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1.
Aging Clin Exp Res ; 2022 Jan 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34985716

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Currently, a small body of evidence suggests that sleep problems are positively associated with subjective cognitive complaints (SCC). However, no studies on this topic exist from low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). Thus, we investigated the association between sleep problems and SCC in a large sample of middle-age and older adults from 45 LMICs. METHODS: Cross-sectional, predominantly nationally representative, community-based data were analyzed from the World Health Survey. Sleep problems (such as difficulties falling asleep, waking up frequently during the night or waking up too early in the morning) in the last 30 days were self-reported. Two questions on subjective memory and learning complaints in the past 30 days were used to create a SCC scale ranging from 0 (No SCC) to 100 (worse SCC). Multivariable linear regression was conducted to explore the association between sleep problems (exposure) and SCC (outcome). RESULTS: Data on 60,228 adults aged ≥ 50 years were analyzed [mean (SD) age 61.4 (9.9) years; 53.9% females]. After adjustment for potential confounders, compared to those without sleep problems, the mean SCC score for the multivariable model was 13.32 (95% CI 12.01, 14.63), 19.46 (95% CI 17.95, 20.98), 24.17 (95% CI 22.02, 26.33), and 31.39 (95% CI 28.13, 34.65) points higher for mild, moderate, severe, and extreme sleep problems, respectively. Similar results were found for analyses stratified by age and country-income level. CONCLUSION: Sleep problems were positively associated in a dose-response manner with SCC among middle-aged and older adults in multiple LMICs. Addressing sleep problems may aid in the prevention of SCC and ultimately dementia, pending future longitudinal research.

2.
J Affect Disord ; 298(Pt A): 532-539, 2022 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34788685

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: There are no multi-country studies on the association between informal caregiving and anxiety from low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). Therefore, we investigated this relationship in a large predominantly nationally representative sample from 47 LMICs. METHODS: Cross sectional data from the World Health Survey were analyzed. Anxiety symptoms referred to severe or extreme problems with worries or anxiety in the past 30 days. Information on caregiving in the past 12 months was obtained. Multivariable logistic regression analysis adjusting for age, sex, marital status, education, household size, employment, disability, and country was conducted. Data on 237,952 individuals aged ≥18 years [mean (SD) age 38.4 (16.0) years; 50.8% female] were analyzed. RESULTS: After adjustment for potential confounders, caregiving was positively associated with anxiety symptoms (OR = 1.52; 95%CI = 1.40, 1.65). Greater number of caregiving activities was associated with higher odds for anxiety symptoms dose-dependently, with the OR (95%CI) for engagement in 5 activities (vs. no caregiving) being 2.19 (1.86-2.58). CONCLUSION: Caregiving is associated with higher odds for anxiety symptoms among adults in LMICs. Given the increasing importance of informal caregivers in long-term care provision and the fact that good health of caregivers is vital to sustain this system, interventions to address mental health of caregivers in LMICs are urgently needed.

3.
PLoS One ; 16(12): e0260919, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34879083

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In response to the COVID-19 pandemic, most countries have introduced non-pharmaceutical interventions, such as stay-at-home orders, to reduce person-to-person contact and break trains of transmission. The aim of this systematic review was to assess the effect of different public health restrictions on mobility across different countries and cultures. The University of Bern COVID-19 Living Evidence database of COVID-19 and SARS-COV-2 publications was searched for retrospective or prospective studies evaluating the impact of COVID-19 public health restrictions on Google Mobility. Titles and abstracts were independently screened by two authors. Information from included studies was extracted by one researcher and double checked by another. Risk of bias of included articles was assessed using the Newcastle Ottowa Scale. Given the heterogeneous nature of the designs used, a narrative synthesis was undertaken. From the search, 1672 references were identified, of which 14 were included in the narrative synthesis. All studies reported data from the first wave of the pandemic, with Google Mobility Scores included from January to August 2020, with most studies analysing data during the first two months of the pandemic. Seven studies were assessed as having a moderate risk of bias and seven as a low risk of bias. Countries that introduced more stringent public health restrictions experienced greater reductions in mobility, through increased time at home and reductions in visits to shops, workplaces and use of public transport. Stay-at-home orders were the most effective of the individual strategies, whereas mask mandates had little effect of mobility. CONCLUSIONS: Public health restrictions, particularly stay-at-home orders have significantly impacted on transmission prevention behaviours. Further research is required to understand how to effectively address pandemic fatigue and to support the safe return back to normal day-to-day behaviours.

