Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 24
Filtrar
Mais filtros










Base de dados
Intervalo de ano de publicação
1.
Rev Sci Instrum ; 90(9): 095107, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31575253

RESUMO

We present a new diamond anvil cell design, hereafter called mBX110, that combines both the advantages of a membrane and screws to generate high pressure. It enables studies at large-scale facilities for many synchrotron X-ray techniques and has the possibility to remotely control the pressure with the membrane as well as the use of the screws in the laboratory. It is fully compatible with various gas-loading systems as well as high/low temperature environments in the lab or at large scale facilities. The mBX110 possesses an opening angle of 85° suitable for single-crystal diffraction or Brillouin spectroscopy and a large side opening of 110° which can be used for X-ray inelastic techniques, such as X-ray Raman scattering spectroscopy, but also for X-ray emission, X-ray fluorescence, or X-ray absorption. An even larger opening of 150° can be manufactured enabling X-ray imaging tomography. We report data obtained with the mBX110 on different beamlines with single-crystal diffraction of stishovite up to 55 GPa, X-ray powder diffraction of rutile-GeO2 and tungsten to 25 GPa and 280 GPa, respectively, X-Ray Raman spectra of the Si L-edge in silica to 95 GPa, and Fe Kß X-ray emission spectra on a basalt glass to 17 GPa.

2.
Part Fibre Toxicol ; 16(1): 33, 2019 08 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31451117

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Allergic reactions to tattoos are amongst the most common side effects occurring with this permanent deposition of pigments into the dermal skin layer. The characterization of such pigments and their distribution has been investigated in recent decades. The health impact of tattoo equipment on the extensive number of people with inked skin has been the focus of neither research nor medical diagnostics. Although tattoo needles contain high amounts of sensitizing elements like nickel (Ni) and chromium (Cr), their influence on metal deposition in skin has never been investigated. RESULTS: Here, we report the deposition of nano- and micrometer sized tattoo needle wear particles in human skin that translocate to lymph nodes. Usually tattoo needles contain nickel (6-8%) and chromium (15-20%) both of which prompt a high rate of sensitization in the general population. As verified in pig skin, wear significantly increased upon tattooing with the suspected abrasive titanium dioxide white when compared to carbon black pigment. Additionally, scanning electron microscopy of the tattoo needle revealed a high wear after tattooing with ink containing titanium dioxide. The investigation of a skin biopsy obtained from a nickel sensitized patient with type IV allergy toward a tattoo showed both wear particles and iron pigments contaminated with nickel. CONCLUSION: Previously, the virtually inevitable nickel contamination of iron pigments was suspected to be responsible for nickel-driven tattoo allergies. The evidence from our study clearly points to an additional entry of nickel to both skin and lymph nodes originating from tattoo needle wear with an as yet to be assessed impact on tattoo allergy formation and systemic sensitization.

4.
Curr Biol ; 29(6): 968-978.e4, 2019 Mar 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30827917

RESUMO

Photosymbiosis between single-celled hosts and microalgae is common in oceanic plankton, especially in oligotrophic surface waters. However, the functioning of this ecologically important cell-cell interaction and the subcellular mechanisms allowing the host to accommodate and benefit from its microalgae remain enigmatic. Here, using a combination of quantitative single-cell structural and chemical imaging techniques (FIB-SEM, nanoSIMS, Synchrotron X-ray fluorescence), we show that the structural organization, physiology, and trophic status of the algal symbionts (the haptophyte Phaeocystis) significantly change within their acantharian hosts compared to their free-living phase in culture. In symbiosis, algal cell division is blocked, photosynthesis is enhanced, and cell volume is increased by up to 10-fold with a higher number of plastids (from 2 to up to 30) and thylakoid membranes. The multiplication of plastids can lead to a 38-fold increase of the total plastid volume in a cell. Subcellular mapping of nutrients (nitrogen and phosphorous) and their stoichiometric ratios shows that symbiotic algae are impoverished in phosphorous and suggests a higher investment in energy-acquisition machinery rather than in growth. Nanoscale imaging also showed that the host supplies a substantial amount of trace metals (e.g., iron and cobalt), which are stored in algal vacuoles at high concentrations (up to 660 ppm). Sulfur mapping reveals a high concentration in algal vacuoles that may be a source of antioxidant molecules. Overall, this study unveils an unprecedented morphological and metabolic transformation of microalgae following their integration into a host, and it suggests that this widespread symbiosis is a farming strategy wherein the host engulfs and exploits microalgae.

