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1.
Arch Suicide Res ; : 1-21, 2021 Sep 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34529923

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Although substance use has been linked to both suicidal ideation and suicide attempts, the factors underlying these relations remain unclear. The Interpersonal-Psychological Theory of Suicide (ITS) provides a framework for understanding how substance use may increase suicide risk. The purpose of the current study was to examine if frequency of substance use is indirectly related to suicidal ideation and suicide attempts through core ITS variables (i.e., burdensomeness, thwarted belongingness, and suicide capability). METHODS: An online sample of Mechanical Turk workers (N = 365) completed measures assessing substance use frequency, burdensomeness, thwarted belongingness, suicide capability, suicidal ideation, and suicide attempts. RESULTS: After controlling for relevant clinical and demographic covariates, substance use frequency was indirectly related to suicidal ideation through burdensomeness but not thwarted belongingness. Substance use frequency was indirectly related to suicide attempts through suicide capability only. LIMITATIONS: The cross-sectional design precludes conclusions about the precise nature and direction of the relations examined. The use of a community sample limits generalizability to more severe substance using samples. CONCLUSIONS: Results highlight the relevance of distinct ITS factors in the relation between substance use frequency and both suicidal ideation and suicide attempts. Results may inform specific targets for novel interventions aimed at reducing suicide risk among substance-using individuals.HighlightsSubstance use frequency was indirectly related to SI through burdensomeness.Substance use frequency was not indirectly related to SI through thwarted belongingness.Substance use frequency was indirectly related to SA only through suicide capability.

2.
Depress Anxiety ; 38(9): 882-885, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34469042

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The ongoing coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic is a globally significant crisis with a rapid spread worldwide, high rates of illness and mortality, a high degree of uncertainty, and a disruption of daily life across the sociodemographic spectrum. The clinically relevant psychological consequences of this catastrophe will be long-lasting and far-reaching. There is an emerging body of empirical literature related to the mental health aspects of this pandemic and this body will likely expand exponentially. The COVID-19 pandemic is an example of a historic catastrophe from which we can learn much and from which the field will need to archive, interpret, and synthesize a multitude of clinical and research observations. METHODS: In this commentary, we discuss situations and contexts in which a diagnosis of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) may or may not apply within the context of diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders, fifth edition (DSM-5) criteria. RESULTS: Our consensus is that a COVID-related event cannot be considered traumatic unless key aspects of DSM-5's PTSD Criterion A have been established for a specific type of COVID-19 event (e.g., acute, life-threatening, and catastrophic). CONCLUSION: The application of a more liberal interpretation of Criterion A will dilute the PTSD diagnosis, increase heterogeneity, confound case-control research, and create an overall sample pool with varying degrees of risk and vulnerability factors.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos , Manual Diagnóstico e Estatístico de Transtornos Mentais , Humanos , Pandemias , SARS-CoV-2 , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/diagnóstico , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/epidemiologia
3.
J Anxiety Disord ; 82: 102441, 2021 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34246885

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Pain anxiety has been associated with more severe posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms. However, the unique role of individual domains of pain anxiety has yet to be explored in the prediction of PTSD severity. This study examined whether specific pain anxiety domains (i.e., cognitive anxiety, escape/avoidance, fear of pain, and physiological anxiety) predict both concurrent and downstream PTSD symptoms above and beyond other PTSD risk factors. METHOD: Participants were 63 survivors of traumatic events with moderate to high baseline pain treated in the emergency department and assessed for PTSD symptoms and pain anxiety at 3- and 12-months. RESULTS: Three-month pain anxiety domains of fear of pain and physiological anxiety (inversely related) significantly predicted concurrent 3-month PTSD symptoms above and beyond other established PTSD risk factors (i.e., sex, age, pain, and trauma type). However, only 3-month fear of pain significantly predicted 12-month PTSD symptoms. CONCLUSIONS: Findings highlight the relevance of specific pain anxiety domains in concurrent and future PTSD symptoms and suggest the importance of evaluating pain anxiety among patients with PTSD. Interventions focused on increasing willingness to experience and tolerate fear of pain may help mitigate this risk, thereby improving outcomes for individuals with acute PTSD symptoms.