4.
BJGP Open ; 2021 Dec 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34880031

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Sedentary behaviour, which may have increased among GPs due to increasing use of telemedicine, is associated with many illnesses and increased all-cause mortality. AIM: To explore levels of sedentary behaviour among GPs and General Practice Specialty Trainees (GPSTs). DESIGN & SETTING: Sequential, cross-sectional design (initial online sedentary behaviour questionnaire, subsequent thigh-worn accelerometer sub-study) of GPs and GPSTs in Northern Ireland. METHOD: Self-reported questionnaire data were aggregated and compared with device-measured accelerometry data. RESULTS: Data from 353 participants (17.7% of GPs and GPSTs in Northern Ireland) revealed doctors in general practice self-reported higher workday sedentary time (10.33 (SD =2.97) hours) than those in secondary care (7.9 (SD =3.43) hours) (MD 2.43 hours; P<0.001). An active workstation (eg, sit-stand desk), was used by 5.6% of participants in general practice, while 86.0% of those without one would consider using one in future. Active workstation users self-reported lower workday sedentary time (7.88 (SD =3.2) hours) than non-users (10.47 (SD =2.88) hours) (MD -2.58 hours, P=0.001). Accelerometer sub-study participants underestimated their workday sedentary time by 0.17 hours (95% CI -1.86, 2.20; P=0.865), and non-workday sedentary time by 2.67 hours (95% CI 0.99, 4.35; P=0.003). Most GPs (80.7%) reported increased workday sitting time compared to prior to the COVID-19 pandemic, while 87.0% would prefer less workday sitting time. CONCLUSION: GPs have high levels of workday sedentary time, which may be detrimental to their health. It is imperative to develop methods to address sedentary behaviour among GPs on workdays, both for their own health and the health of their patients.

5.
J Phys Act Health ; : 1-9, 2021 Dec 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34902842

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: There is a scarcity of studies on the relationship between visual impairment (VI) and time spent in sedentary behavior (SB), especially from low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). Thus, we investigated the association of objectively and subjectively measured VI with SB in adults aged ≥18 years across 6 LMICs. METHODS: Cross-sectional data from the WHO Study on global AGEing and adult health (SAGE) were analyzed. Objective and subjective visual acuity were measured. Information on self-reported SB was also collected. Multivariable multinomial logistic regression analysis was conducted to assess associations with time spent in SB as the outcome. RESULTS: The sample consisted of 42,489 individuals (mean age = 43.8 [14.4] y; 50.1% females). Only severe objective VI (vs no VI) was significantly associated with ≥11 hours per day of SB (vs <4 h/d) (odds ratio = 4.50; 95% confidence interval, 1.57-12.92). Increasing severity of subjective VI was associated with greater odds for ≥8 hours per day of SB (vs <4 h/d) dose dependently. CONCLUSIONS: The present study identified an association of both objectively and subjectively measured VI with time spent in SB in adults residing in LMICs, with subjectively measured VI being a stronger predictor of time spent in SB. Targeted interventions to decrease SB especially in those who perceive themselves to have VI are needed in LMICs.