5.
Anal Chem ; 89(21): 11435-11442, 2017 Nov 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28994576

RESUMO

Synchrotron radiation phase-contrast computed nanotomography (nano-CT) and two- and three-dimensional (2D and 3D) nanoscopic X-ray fluorescence (nano-XRF) were used to investigate the internal distribution of engineered cobalt nanoparticles (Co NPs) in exposed individuals of the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans. Whole nematodes and selected tissues and organs were 3D-rendered: anatomical 3D renderings with 50 nm voxel size enabled the visualization of spherical nanoparticle aggregates with size up to 200 nm within intact C. elegans. A 20 × 37 nm2 high-brilliance beam was employed to obtain XRF elemental distribution maps of entire nematodes or anatomical details such as embryos, which could be compared with the CT data. These maps showed Co NPs to be predominantly present within the intestine and the epithelium, and they were not colocalized with Zn granules found in the lysosome-containing vesicles or Fe agglomerates in the intestine. Iterated XRF scanning of a specimen at 0° and 90° angles suggested that NP aggregates were translocated into tissues outside of the intestinal lumen. Virtual slicing by means of 2D XRF tomography, combined with holotomography, indicated presumable presence of individual NP aggregates inside the uterus and within embryos.

6.
Sci Rep ; 7(1): 11395, 2017 Sep 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28900193

RESUMO

The increasing prevalence of tattoos provoked safety concerns with respect to particle distribution and effects inside the human body. We used skin and lymphatic tissues from human corpses to address local biokinetics by means of synchrotron X-ray fluorescence (XRF) techniques at both the micro (µ) and nano (ν) scale. Additional advanced mass spectrometry-based methodology enabled to demonstrate simultaneous transport of organic pigments, heavy metals and titanium dioxide from skin to regional lymph nodes. Among these compounds, organic pigments displayed the broadest size range with smallest species preferentially reaching the lymph nodes. Using synchrotron µ-FTIR analysis we were also able to detect ultrastructural changes of the tissue adjacent to tattoo particles through altered amide I α-helix to ß-sheet protein ratios and elevated lipid contents. Altogether we report strong evidence for both migration and long-term deposition of toxic elements and tattoo pigments as well as for conformational alterations of biomolecules that likely contribute to cutaneous inflammation and other adversities upon tattooing.