4.
Personal Ment Health ; 2021 Jul 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34322997

RESUMO

This study sought to examine the explanatory role of sleep disturbance in the associations of borderline personality disorder (BPD) symptom severity to nonsuicidal self-injury (NSSI) and suicide risk within an at-risk sample of patients with substance use disorders (SUDs), as well as whether emotion regulation (ER) difficulties account for significant variance in the relations of sleep disturbance to NSSI and suicide risk. Patients in a residential SUD treatment facility (N = 166) completed a diagnostic interview and questionnaires. Results revealed significant indirect relations of BPD symptom severity to both NSSI frequency and suicide risk through sleep disturbance. In addition, ER difficulties accounted for significant variance in the relation of sleep disturbance to NSSI frequency (but not suicide risk). Findings highlight the relevance of sleep disturbance to the association between BPD symptoms and both suicidal and nonsuicidal self-injury and suggest the potential utility of interventions aimed at improving sleep quality among individuals with BPD pathology.

5.
Psychiatry Res ; 302: 114034, 2021 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34098158

RESUMO

Given concerns of increased suicide risk among university students during the COVID-19 pandemic, this study examined rates of lifetime and past-year suicidal ideation (SI) among university students in Fall 2020 (vs. two earlier semesters), overall and across gender, racial/ethnic background, and sexual identity. Participants included 1700 university students enrolled in a general education psychology course in Fall 2020, Fall 2014, or Fall 2013. Rates of SI were not significantly higher in Fall 2020 versus the earlier semesters and did not differ across racial/ethnic background. However, rates of SI in Fall 2020 were significantly higher among sexual minority than heterosexual students.


Assuntos
COVID-19/psicologia , Pandemias , Estudantes/psicologia , Ideação Suicida , Adolescente , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Grupos de Populações Continentais/psicologia , Grupos de Populações Continentais/estatística & dados numéricos , Grupos Étnicos/psicologia , Grupos Étnicos/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Meio-Oeste dos Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Fatores de Risco , Minorias Sexuais e de Gênero/psicologia , Minorias Sexuais e de Gênero/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudantes/estatística & dados numéricos , Inquéritos e Questionários , Universidades , Adulto Jovem
6.
Psychiatry Res ; 302: 114011, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34051678

RESUMO

There is a need to identify the subset of individuals with borderline personality disorder (BPD) symptoms at greatest risk for transitioning from suicidal ideation to a suicide attempt. Contemporary models of suicide risk propose that the capability for suicide is necessary for moving from suicidal ideation to a suicide attempt. Few studies have examined dispositional capability factors for suicide, especially among individuals with BPD symptoms. One candidate may be the catechol-o-methyltransferase (COMT) Val158Met polymorphism given its influence on pain sensitivity and fear. This study examined the interactive relation of BPD symptoms and the COMT Val158Met polymorphism to suicidal ideation and suicide attempts. Fifty-nine treatment-seeking patients were recruited. Participants were administered a series of clinical interviews to evaluate BPD symptoms and suicidal thoughts and behaviors. Saliva samples were collected for genotyping. The relation between BPD symptoms and suicidal ideation was not influenced by the Val158Met polymorphism. However, among Val/Val carriers, the probability of a lifetime suicide attempt increased as BPD symptom severity increased. Findings provide preliminary support for the Val/Val variant as a dispositional factor that may increase risk for suicide attempts in BPD; however, results must be interpreted with caution until replication of findings occurs in larger samples.

7.
Ann Behav Med ; 55(5): 399-412, 2021 05 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33830215

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Adherence to COVID-19 social distancing guidelines varies across individuals. PURPOSE: This study examined the relations of pseudoscientific and just world beliefs, generalized and institutional trust, and political party affiliation to adherence to COVID-19 social distancing guidelines over three months, as well as the explanatory role of COVID-19 risk perceptions in these relations. METHODS: A U.S. nationwide sample of 430 adults (49.8% women; mean age = 40.72) completed a prospective online study, including an initial assessment (between March 27 and April 5, 2020), a 1 month follow-up (between April 27 and May 21, 2020), and a 3 month follow-up (between June 26 and July 15, 2020). We hypothesized that greater pseudoscientific and just world beliefs, lower governmental, institutional, and dispositional trust, and Republican Party affiliation would be associated with lower initial adherence to social distancing and greater reductions in social distancing over time and that COVID-19 risk perceptions would account for significant variance in these relations. RESULTS: Results revealed unique associations of lower governmental trust, greater COVID-19 pseudoscientific beliefs, and greater trust in the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) to lower initial adherence to social distancing. Whereas greater COVID-19 risk perceptions and CDC trust were associated with less steep declines in social distancing over time, both Republican (vs. Democratic) Party affiliation and greater COVID-19 pseudoscientific beliefs were associated with steeper declines in social distancing over time (relations accounted for by lower COVID-19 risk perceptions). CONCLUSIONS: Results highlight the utility of public health interventions aimed at improving scientific literacy and emphasizing bipartisan support for social distancing guidelines.