6.
J Alzheimers Dis ; 2021 Dec 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34897093

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The effect of weight modification on future dementia risk is currently a subject of debate and may be modified by age. OBJECTIVE: The aim of the present study was to investigate the association between body mass index (BMI) status with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) (a preclinical stage of dementia) in middle-aged and older adults residing in six low- and middle-income countries using nationally representative data. METHODS: Cross-sectional data from the Study on Global Ageing and Adult Health (SAGE) were analyzed. MCI was defined using the National Institute on Aging-Alzheimer's Association criteria. BMI (kg/m2) was based on measured weight and height and categorized as: underweight (<18.5), normal (18.5-24.9), overweight (25.0-29.9), and obese (≥30.0). Multivariable logistic regression analysis and meta-analysis were conducted to assess associations. RESULTS: Data on 32,715 individuals aged ≥50 years with preservation in functional abilities were analyzed [mean (SD) age 62.1 (15.6) years; 51.7% females]. Among those aged 50-64 years, compared to normal weight, underweight (OR = 1.44; 95% CI = 1.14-1.81), overweight (OR = 1.17; 95% CI = 1.002-1.37), and obesity (OR = 1.46; 95% CI = 1.09-1.94) were all significantly associated with higher odds for MCI. In those aged ≥65 years, underweight (OR = 0.71; 95% CI = 0.54-0.95) and overweight (OR = 0.72; 95% CI = 0.55-0.94) were associated with significantly lower odds for MCI, while obesity was not significantly associated with MCI. CONCLUSION: The results of the study suggest that the association between BMI and MCI is likely moderated by age. Future longitudinal studies are required to confirm or refute the present findings before recommendations for policy and practice can be made.

7.
BMC Geriatr ; 21(1): 697, 2021 12 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34911479

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Inactive physical behavior among the elderly is one risk factor for cardiovascular disease, immobility and increased all-cause mortality. We aimed to answer the question whether or not circulating and skeletal muscle biomarkers are differentially expressed depending on fitness status in a group of elderly individuals. METHODS: Twenty-eight elderly individuals (73.36 ± 5.46 years) participated in this exploratory study after participating as part of the multinational SITLESS-clinical trial (implementation of self-management and exercise programs over 16 weeks). A cardiopulmonary exercise test (CPX) and resting skeletal muscle biopsy were performed to determine individual physiological performance capacity. Participants were categorized into a high physical fitness group (HPF) and a low physical fitness group (LPF) depending on peak oxygen uptake (VO2peak). Serum blood samples were taken before (pre) and after (post) CPX and were examined regarding serum BDNF, HSP70, Kynurenine, Irisin and Il-6 concentrations. Skeletal muscle tissue was analyzed by silver staining to determine the myosin heavy chain (MyHC) composition and selected genes by qRT-PCR. RESULTS: HPF showed lower body weight and body fat, while skeletal muscle mass and oxygen uptake at the first ventilatory threshold (VO2T1) did not differ between groups. There were positive associations between VO2peak and VO2VT1 in HPF and LPF. MyHC isoform quantification revealed no differences between groups. qRT-PCR showed higher expression of BDNF and BRCA1 in LPF skeletal muscle while there were no differences in other examined genes regarding energy metabolism. Basal serum concentrations of Irisin were higher in HPF compared to LPF with a trend towards higher values in BDNF and HSP70 in HPF. Increases in Il-6 in both groups were observed post. CONCLUSIONS: Although no association between muscle composition/VO2peak with fitness status in older people was detected, higher basal Irisin serum levels in HPF revealed slightly beneficial molecular serum and muscle adaptations. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT02629666 . Registered 19 November 2015.


Assuntos
Exercício Físico , Músculo Esquelético , Idoso , Teste de Esforço , Expressão Gênica , Humanos , Aptidão Física
8.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34831518

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Physical activity (PA) is essential for almost all facets of health; however, research suggests that PA levels among populations with sight loss are critically low. The aim of this review was to identify the correlates of PA among people with sight loss in high income countries, to inform future interventions and policies. METHODS: MEDLINE, Web of Science, PsycINFO, SPORTDiscus, The British Journal of Visual Impairment, The Journal of Visual Impairment and grey literature were searched for studies which reported correlates of PA among adults with sight loss. The protocol is available from PROSPERO (CRD42020215596). RESULTS: A total of 29 articles were eligible for review. Evidence from multiple studies reported that the vision impairment category, worse visual acuity, bilateral visual field loss, worse contrast sensitivity, those of the female gender, low self-efficacy, and environmental barriers were associated with lower levels of PA among populations with sight loss. CONCLUSIONS: Overall, correlates of PA among people with sight loss in high income countries are complex and vary across different population groups. Health professionals, eye care, and sight loss services should work together to identify people at risk of low PA, and provide a range of services and interventions to influence the modifiable factors that are associated with low PA.

9.
Front Psychol ; 12: 789989, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34803865

RESUMO

[This corrects the article DOI: 10.3389/fpsyg.2020.01426.].