7.
J Pharm Biomed Anal ; 131: 256-262, 2016 Nov 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27611097

RESUMO

There is increasing interest in the treatment of advanced stage ovarian cancer (OC) using intraperitoneal (IP) delivery of platinum (Pt)-based chemotherapy. The antitumor efficacy of IP chemotherapy is determined by efficient tumor tissue penetration. Although it is assumed that Pt penetration is limited to a few millimeters after IP delivery, little is known on the distribution of Pt in different tumor compartments at the ultrastructural level following IP administration. Here, using synchrotron radiation X-ray fluorescence spectrometry (SR-XRF) and laser ablation-inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS), Pt distribution and penetration in OC peritoneal xenografts were determined at nanometer scale after IP chemoperfusion of cisplatin at 37-38°C or 40-41°C (hyperthermic). Using principal component analysis (PCA) the presence of phosphorus, manganese, calcium, zinc, iron, bromine, and sulfur was correlated with the distribution of Pt, while k-means analysis was used to quantify the amount of Pt in weight% in tumor stroma and in tumor cells. The results showed a heterogeneous distribution of Pt throughout the tumor, with an accumulation in the extracellular matrix. LA-ICP-MS mappings indicated significantly higher concentrations of Pt (P=0.0062) after hyperthermic chemoperfusion of cisplatin, while SR-XRF demonstrated a deeper tissue Pt penetration after hyperthermic treatment. Using PCA, it was showed that Pt co-localizes with bromine and sulfur. No differences were observed in Pt distribution regarding tumor cells and stroma, when comparing normo- vs. hyperthermic treatment. In conclusion, SR-XRF and LA-ICP-MS are suitable and highly sensitive techniques to analyze the penetration depth and distribution of Pt-based drugs after IP administration. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first experiment in which the distribution of Pt is analyzed at the cellular level after IP administration of cisplatin.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Ovarianas/ultraestrutura , Platina/farmacocinética , Animais , Cálcio/farmacocinética , Cisplatino/farmacocinética , Cobre/farmacocinética , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Feminino , Febre/metabolismo , Xenoenxertos/metabolismo , Xenoenxertos/ultraestrutura , Injeções Intraperitoneais , Espectrometria de Massas/métodos , Camundongos , Neoplasias Ovarianas/metabolismo , Fósforo/farmacocinética , Espectrometria por Raios X/métodos , Enxofre/farmacocinética , Distribuição Tecidual , Zinco/farmacocinética
8.
Environ Sci Technol ; 50(19): 10721-10729, 2016 10 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27676331

RESUMO

Humans are contaminated by mercury in different forms from different sources. In practice, contamination by methylmercury from fish consumption is assessed by measuring hair mercury concentration, whereas exposure to elemental and inorganic mercury from other sources is tested by analysis of blood or urine. Here, we show that diverse sources of hair mercury at concentrations as low as 0.5 ppm can be individually identified by specific coordination to C, N, and S ligands with high energy-resolution X-ray absorption spectroscopy. Methylmercury from seafood, ethylmercury used as a bactericide, inorganic mercury from dental amalgams, and exogenously derived atmospheric mercury bind in distinctive intermolecular configurations to hair proteins, as supported by molecular modeling. A mercury spike located by X-ray nanofluorescence on one hair strand could even be dated to removal of a single dental amalgam. Chemical forms of other known or putative toxic metals in human tissues could be identified by this approach with potential broader applications to forensic, energy, and materials science.


Assuntos
Monitoramento Ambiental , Mercúrio , Animais , Peixes/metabolismo , Contaminação de Alimentos , Cabelo/química , Humanos , Compostos de Metilmercúrio , Alimentos Marinhos
9.
Sci Rep ; 6: 29999, 2016 07 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27444797

RESUMO

Ovarian cancer is amongst the most common types of cancer in women, with a relatively low overall cure rate of approximately 30%. This is therefore an important incentive to urge for further research in order to maximize the chances of survival for these patients. Intraperitoneal chemotherapy with Cisplatin is an effective treatement for ovarian cancer; however, many questions still remain concerning the ideal treatment protocol and tumor resistance towards the drug, which should be resolved for optimal application of this therapy. For the first time in-vivo grown tumors treated with both hyper- and normothermic intraperitoneal chemotherapy have been studied using nano-XRF spectroscopy to examine the platinum (Pt) distribution within the analyzed tissues. These measurements prove Pt resides predominantly outsides the cancer cells in the stroma of the tissue. These findings indicate the resistance mechanism of the cancer cells prevents Cisplatin from diffusing through their cell membranes. This is an important addition to the existing knowledge on the resistance mechanism providing insights which might help to overcome this effect. In our aim to find the optimal treatment protocol, no significant differences were found between the two examined procedures. A more extensive data set will be needed to draw definite conclusions.