Assuntos
COVID-19/prevenção & controle , Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Distanciamento Físico , Política , Comportamento Social , Confiança , Adulto , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Risco , Estados Unidos
8.
Psychiatry Res ; 297: 113712, 2021 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33548858

RESUMO

Despite evidence for the association between emotion regulation difficulties and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), less is known about the specific emotion regulation abilities that are most relevant to PTSD severity. This study examined both item-level and subscale-level models of difficulties in emotion regulation in relation to PTSD severity using supervised machine learning in a sample of U.S. adults (N=570). Participants were recruited via Amazon's Mechanical Turk (MTurk) and completed self-report measures of emotion regulation difficulties and PTSD severity. We used five different machine learning algorithms separately to train each statistical model. Using ridge and elastic net regression results in the testing sample, emotion regulation predictor variables accounted for approximately 28% and 27% of the variance in PTSD severity in the item- and subscale-level models, respectively. In the item-level model, four predictor variables had notable relative importance values for PTSD severity. These items captured secondary emotional responding, experiencing emotions as out-of-control, difficulties modulating emotional arousal, and low emotional granularity. In the subscale-level model, lack of access to effective emotion regulation strategies, lack of emotional clarity, and emotional nonacceptance subscales had the highest relative importance to PTSD severity. Results from analyses modeling a probable diagnosis of PTSD based on DERS items and subscales are presented in supplemental findings. Findings have implications for developing more efficient, targeted emotion regulation interventions for PTSD.


Assuntos
Regulação Emocional , Emoções , Aprendizado de Máquina , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/psicologia , Humanos , Modelos Psicológicos , Autorrelato
9.
Psychiatry Res ; 296: 113662, 2021 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33406445

RESUMO

Emotion dysregulation has shown to be of importance in the onset and maintenance of psychiatric disorders, including substance use disorders. How difficulties in emotion regulation differ across levels of substance use, and whether these relations are influenced by co-occurring psychiatric disorders, is less clear. This study aimed to identify difficulties in emotion regulation across the spectrum of substance use and evaluate the influence of co-occurring psychiatric symptoms. Self-reported emotion regulation difficulties, substance use, and other psychiatric symptoms were assessed in one community sample (n = 843) and two inpatient clinics, with substance use disorder populations (n = 415). Data were merged and analyzed with regression models and correlations. Emotion dysregulation was distributed across different levels of substance use, and significantly associated with substance use severity and frequency. High substance use severity and frequency was significantly associated with high scores on the emotion dysregulation facet specifically involving difficulties controlling impulsive behaviors. Psychiatric symptoms did not significantly influence the association between substance use and emotion dysregulation. Results indicate an association between emotion dysregulation and the frequency and severity of substance use, and also suggest that difficulties controlling impulsive behaviors may be a potentially useful treatment target for individuals with substance dependence.


Assuntos
Emoções/efeitos dos fármacos , Transtornos Mentais/epidemiologia , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/psicologia , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/complicações , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Regulação Emocional , Feminino , Humanos , Comportamento Impulsivo , Pacientes Internados , Masculino , Transtornos Mentais/psicologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/epidemiologia , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/psicologia , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
10.
Psychiatry Res ; 296: 113609, 2021 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33418458

RESUMO

Despite the established relations between borderline personality disorder (BPD) and substance use problems in general, there is a dearth of research on the relation between BPD pathology and opioid use problems, as well as factors that may explain this relation. Therefore, this study examined the indirect relations of BPD pathology to opioid use problems (i.e., prescription opioid misuse, apprehension about prescription opioid use, and opioid cravings) through motives for opioid use (i.e., coping, enhancement, social, and conformity motives) among 68 patients endorsing prescription opioid misuse in a residential correctional substance use disorder (SUD) treatment facility. Participants completed measures of BPD pathology, motives for opioid use, and opioid use problems. Findings revealed significant indirect relations of BPD pathology to opioid misuse through coping and enhancement motives, apprehension about opioid use through coping, enhancement, and social motives, and opioid cravings through coping motives within this SUD sample. Results illustrate the relevance of both emotion- and interpersonal-related motives for opioid use to opioid use problems among patients with BPD pathology in SUD treatment.