10.
Pilot Feasibility Stud ; 7(1): 205, 2021 Nov 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34782018

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: People with severe mental illness (SMI) are less physically active and more sedentary than healthy controls, contributing to poorer physical health outcomes in this population. There is a need to understand the feasibility and acceptability, and explore the effective components, of health behaviour change interventions targeting physical activity and sedentary behaviour in this population in rural and semi-rural settings. METHODS: This 13-week randomised controlled feasibility trial compares the Walking fOR Health (WORtH) multi-component behaviour change intervention, which includes education, goal-setting and self-monitoring, with a one-off education session. It aims to recruit 60 inactive adults with SMI via three community mental health teams in Ireland and Northern Ireland. Primary outcomes are related to feasibility and acceptability, including recruitment, retention and adherence rates, adverse events and qualitative feedback from participants and clinicians. Secondary outcome measures include self-reported and accelerometer-measured physical activity and sedentary behaviour, anthropometry measures, physical function and mental wellbeing. A mixed-methods process evaluation will be undertaken. This study protocol outlines changes to the study in response to the COVID-19 pandemic. DISCUSSION: This study will address the challenges and implications of remote delivery of the WORtH intervention due to the COVID-19 pandemic and inform the design of a future definitive randomised controlled trial if it is shown to be feasible. TRIAL REGISTRATION: The trial was registered on clinicaltrials.gov ( NCT04134871 ) on 22 October 2019.

11.
Ann Med ; 53(1): 1935-1944, 2021 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34726085

RESUMO

Currently, there is limited research reporting the symptoms of long COVID among athletes, and the recommendations for athletes returning to competition/training who have experienced long COVID symptoms. Therefore, the aim of this systematic review is to synthesise the recommendations for returning athletes who have experienced long COVID symptoms. The protocol was registered in PROSPERO under CRD42021265939. Two authors searched the electronic databases PubMed, Embase, Scopus, the Cochrane Library, Web of Science, CINAHL, PsycINFO, and SPORTDiscus from August 2019-July 2021. Search terms included words related to "long COVID", "athlete" and "return". Data extraction was completed for each study by two independent investigators for: (1) first author name; (2) year of publication; (3) journal; (4) Definition of athlete (i.e. elite or non-elite) (5) Recommendations reported. A total of 220 records were found. Following title and abstract screening, 61 studies were eligible for full text screening. Overall, no studies, commentaries, editorials or reviews provided specific recommendations for "long COVID" defined as COVID-19 signs and symptoms lasting for over 4 weeks as a result of COVID-19 infection. In addition, we found no studies which reported symptoms of athletes suffering from long COVID. Despite the lack of evidence, we did find eight separate professional recommendations for managing "long-term effects" and "ongoing" or "prolonged" symptoms and COVID-19 complications among athletes. Practitioners should be aware of both mental and physical symptoms of long COVID, and additional considerations may be required for athletes who have undergone intensive care. The present review provides a list of recommendations based on existing literature that may be followed and implemented for returning athletes.Key MessagesFurther research, including longitudinal research of athletes who have tested positive for COVID-19, is required to develop evidenced-based guidelines for athletes with ongoing COVID-19 symptoms.Prior to returning to play after COVID-19 infection, a thorough medical history, physical and psychological examination should be conducted by a medical professional.Athletes should continue to monitor and record their own physical and psychological markers of health.


Assuntos
Atletas , Desempenho Atlético/fisiologia , COVID-19/complicações , COVID-19/fisiopatologia , COVID-19/reabilitação , Humanos
13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34639283

RESUMO

The COVID-19 global pandemic and subsequent public health social measures have challenged our social and economic life, with increasing concerns around potentially rising levels of social isolation and loneliness. This paper is based on cross-sectional online survey data (available in 10 languages, from 2 June to 16 November 2020) with 20,398 respondents from 101 different countries. It aims to help increase our understanding of the global risk factors that are associated with social isolation and loneliness, irrespective of culture or country, to support evidence-based policy, services and public health interventions. We found the prevalence of severe loneliness was 21% during COVID-19 with 6% retrospectively reporting severe loneliness prior to the pandemic. A fifth were defined as isolated based on their usual connections, with 13% reporting a substantial increase in isolation during COVID-19. Personal finances and mental health were overarching and consistently cross-cutting predictors of loneliness and social isolation, both before and during the pandemic. With the likelihood of future waves of COVID-19 and related restrictions, it must be a public health priority to address the root causes of loneliness and social isolation and, in particular, address the needs of specific groups such as carers or those living alone.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Solidão , Estudos Transversais , Humanos , Pandemias , Estudos Retrospectivos , SARS-CoV-2 , Isolamento Social
14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34639660