Assuntos
Cisplatino/uso terapêutico , Diagnóstico por Imagem/métodos , Nanotecnologia , Neoplasias Ovarianas/diagnóstico , Neoplasias Ovarianas/tratamento farmacológico , Animais , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Simulação por Computador , Mineração de Dados , Feminino , Fluorescência , Injeções Intraperitoneais , Camundongos Nus , Método de Monte Carlo , Neoplasias Ovarianas/patologia , Platina/uso terapêutico , Raios X
10.
J Synchrotron Radiat ; 23(1): 344-52, 2016 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26698084

RESUMO

Within the framework of the ESRF Phase I Upgrade Programme, a new state-of-the-art synchrotron beamline ID16B has been recently developed for hard X-ray nano-analysis. The construction of ID16B was driven by research areas with major scientific and societal impact such as nanotechnology, earth and environmental sciences, and bio-medical research. Based on a canted undulator source, this long beamline provides hard X-ray nanobeams optimized mainly for spectroscopic applications, including the combination of X-ray fluorescence, X-ray diffraction, X-ray excited optical luminescence, X-ray absorption spectroscopy and 2D/3D X-ray imaging techniques. Its end-station re-uses part of the apparatus of the earlier ID22 beamline, while improving and enlarging the spectroscopic capabilities: for example, the experimental arrangement offers improved lateral spatial resolution (∼50 nm), a larger and more flexible capability for in situ experiments, and monochromatic nanobeams tunable over a wider energy range which now includes the hard X-ray regime (5-70 keV). This paper describes the characteristics of this new facility, short-term technical developments and the first scientific results.

11.
Anal Chem ; 86(24): 12369-74, 2014 Dec 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25395119

RESUMO

The new ESRF ID16B-NA Nanoanalysis beamline has been applied for the first time for XRF imaging with a resolution level down to a few tens of nanometers on rare geological materials: meteoritic fragments from achondrite NWA 6693 and diamond inclusions. The instrument proved to be an extremely valuable tool for mapping samples containing submicrometer heterogeneities. It was discovered that the track of bubblelike inclusions in NWA 6693 consists mainly of Cr-rich phases. Some inclusions containing Ni and Ca were also detected. In diamond SL05, originating from the Juina region in Brazil, multiple inclusions were analyzed with dimensions smaller than 1 µm. Raman spectrometry measurements indicated the presence of a ringwoodite inclusion in this diamond; the detection of several iron-rich inclusions justifies further investigation of this material.

12.
Nano Lett ; 14(10): 5479-87, 2014 Oct 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25181032

RESUMO

Crossed nanowire structures are the basis for high-density integration of a variety of nanodevices. Owing to the critical role of nanowires intersections in creating hybrid architectures, it has become a challenge to investigate the local structure in crossing points in metal oxide nanowires. Thus, if intentionally grown crossed nanowires are well-patterned, an ideal model to study the junction is formed. By combining electron and synchrotron beam nanoprobes, we show here experimental evidence of the role of impurities in the coupling formation, structural modifications, and atomic site configuration based on crossed Ga2O3/SnO2 nanowires. Our experiment opens new avenues for further local structure studies with both nanometer resolution and elemental sensitivity.

13.
Adv Mater ; 26(46): 7873-9, 2014 Dec 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24677416

RESUMO

Semiconductor nanowires offer new opportunities for optoelectronic and spintronic nanodevices. However, their full potential is ultimately dictated by our ability to control multiple property-function relationships taking place at the nanoscale in the spatial and time domains. Only a combination of high-resolution analytical techniques can provide a comprehensive understanding of their complex functionalities. Here we describe how a multimodal hard X-ray nanoprobe addresses fundamental questions in nanowire research. Selected topics ranging from cluster formation, dopant segregation, and phase separations to quantum confinement effects are investigated with sub-100 nm spatial resolution and sub-50 ps temporal resolution. This approach opens new avenues for structural, composition and optical studies with broad applicability in materials science.