Assuntos
Analgésicos Opioides/efeitos adversos , Transtorno da Personalidade Borderline/complicações , Transtorno da Personalidade Borderline/patologia , Motivação , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Opioides/psicologia , Uso Indevido de Medicamentos sob Prescrição/psicologia , Adaptação Psicológica , Adulto , Analgésicos Opioides/uso terapêutico , Transtorno da Personalidade Borderline/psicologia , Humanos , Relações Interpessoais , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Opioides/complicações , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Opioides/epidemiologia , Medicamentos sob Prescrição , Fatores de Risco , Comportamento Social , Conformidade Social , Fatores Socioeconômicos
11.
Am J Drug Alcohol Abuse ; 47(1): 107-116, 2021 01 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33428465

RESUMO

Background: Researchers have highlighted the risk for alcohol use problems in the context of COVID-19, although the factors associated with this risk remain unclear.Objectives: This study examined the prospective relation of baseline financial strain (reported at the beginning of the pandemic) to problematic alcohol use one month later, as well as the moderating role of emotional nonacceptance. We hypothesized that financial strain would be more strongly associated with problematic alcohol use one month later among participants with high (vs. mean or low) levels of nonacceptance.Methods: Shortly after COVID-19 was declared a pandemic by the WHO and national emergency by the U.S. President (on March 11 and 13, 2020, respectively), a U.S. nationwide community sample completed a prospective online study, including an initial assessment from March 27-April 5, 2020 and a one-month follow-up from April 27-May 21. Measures included the Family Economic Strain Scale, Difficulties in Emotion Regulation Scale, and Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test. Participants included 254 adults reporting some alcohol use (50.4% women; mean age = 41.8).Results: Baseline financial strain was significantly positively associated with problematic alcohol use one month later only among participants with high (b =.06, SE =.03, p =.037) versus mean (b =.01, SE =.02, p =.677) or low (b = -.04, SE =.02, p =.110) emotional nonacceptance.Conclusion: Individuals experiencing financial strain in the context of COVID-19 may be at risk for problematic alcohol use if they are not accepting of their emotional distress.


Assuntos
Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas , COVID-19 , Pandemias , Pobreza , SARS-CoV-2 , Estresse Psicológico , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Estudos Prospectivos , Estados Unidos
12.
AIDS Care ; 33(2): 154-158, 2021 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31847544

RESUMO

Despite advancements in the treatment and prevention of HIV/AIDS, adherence to antiretroviral therapy (ART) remains suboptimal. Research indicates that health care provider (HCP) engagement is related to adherence, yet little is known about the specific pathways that underlie this relation. This cross-sectional study examined the relation between perceived HCP engagement and ART adherence in people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA), as well as the role of adherence self-efficacy in this relation. Participants (N = 207) completed self-report measures assessing monthly ART adherence, perceived ability to take ART as prescribed, and perceptions of HCP engagement. Results of a path analysis revealed a direct positive relation between perceived HCP engagement and ART adherence, and a significant indirect relation of perceived HCP engagement to ART adherence through adherence self-efficacy. Higher perceived HCP engagement was related to greater adherence self-efficacy, which, in turn was related to higher ART adherence. Findings are consistent with research demonstrating that HCP support leads to increased motivation to engage in treatment and extends past work on the importance of positive patient-provider relationships. Notably, results suggest that increasing patient perceptions of HCP engagement may be one way to boost adherence self-efficacy and improve ART adherence in PLWHA.


Assuntos
Terapia Antirretroviral de Alta Atividade/psicologia , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Pessoal de Saúde/psicologia , Adesão à Medicação/estatística & dados numéricos , Relações Profissional-Paciente , Autoeficácia , Adulto , Antirretrovirais/uso terapêutico , Terapia Antirretroviral de Alta Atividade/efeitos adversos , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Infecções por HIV/psicologia , Humanos , Masculino , Adesão à Medicação/psicologia
13.
J Psychiatr Res ; 137: 652-656, 2021 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33187691

RESUMO

Research has largely not identified processes contributing to the relationship between physical disability and suicide risk. This cross-sectional research is aimed at examining the associations among felt stigma, perceived burdensomeness, disability severity, and perceptions about future suicidal ideation and attempts. Adults (N = 127) with physical disabilities recruited through online and printed advertisements completed self-report measures and semi-structured interviews. We anticipated that felt stigma would be associated with individuals' perceived likelihood of future suicidal ideation and attempts indirectly through perceived burdensomeness, and that these relationships would be moderated by the impact of disability on three important life domains. Results from a series of moderated mediation analyses partially supported study hypotheses and indicated indirect relationships of stigma to suicide-related perceptions. However, disability severity in the three examined domains did not moderate these indirect relationships. Felt stigma and perceived burdensomeness may contribute to self-perceptions of suicide risk among individuals with physical disabilities.