RESUMO

Active travel (AT) has gained increasing attention as a way of addressing low levels of physical activity. However, little is known regarding the relationship between income and AT. The aim of this study was to investigate characteristics associated with undertaking AT in an adult population and by low- and high-income groups. Data collected from the Physical Activity and the Rejuvenation of Connswater (PARC) study in 2017 were used. Participants were categorised into socio-economic groups according to their weekly household income, and were categorised as participating in 'no' AT or 'some' AT and 'sufficient' AT. Multivariable logistic regression explored characteristics associated with AT in the full cohort, and the low- and high-income groups separately. Variables associated with AT in the low-income group were body mass index (BMI), physical activity self-efficacy, marital status, long term illness, difficulty walking and housing tenure. For the high-income group, BMI, marital status, housing tenure and education were associated with AT. For both income groups, there were consistent positive associations with the action/maintenance phase of the stage of change model across all AT categories. The findings suggest that population sub-groups may benefit from targeted initiatives to support engagement in AT and prevent further widening of inequalities.


Assuntos
Renda , Viagem , Adulto , Índice de Massa Corporal , Humanos , Pobreza , Reino Unido
15.
J Psychiatr Res ; 144: 45-53, 2021 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34598008

RESUMO

Suicide is the fourth leading cause of death worldwide in young people aged 15-19 years. However, little is known about the correlates of multiple suicide attempts in adolescents, especially from a global perspective. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to investigate the association of putative physical, behavioral, and social correlates with multiple suicide attempts among adolescents aged 12-15 years from 61 countries. Data from the Global school-based Student Health Survey (2009-2017) were analyzed. Multiple suicide attempts was classified as having attempted suicide at least twice in the past 12 months. Multivariable logistic regression analyses were conducted to assess the potential correlates. Data on 162,994 adolescents [mean (SD) age 13.8 (0.9) years; 50.8% boys] were analyzed. The overall prevalence of multiple suicide attempts was 4.4% [range 1.2% (Laos) to 13.8% (Ghana)]. Among those who had attempted suicide at least once in the past 12 months, in the overall sample, food insecurity, smoking, alcohol consumption, cannabis use, amphetamine use, sedentary behavior, sexual intercourse, sleep problems, loneliness, no close friends, and bullying victimization were all independently associated with higher odds for multiple suicide attempts although some regional differences were observed. Our study results indicate potential target factors that could be addressed amongst those who had attempted suicide in the past to reduce future suicide attempts and possibly completed suicides. Furthermore, it is possible that region-specific interventions are necessary.

16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34670063

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To assess alcohol use and perceived change in alcohol consumption (before and during the pandemic) in Brazilians during the COVID-19 pandemic, its correlates, and association with depressive, anxiety and co-occurring depressive and anxiety symptoms (D&A). METHODS: This is a cross-sectional study comprising 992 individuals in self-isolation. A self-reported questionnaire was used to assess whether participants were drinking during self-isolation and whether they changed their drinking behavior (drinking less, more, or no change) from before to during the pandemic. D&A symptoms were assessed using the Beck Depression and Anxiety Inventories (BDI and BAI). RESULTS: A total of 68.5% of participants reported alcohol consumption during the pandemic, and 22.7% of these reported increased alcohol use. Smoking was positively associated with alcohol consumption during the pandemic. Alcohol consumption was associated with anxiety (OR=1.40, 95% CI 1.06 - 1.85, p<0.01) and D&A (OR=1.38, 95% CI 1.02 - 1.87, p=0.033) symptoms. CONCLUSIONS: Drinking during self-isolation was prevalent and associated with risk factors for alcohol use disorders. The long-term effects of high drinking rates and increased consumption should be proactively monitored and assessed.