14.
Metallomics ; 5(12): 1674-84, 2013 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24185827

RESUMO

Root cell walls accumulate metal cations both during acquisition from the environment and removal from the protoplast to avoid toxicity, but molecular forms of the metals under field conditions remain elusive. We have identified how copper is bound to cell walls of intact roots of native Thlaspi arvense by combining synchrotron X-ray fluorescence and absorption techniques (XANES and EXAFS) at the nano-, micro-, and bulk scales. The plants grew naturally in sediment in a stormwater runoff basin at copper concentrations typical of urban ecosystems. About 90% of acquired copper is bound in vivo to cell walls as a unique five-coordinate Cu(II)-bis(L-histidinato) complex with one L-histidine behaving as a tridentate ligand (histamine-like chelate) and the other as a bidentate ligand (glycine-like chelate). Tridentate binding of Cu(II) would provide thermodynamic stability to protect cells against copper toxicity, and bidentate binding may enable kinetic lability along the cell wall through protein-protein docking with the non-bonded imidazole group of histidine residues. EXAFS spectra are provided as ESI to facilitate further identification of Cu-histidine and distinction of Cu-N from Cu-O bonds in biomolecules.


Assuntos
Parede Celular/metabolismo , Complexos de Coordenação/metabolismo , Cobre/metabolismo , Histidina/metabolismo , Raízes de Plantas/metabolismo , Thlaspi/metabolismo , Complexos de Coordenação/química , Cobre/química , Ecossistema , Histidina/química , Modelos Moleculares , Thlaspi/citologia
15.
Sci Total Environ ; 423: 176-84, 2012 Apr 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22414495

RESUMO

Several experiments were conducted to evaluate zinc-tolerance of sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) obtained from three environmental samples, two inocula from sulfide-mining districts and another inoculum from a wastewater treatment plant. The populations of SRB resisted zinc concentrations of 260 mg/L for 42 days in a sulfate-rich medium. During the experiments, sulfate was reduced to sulfide and concentrations in solution decreased. Zinc concentrations also decreased from 260 mg/L to values below detection limit. Both decreases were consistent with the precipitation of newly-formed sphalerite and wurtzite, two polymorphs of ZnS, forming <2.5-µm-diameter spherical aggregates identified by microscopy and synchrotron-µ-XRD. Sulfate and zinc are present in high concentrations in acid mine drainage (AMD) even after passive treatments based on limestone dissolution. The implementation of a SRB-based zinc removal step in these systems could completely reduce the mobility of all metals, which would improve the quality of stream sediments, water and soils in AMD-affected landscapes.


Assuntos
Bactérias Anaeróbias/metabolismo , Poluentes Ambientais/química , Resíduos Industriais , Mineração , Nanopartículas/química , Sulfetos/química , Gerenciamento de Resíduos/métodos , Compostos de Zinco/química , Biodegradação Ambiental , Precipitação Química , Oxirredução , Tamanho da Partícula , Zinco/química
16.
J Synchrotron Radiat ; 19(Pt 1): 10-8, 2012 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22186639

RESUMO

The ESRF synchrotron beamline ID22, dedicated to hard X-ray microanalysis and consisting of the combination of X-ray fluorescence, X-ray absorption spectroscopy, diffraction and 2D/3D X-ray imaging techniques, is one of the most versatile instruments in hard X-ray microscopy science. This paper describes the present beamline characteristics, recent technical developments, as well as a few scientific examples from recent years of the beamline operation. The upgrade plans to adapt the beamline to the growing needs of the user community are briefly discussed.


Assuntos
Síncrotrons/instrumentação , Arsenitos/análise , Núcleo Celular/química , Citosol/química , Dano ao DNA/efeitos dos fármacos , Microanálise por Sonda Eletrônica , Complexo de Golgi/fisiologia , Células Hep G2 , Humanos , Manganês/metabolismo , Mitocôndrias/química , Nanopartículas/uso terapêutico , Espectrometria por Raios X/métodos , Espectroscopia por Absorção de Raios X/métodos , Raios X
17.
Environ Sci Technol ; 45(18): 7826-33, 2011 Sep 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21819094