Assuntos
Tentativa de Suicídio , Suicídio , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Humanos , Relações Interpessoais , Teoria Psicológica , Fatores de Risco , Autoimagem , Ideação Suicida
14.
Arch Suicide Res ; : 1-19, 2020 Sep 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32959731

RESUMO

Little research has examined the role of emotion regulation self-efficacy (ERSE; i.e., beliefs in one's own ability to regulate emotions) in self-injurious thoughts and behaviors (SITBs) or the factors that may underlie this relation. This study investigated whether low ERSE relates to SITBs both directly and indirectly through avoidance of negative emotions. Participants (N = 364) completed measures of ERSE, emotional avoidance, suicide attempt history, nonsuicidal self-injury (NSSI), and current severity of suicidal ideation through Amazon's Mechanical Turk. Low ERSE was significantly associated with history of suicide attempts, recent NSSI, and current severity of suicidal ideation both directly and indirectly through avoidance of negative emotions. Furthermore, low ERSE was significantly associated with a greater number of SITB types both directly and indirectly through emotional avoidance.

15.
J Affect Disord ; 277: 631-639, 2020 12 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32905915

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Despite theories that negative reinforcement in the form of relief from negative emotions maintains nonsuicidal self-injury (NSSI), no studies have examined the extent to which specific emotional consequences of NSSI predict the maintenance of NSSI over time or explain the greater risk for NSSI found among individuals with borderline personality disorder (BPD) pathology. This study examined whether specific emotional consequences of NSSI relate to the continuance of NSSI behavior over a 12-month period and explain the relation of baseline BPD pathology to future NSSI. METHODS: Participants with a history of recent repeated NSSI (N = 84) completed baseline measures of BPD pathology, NSSI, and the emotional antecedents and consequences of NSSI, including self-conscious emotions, undifferentiated negative affect, anger, emptiness, sadness, and anxiety; follow-up data on NSSI were collected every three months for one year. RESULTS: Of the emotional consequences of NSSI examined here, only self-conscious emotions significantly predicted the presence and frequency of NSSI during the 12-month follow-up period. Likewise, whereas BPD pathology was not directly associated with later NSSI, both overall BPD pathology and the specific BPD feature of identity problems were indirectly related to the presence of 12-month NSSI through the greater frequency of post-NSSI self-conscious emotions. LIMITATIONS: Emotional consequences of NSSI were assessed using a retrospective self-report measure. Only frequency, and not intensity, of emotions before and after NSSI were assessed. CONCLUSIONS: Results suggest a distinct role of post-NSSI self-conscious emotions in the maintenance of NSSI among individuals with and without BPD pathology.


Assuntos
Transtorno da Personalidade Borderline , Comportamento Autodestrutivo , Emoções , Humanos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Autorrelato
16.
Arch Suicide Res ; : 1-16, 2020 Aug 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32866425

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Although once considered a defining feature of borderline personality disorder, research has found high rates of NSSI among individuals with other psychiatric disorders, particularly posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and depressive disorders. A recent study from our research team found that lifetime PTSD and depressive disorders were associated with unique self-reported NSSI motives. Given well-established limitations of assessing motives via self-report measures, the present study sought to extend this line of research by using a novel laboratory measure of the implicit NSSI-relief association to examine NSSI emotional relief motives. METHOD: A subset of participants from our previous study (N = 109) completed diagnostic interviews and the laboratory-based DSH-Relief Implicit Association Test (IAT). RESULTS: Findings indicated that individuals with lifetime PTSD evidenced stronger NSSI-relief associations than those without PTSD. Further, this main effect was qualified by a PTSD by depressive disorder interaction, such that stronger NSSI-relief associations were found among individuals with lifetime PTSD but no lifetime depressive disorder than among individuals without a history of either PTSD or a depressive disorder. CONCLUSIONS: Results highlight the importance of investigating NSSI motives associated with different symptom profiles using a multi-method approach.

17.
J Anxiety Disord ; 75: 102290, 2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32823216

RESUMO

The COVID-19 pandemic is likely to increase risk for the development of health anxiety. Given that elevated health anxiety can contribute to maladaptive health behaviors, there is a need to identify individual difference factors that may increase health anxiety risk. This study examined the unique and interactive relations of COVID-19 affective risk assessments (worry about risk for contracting/dying from COVID-19) and intolerance of uncertainty to later health anxiety dimensions. A U.S. community sample of 364 participants completed online self-report measures at a baseline assessment (Time 1) and one month later (Time 2). Time 1 intolerance of uncertainty was uniquely associated with the Time 2 health anxiety dimension of body vigilance. Time 1 affective risk assessments and intolerance of uncertainty were uniquely associated with later perceived likelihood that an illness would be acquired and anticipated negative consequences of an illness. The latter finding was qualified by a significant interaction, such that affective risk assessments were positively associated with anticipated negative consequences of having an illness only among participants with mean and low levels of intolerance of uncertainty. Results speak to the relevance of different risk factors for health anxiety during the COVID-19 pandemic and highlight targets for reducing health anxiety risk.


Assuntos
Ansiedade/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Incerteza , Adulto , Idoso , Ansiedade/diagnóstico , Ansiedade/psicologia , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pandemias , Estudos Prospectivos , Medição de Risco , SARS-CoV-2 , Autorrelato , Adulto Jovem
18.
J Trauma Stress ; 33(6): 1007-1016, 2020 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32529732

RESUMO

Despite growing evidence in support of emotion dysregulation as a risk factor for the development of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) following trauma exposure, few studies have examined temporal relations between emotion dysregulation and the onset and/or worsening of PTSD symptoms over time. The aim of the present study was to extend research on temporal associations between emotion dysregulation and PTSD in a sample of individuals recruited from hospital emergency departments soon after a traumatic event. Adult participants (N = 85; 62.4% female) completed self-report measures of emotion dysregulation and PTSD symptoms within 2 weeks of experiencing a traumatic event. Symptoms of PTSD were assessed approximately 3 months posttrauma. The results of a hierarchical linear regression analysis demonstrated that the inclusion of emotion dysregulation accounted for a significant amount of unique variance, ß = .23, ΔR2 = .04, p = .042, in 3-month PTSD symptom severity over and above other risk factors and baseline PTSD symptoms. No specific facet of emotion dysregulation emerged as a significant predictor of 3-month PTSD symptoms when all facets were included on the same step of the model, ßs = -.04-.33, ps = .133-.954. These results demonstrate that posttraumatic emotion dysregulation may predict PTSD symptoms 3 months after trauma exposure. These findings are consistent with a growing body of literature that speaks to the relevance of emotional processes to the onset and maintenance of PTSD following exposure to a traumatic event.

20.
Suicide Life Threat Behav ; 50(6): 1140-1148, 2020 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32589811

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The social and economic consequences of COVID-19 and related public health interventions aimed at slowing the spread of the virus have been proposed to increase suicide risk. However, no research has examined these relations. This study examined the relations of two COVID-19 consequences (i.e., stay-at-home orders and job loss) to suicide risk through thwarted belongingness, perceived burdensomeness, and loneliness. METHOD: Online data from a nationwide community sample of 500 adults (mean age = 40) from 45 states were collected between March 27 and April 5, 2020. Participants completed measures assessing thwarted belongingness, perceived burdensomeness, loneliness, and suicide risk, as well as whether they (a) were currently under a stay-at-home order and (b) had experienced a recent job loss due to the pandemic. RESULTS: Results revealed a significant indirect relation of stay-at-home order status to suicide risk through thwarted belongingness. Further, whereas recent job loss was significantly correlated with suicide risk, neither the direct relation of job loss to suicide risk (when accounting for their shared relations to perceived burdensomeness) nor the indirect relation through perceived burdensomeness was significant. CONCLUSIONS: Results highlight the potential benefits of interventions targeting thwarted belongingness and perceived burdensomeness to offset suicide risk during this pandemic.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Solidão/psicologia , Isolamento Social/psicologia , Suicídio , Adulto , COVID-19/epidemiologia , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , COVID-19/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Relações Interpessoais , Masculino , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Fatores de Risco , SARS-CoV-2 , Ideação Suicida , Suicídio/prevenção & controle , Suicídio/psicologia
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