17.
Int J Behav Nutr Phys Act ; 18(1): 142, 2021 10 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34717650

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Evidence for the health benefits of urban green space tends to stem from small, short-term quasi-experimental or cross-sectional observational research, whilst evidence from intervention studies is sparse. The development of an urban greenway (9 km running along 3 rivers) in Northern Ireland provided the opportunity to conduct a natural experiment. This study investigated the public health impact of the urban greenway on a range of physical activity, health, wellbeing, social, and perceptions of the environment outcomes. METHODS: A repeated cross-sectional household survey of adult residents (aged ≥16 years) who lived ≤1-mile radius of the greenway (intervention sample) and > 1-mile radius of the greenway (control sample) was conducted pre (2010/2011) and 6-months post implementation (2016/2017). We assessed changes in outcomes pre- and post-intervention follow-up including physical activity behaviour (primary outcome measure: Global Physical Activity Questionnaire), quality of life, mental wellbeing, social capital and perceptions of the built environment. Linear regression was used to calculate the mean difference between post-intervention and baseline measures adjusting for age, season, education, car ownership and deprivation. Multi-level models were fitted using a random intercept at the super output area (smallest geographical unit) to account for clustering within areas. The analyses were stratified by distance from the greenway and deprivation. We assessed change in the social patterning of outcomes over time using an ordered logit to make model-based outcome predictions across strata. RESULTS: The mean ages of intervention samples were 50.3 (SD 18.9) years at baseline (n = 1037) and 51.7 (SD 19.1) years at follow-up (n = 968). Post-intervention, 65% (adjusted OR 0.60, 95% CI 0.35 to 1.00) of residents who lived closest to the greenway (i.e., ≤400 m) and 60% (adjusted OR, 0.64 95% CI 0.41 to 0.99) who lived furthest from the greenway (i.e.,≥1200 m) met the physical activity guidelines - 68% of the intervention sample met the physical activity guidelines before the intervention. Residents in the most deprived quintiles had a similar reduction in physical activity behaviour as residents in less deprived quintiles. Quality of life at follow-up compared to baseline declined and this decline was significantly less than in the control area (adjusted differences in mean EQ5D: -11.0 (95% CI - 14.5 to - 7.4); - 30.5 (95% CI - 37.9 to - 23.2). Significant change in mental wellbeing was not observed despite improvements in some indicators of social capital. Positive perceptions of the local environment in relation to its attractiveness, traffic and safety increased. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings illustrate the major challenge of evaluating complex urban interventions and the difficulty of capturing and measuring the network of potential variables that influence or hinder meaningful outcomes. The results indicate at this stage no intervention effect for improvements in population-level physical activity behaviour or mental wellbeing. However, they show some modest improvements for secondary outcomes including positive perceptions of the environment and social capital constructs. The public health impact of urban greenways may take a longer period of time to be realised and there is a need to improve evaluation methodology that captures the complex systems nature of urban regeneration.


Assuntos
Exercício Físico , Qualidade de Vida , Ambiente Construído , Estudos Transversais , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Parques Recreativos
18.
BJPsych Open ; 7(5): e159, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34493960

RESUMO

Background: Throughout the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, health and social care workers have faced unprecedented professional demands, all of which are likely to have placed considerable strain on their psychological well-being. Aims: To measure the national prevalence of mental health symptoms within healthcare staff, and identify individual and organisational predictors of well-being. Method: The COVID-19 Staff Wellbeing Survey is a longitudinal online survey of psychological well-being among health and social care staff in Northern Ireland. The survey included four time points separated by 3-month intervals; time 1 (November 2020; n = 3834) and time 2 (February 2021; n = 2898) results are presented here. At time 2, 84% of respondents had received at least one dose of a COVID-19 vaccine. The survey included four validated psychological well-being questionnaires (depression, anxiety, post-traumatic stress and insomnia), as well as demographic and organisational measures. Results: At time 1 and 2, a high proportion of staff reported moderate-to-severe symptoms of depression (30-36%), anxiety (26-27%), post-traumatic stress (30-32%) and insomnia (27-28%); overall, significance tests and effect size data suggested psychological well-being was generally stable between November 2020 and February 2021 for health and social care staff. Multiple linear regression models indicated that perceptions of less effective communication within their organisation predicted greater levels of anxiety, depression, post-traumatic stress and insomnia. Conclusions: This study highlights the need to offer psychological support to all health and social care staff, and to communicate with staff regularly, frequently and clearly regarding COVID-19 to help protect staff psychological well-being.