RESUMO

Synchrotron radiation-induced micro-X-ray analysis were applied to characterize the newly formed phases that precipitate in a passive treatment system using magnesium oxide to remove high concentrations of zinc (ca. 440 mg/L) and other minor metals from neutral pretreated waters in the Iberian Pyrite Belt (SW Iberian Peninsula). Micro-X-ray fluorescence (µ-XRF) maps of polished samples were used to find spatial correlations among metals, pinpointing zones of interest where micro-X-ray diffraction (µ-XRD) data were exploited to identify the mineral phases responsible for metal retention. This coupled technique identified hydrozincite (Zn(5)(CO(3))(2)(OH)(6)) and minor loseyite ((Mn,Zn)(7)(CO(3))(2)(OH)(10)) as the mineral sinks for Zn and also other potentially toxic elements such as Co and Ni. Although hydrozincite retains traces of Mn, this metal is mainly retained by precipitation of loseyite. The precipitation of zinc hydroxy-carbonates and their ability to uptake other metals (Mn, Co, and Ni) is hence of potential interest not only for the treatment of contaminated waters but also for the generation of a solid waste that could be exploited as a new Zn economic resource.


Assuntos
Resíduos Industriais/análise , Óxido de Magnésio/química , Metais/química , Mineração , Eliminação de Resíduos Líquidos/métodos , Compostos de Zinco/química , Precipitação Química , Metais/análise , Silício/análise , Espectrometria por Raios X , Síncrotrons , Difração de Raios X
18.
J Struct Biol ; 173(2): 202-12, 2011 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-20950687

RESUMO

We report elemental mappings on the sub-cellular level of myelinated sciatic neurons isolated from wild type mice, with high spatial resolution. The distribution of P, S, Cl, Na, K, Fe, Mn, Cu was imaged in freeze-dried as well as cryo-preserved specimen, using the recently developed cryogenic sample environment at beamline ID21 at the European Synchrotron Radiation Facility (ESRF). In addition, synchrotron radiation based Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectromicroscopy was used as a chemically sensitive imaging method. Finally single fiber diffraction in highly focused hard X-ray beams, and soft X-ray microscopy and tomography in absorption contrast are demonstrated as novel techniques for the study of single nerve fibers.


Assuntos
Bainha de Mielina/química , Animais , Camundongos , Microscopia , Microscopia de Força Atômica , Microscopia Eletrônica de Varredura , Microscopia de Fluorescência , Bainha de Mielina/ultraestrutura , Espectroscopia de Infravermelho com Transformada de Fourier , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X , Raios X
19.
Rev Sci Instrum ; 80(5): 056101, 2009 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-19485538

RESUMO

To fabricate and qualify nanodevices, characterization tools must be developed to provide a large panel of information over spatial scales spanning from the millimeter down to the nanometer. Synchrotron x-ray-based tomography techniques are getting increasing interest since they can provide fully three-dimensional (3D) images of morphology, elemental distribution, and crystallinity of a sample. Here we show that by combining suitable scanning schemes together with high brilliance x-ray nanobeams, such multispectral 3D volumes can be obtained during a single analysis in a very efficient and nondestructive way. We also show that, unlike other techniques, hard x-ray nanotomography allows reconstructing the elemental distribution over a wide range of atomic number and offers truly depth resolution capabilities. The sensitivity, 3D resolution, and complementarity of our approach make hard x-ray nanotomography an essential characterization tool for a large panel of scientific domains.

20.
Rev Sci Instrum ; 80(3): 033906, 2009 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-19334933

RESUMO

We present a new diamond anvil cell (DAC), hereafter called the fluoX DAC, dedicated for x-ray fluorescence (XRF) analysis of trace elements in fluids under high pressure and high temperature to 10 GPa and 1273 K at least. This new setup has allowed measurement of Rb, Sr, Y, Zr, with concentrations of 50 ppm to 5.6 GPa and 1273 K. The characteristics of the fluoX DAC consist in an optimized shielding and collection geometry in order to reduce the background level in XRF spectrum. Consequently, minimum detection limits of 0.3 ppm were calculated for the abovementioned elements in this new setup. This new DAC setup coupled to the hard x-rays focusing beamline ID22 (ESRF, France) offers the possibility to analyze in situ at high pressure and high temperature, ppm level concentrations of heavy elements, rare earth elements, and first transition metals, which are of prime importance in geochemical processes. The fluoX DAC is also suitable to x-ray diffraction over the same high pressure-temperature range.

SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA