteria were reviewed carefully to ensure data quality and accuracy. Descriptive analysis, logistic regression, and Cox regression analyses were performed to examine factors associated with guidelines compliance and survival. RESULTS: Most women were aged 65 years or older (62.5%) and had high-grade (65.9%) and advanced-stage (61.0%) ovarian cancer. Two-thirds of cases (65.9%) received NCCN-recommended treatment for ovarian cancer. The hazard ratio of death for women who did not receive NCCN-compliant care was 62% higher compared with the women who did receive NCCN-compliant treatment. Results from the logistic regression showed that NCCN-compliant treatment was more likely for women aged 65 to 74 years compared with women aged 20 to 49 years, late-stage compared with early-stage cancers, receipt of care at tertiary care hospitals, and privately insured compared with Medicaid or Medicare. CONCLUSIONS: When the treatment of ovarian cancer did not follow NCCN recommendations, patients had a significantly higher risk of death. Women were less likely to receive NCCN-compliant care if they were younger (20-49 years), had early-stage disease, did not have private insurance, or had care provided at a nontertiary care hospital.


Assuntos
Fatores Etários , Fidelidade a Diretrizes/normas , Neoplasias Ovarianas/terapia , Adulto , Idoso , Região dos Apalaches/epidemiologia , Feminino , Fidelidade a Diretrizes/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Kentucky/epidemiologia , Modelos Logísticos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neoplasias Ovarianas/epidemiologia , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Sistema de Registros/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Resultado do Tratamento
17.
J Am Coll Surg ; 226(4): 498-504, 2018 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29449123

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In January 2014, Kentucky expanded Medicaid coverage to include all individuals and families with incomes up to 33% above the federal poverty line. This study evaluated the early impact of Medicaid expansion on some aspects of the quality of breast cancer care in Kentucky. STUDY DESIGN: The Kentucky Cancer Registry was queried for all women aged 20 to 64 years diagnosed with breast cancer between 2011 and 2016. Demographic, tumor, and treatment characteristics were assessed for each year during this interval. To evaluate the association between Medicaid expansion and these parameters, these variables, along with quality metrics deriving from said variables, were compared for the years 2011 to 2013 (pre) and the years 2014 to 2016 (post). RESULTS: Of 13,625 women with breast cancer, 11,915 (59.5%) were diagnosed and treated from 2011 to 2013, and 8,127 (40.5%) were diagnosed and treated from 2014 to 2016. After Medicaid expansion, fewer patients were uninsured (3.7% post vs 1.0% pre) and more were covered by Medicaid (15.9% post vs 10.9% pre) (p < 0.001). There was increased diagnosis of early stage (I and II) breast cancer (p = 0.002) and an increasing proportion of women undergoing breast-conservation therapy (p < 0.001). Time from diagnosis to operation increased (p < 0.001), time from operation to chemotherapy remained unchanged (p = 0.26) and time from operation to radiation decreased (p < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: The expansion of Kentucky Medicaid in 2014 has been associated with earlier diagnosis and somewhat improved quality of breast cancer care, despite a stable disease incidence. Additional improvements in treatment expediency will require improvements in patient outreach and healthcare infrastructure.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/terapia , Cobertura do Seguro , Seguro Saúde , Medicaid , Qualidade da Assistência à Saúde , Adulto , Idoso , Neoplasias da Mama/patologia , Feminino , Humanos , Kentucky , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Estados Unidos , Adulto Jovem
18.
Cancer Causes Control ; 29(2): 279-287, 2018 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29372360

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To develop a composite Cancer Burden Index and produce 95% confidence intervals (CIs) as measures of uncertainties for the index. METHODS: The Kentucky Cancer Registry has developed a cancer burden Rank Sum Index (RSI) to guide statewide comprehensive cancer control activities. However, lack of interval estimates for RSI limits its applications. RSI also weights individual measures with little inherent variability equally as ones with large variability. To address these issues, a Modified Sum Index (MSI) was developed to take into account of magnitudes of observed values. A simulation approach was used to generate individual and simultaneous 95% CIs for the rank MSI. An uncertainty measure was also calculated. RESULTS: At the Area Development Districts (ADDs) level, the ranks of the RSI and the MSI were almost identical, while larger variation was found at the county level. The widths of the CIs at the ADD level were considerably shorter than those at the county level. CONCLUSION: The measures developed for estimating composite cancer burden indices and the simulated CIs provide valuable information to guide cancer prevention and control effort. Caution should be taken when interpreting ranks from small population geographic units where the CIs for the ranks overlap considerably.