19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34501758

RESUMO

Measures implemented to reduce the spread of SARS-CoV-2 have resulted in a decrease in physical activity (PA) while sedentary behaviour increased. The aim of the present study was to explore associations between PA and mental health in Austria during COVID-19 social restrictions. In this web-based cross-sectional study (April-May 2020) moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA), sitting time, and time spent outdoors were self-reported before and during self-isolation. Mental well-being was assessed with the Warwick-Edinburgh Mental Well-being Scale, and the Beck depression and anxiety inventories. The majority of the participants (n = 652) were female (72.4%), with a mean age of 36.0 years and a standard deviation (SD) of 14.4. Moreover, 76.5% took part in ≥30 min/day of MVPA, 53.5% sat ≥10 h/day, and 66.1% spent ≥60 min/day outdoors during self-isolation. Thirty-eight point five percent reported high mental well-being, 40.5% reported depressive symptoms, and 33.9% anxiety symptoms. Participating in higher levels of MVPA was associated with higher mental well-being (odds ratio = OR: 3.92; 95% confidence interval = 95%CI: 1.51-10.15), less depressive symptoms (OR: 0.44; 95%CI: 0.29-0.66) and anxiety symptoms (OR = 0.62; 95%CI: 0.41-0.94), and less loneliness (OR: 0.46; 95%CI: 0.31-0.69). Participants sitting <10 h/day had higher odds of mental well-being (OR: 3.58; 95%CI: 1.13-11.35). Comparable results were found for spending ≥60 min/day outdoors. Maintaining one's MVPA levels was associated with higher mental well-being (OR = 8.61, 95%CI: 2.68-27.62). In conclusion, results show a positive association between PA, time spent outdoors and mental well-being during COVID-19 social restrictions. Interventions aiming to increase PA might mitigate negative effects of such restrictions.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Postura Sentada , Adulto , Áustria , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis , Estudos Transversais , Exercício Físico , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Saúde Mental , SARS-CoV-2
20.
Exp Gerontol ; 154: 111513, 2021 10 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34384889

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The limited available literature suggests that sleep problems are linked to an increased risk of mild cognitive impairment (MCI). However, this association has been little studied to date in low-income settings. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the association between sleep problems and MCI in a large sample of adults from six low-and middle-income countries (LMICs). DESIGN: Cross-sectional. SETTING: Study on Global Ageing and Adult Health (SAGE). SUBJECTS: 32,715 individuals aged ≥50 years with preservation in functional abilities [age range 50-114 years; 51.7% females]. METHODS: MCI was defined using the National Institute on Aging-Alzheimer's Association criteria. Sleep problems were assessed by the question "Overall in the last 30 days, how much of a problem did you have with sleeping, such as falling asleep, waking up frequently during the night or waking up too early in the morning?" and categorized as "None", "Mild", "Moderate", "Severe/Extreme". Multivariable logistic regression analysis and meta-analysis were conducted. RESULTS: Compared to no sleep problems, mild, moderate, and severe/extreme sleep problems were associated with significant 1.40, 1.83, and 2.69 times higher odds for MCI with similar associations being observed between age groups and sex. Severe/extreme sleep problems were positively associated with MCI (i.e., OR > 1) in the six countries studied with the overall estimate being OR = 1.80 (95% CI = 1.50-2.16), and a low level of between-country heterogeneity was observed (I2 = 28.2%). CONCLUSIONS: Sleep problems were associated with higher odds for MCI. Interventions to improve sleep quality among middle-aged and older adults in LMICs may be an effective strategy in reducing risk of MCI and dementia.


Assuntos
Disfunção Cognitiva , Transtornos do Sono-Vigília , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Disfunção Cognitiva/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Países em Desenvolvimento , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prevalência , Transtornos do Sono-Vigília/epidemiologia
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