Assuntos
Efeitos Psicossociais da Doença , Neoplasias/epidemiologia , Humanos , Sistema de Registros
19.
Cancer ; 123 Suppl 24: 5079-5099, 2017 Dec 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29205305

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Results from the second CONCORD study (CONCORD-2) indicated that 5-year net survival for lung cancer was low (range, 10%-20%) between 1995 and 2009 in most countries, including the United States, which was at the higher end of this range. METHODS: Data from CONCORD-2 were used to analyze net survival among patients with lung cancer (aged 15-99 years) who were diagnosed in 37 states covering 80% of the US population. Survival was corrected for background mortality using state-specific and race-specific life tables and age-standardized using International Cancer Survival Standard weights. Net survival was estimated for patients diagnosed between 2001 and 2003 and between 2004 and 2009 at 1, 3, and 5 years after diagnosis by race (all races, black, and white); Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results Summary Stage 2000; and US state. RESULTS: Five-year net survival increased from 16.4% (95% confidence interval, 16.3%-16.5%) for patients diagnosed 2001-2003 to 19.0% (18.8%-19.1%) for those diagnosed 2004-2009, with increases in most states and among both blacks and whites. Between 2004 and 2009, 5-year survival was lower among blacks (14.9%) than among whites (19.4%) and ranged by state from 14.5% to 25.2%. CONCLUSIONS: Lung cancer survival improved slightly between the periods 2001-2003 and 2004-2009 but was still low, with variation between states, and persistently lower survival among blacks than whites. Efforts to control well established risk factors would be expected to have the greatest impact on reducing the burden of lung cancer, and efforts to ensure that all patients receive timely and appropriate treatment should reduce the differences in survival by race and state. Cancer 2017;123:5079-99. Published 2017. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.


Assuntos
Afro-Americanos/estatística & dados numéricos , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu/estatística & dados numéricos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/mortalidade , Sistema de Registros , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Humanos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/etnologia , Neoplasias Pulmonares/patologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estadiamento de Neoplasias , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
20.
Cancer ; 123 Suppl 24: 5100-5118, 2017 Dec 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29205311

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Reducing breast cancer incidence and achieving equity in breast cancer outcomes remains a priority for public health practitioners, health care providers, policy makers, and health advocates. Monitoring breast cancer survival can help evaluate the effectiveness of health services, quantify inequities in outcomes between states or population subgroups, and inform efforts to improve the effectiveness of cancer management and treatment. METHODS: We analyzed breast cancer survival using individual patient records from 37 statewide registries that participated in the CONCORD-2 study, covering approximately 80% of the US population. Females were diagnosed between 2001 and 2009 and were followed through December 31, 2009. Age-standardized net survival at 1 year, 3 years, and 5 years after diagnosis was estimated by state, race (white, black), stage at diagnosis, and calendar period (2001-2003 and 2004-2009). RESULTS: Overall, 5-year breast cancer net survival was very high (88.2%). Survival remained remarkably high from 2001 through 2009. Between 2001 and 2003, survival was 89.1% for white females and 76.9% for black females. Between 2004 and 2009, survival was 89.6% for white females and 78.4% for black females. CONCLUSIONS: Breast cancer survival was more than 10 percentage points lower for black females than for white females, and this difference persisted over time. Reducing racial disparities in survival remains a challenge that requires broad, coordinated efforts at the federal, state, and local levels. Monitoring trends in breast cancer survival can highlight populations in need of improved cancer management and treatment. Cancer 2017;123:5100-18. Published 2017. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.


Assuntos
Afro-Americanos/estatística & dados numéricos , Neoplasias da Mama/mortalidade , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu/estatística & dados numéricos , Disparidades nos Níveis de Saúde , Sistema de Registros , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Neoplasias da Mama/etnologia , Neoplasias da Mama/patologia , Feminino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estadiamento de Neoplasias , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA