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1.
Antimicrob Resist Infect Control ; 10(1): 37, 2021 02 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33597029

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: According to WHO ( CISMAC. Centre for Intervention Science in Maternal and Child health), the antimicrobial resistant bacteria considered to be clinically most important for human health and earmarked for surveillance include extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL)-producing Enterobacteriaceae, carbapenem-resistant bacteria, methicillin-resistant (MRSA) and, macrolide-lincosamide-streptogramin B -resistant vancomycin-resistant (VRSA) Staphylococcus aureus and vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus (VRE). If these bacteria are carried in the female genital tract, they may be transmitted to the neonate causing local or systemic neonatal infections that can be difficult to treat with conventionally available antimicrobials. In order to develop effective treatment strategies, there is need for updated information about the prevalence of colonization with important antimicrobial-resistant pathogens. OBJECTIVE: We sought to estimate the prevalence of vaginal colonization with potentially pathogenic and clinically important AMR bacteria among women in labour in Uganda and to identify factors associated with colonization. METHODS: We conducted a cross-sectional study among HIV-1 and HIV-2 negative women in labour at three primary health care facilities in Uganda. Drug susceptibility testing was done using the disk diffusion method on bacterial isolates cultured from vaginal swabs. We calculated the prevalence of colonization with potentially pathogenic and clinically important AMR bacteria, in addition to multidrug-resistant (MDR) bacteria, defined as bacteria resistant to antibiotics from ≥ 3 antibiotic classes. RESULTS: We found that 57 of the 1472 enrolled women (3.9% prevalence; 95% Confidence interval [CI] 3.0%, 5.1%) were colonized with ESBL-producing Enterobacteriaceace, 27 (1.8%; 95% CI 1.2%, 2.6%) were colonized with carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae, and 85 (5.8%; 95% CI 4.6%, 7.1%) were colonized with MRSA. The prevalence of colonization with MDR bacteria was high (750/1472; 50.9%; 95% CI 48.4%, 53.5%). Women who were ≥ 30 years of age had higher odds of being colonized with MDR bacteria compared to women aged 20-24 years (OR 1.6; 95% CI 1.1, 2.2). CONCLUSION: Most of the women included in our study were vaginally colonized with potentially pathogenic MDR and other clinically important AMR bacteria. The high prevalence of colonization with these bacteria is likely to further increase the incidence of difficult-to-treat neonatal sepsis.

2.
BMJ Open ; 11(2): e041723, 2021 Feb 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33574146

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To determine the prevalence, predictors and case fatality risk of hypothermia among neonates in Lira district, Northern Uganda. SETTING: Three subcounties of Lira district in Northern Uganda. DESIGN: This was a community-based cross-sectional study nested in a cluster randomised controlled trial. PARTICIPANTS: Mother-baby pairs enrolled in a cluster randomised controlled trial. An axillary temperature was taken during a home visit using a lithium battery-operated digital thermometer. PRIMARY AND SECONDARY OUTCOMES: The primary outcome measure was the prevalence of hypothermia. Hypothermia was defined as mild if the axillary temperature was 36.0°C to <36.5°C, moderate if the temperature was 32.0°C to <36.0°C and severe hypothermia if the temperature was <32.0°C. The secondary outcome measure was the case fatality risk of neonatal hypothermia. Predictors of moderate to severe hypothermia were determined using a generalised estimating equation model for the Poisson family. RESULTS: We recruited 1330 neonates. The prevalence of hypothermia (<36.5°C) was 678/1330 (51.0%, 95% CI 46.9 to 55.1). Overall, 32% (429/1330), 95% CI 29.5 to 35.2 had mild hypothermia, whereas 18.7% (249/1330), 95% CI 15.8 to 22.0 had moderate hypothermia. None had severe hypothermia. At multivariable analysis, predictors of neonatal hypothermia included: home birth (adjusted prevalence ratio, aPR, 1.9, 95% CI 1.4 to 2.6); low birth weight (aPR 1.7, 95% CI 1.3 to 2.3) and delayed breastfeeding initiation (aPR 1.2, 95% CI 1.0 to 1.5). The case fatality risk ratio of hypothermic compared with normothermic neonates was 2.0 (95% CI 0.60 to 6.9). CONCLUSION: The prevalence of neonatal hypothermia was very high, demonstrating that communities in tropical climates should not ignore neonatal hypothermia. Interventions designed to address neonatal hypothermia should consider ways of reaching neonates born at home and those with low birth weight. The promotion of early breastfeeding initiation and skin-to-skin care could reduce the risk of neonatal hypothermia. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: ClinicalTrial.gov as NCT02605369.

3.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 16319, 2020 10 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33004969

RESUMO

Prevention of unintended pregnancies is a global strategy to eliminate mother-to-child transmission of HIV. Factors surrounding unintended pregnancy among women living with HIV are not well understood. We aimed to determine the prevalence and predictors for unintended pregnancy among these women in Northern Uganda. We conducted a cross-sectional survey among 518 women using a structured questionnaire. We asked questions on socio-demographic, reproductive-related and HIV-related characteristics. We conducted multivariable logistic regression and reported adjusted odds ratios. The prevalence of unintended pregnancy was 41.1%. The predictors for unintended pregnancy were: being single (not living with a partner or being in a marital union), having five or more children and taking antiretroviral drugs for long periods of time. HIV counselling services should target women living with HIV who are not in a marital union, those having a higher parity and those who have taken ART for longer periods.

4.
PLoS One ; 15(10): e0240529, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33057393

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Sub-optimal adherence to infant prophylaxis has been associated with mother-to-child-transmission of HIV. However, the factors associated have not been well characterised in different settings. This study describes barriers and enablers of adherence to infant prophylaxis among 6-week-old HIV exposed infants in Lira district, Northern Uganda. METHODS: This prospective cohort study was conducted from 2018-2020 at the PMTCT clinic at Lira Regional Referral Hospital and included 472 mother-infant pairs. HIV-infected pregnant women were recruited, followed up at delivery and 6 weeks postpartum. We used a structured questionnaire to obtain data on socio-demographic, reproductive-related, HIV-related characteristics and adherence. Data were analysed using Stata to estimate adjusted risk ratios using Poisson regression models to ascertain barriers and enablers of adherence to infant nevirapine prophylaxis. RESULTS: Barriers to infant adherence are maternal characteristics including: younger age (≤20 years adjusted risk ratio (ARR) = 1.55; 95% CI: 1.1-2.2), missing a viral load test during pregnancy (ARR: 1.4; 95% CI: 1.1-1.7) and not receiving nevirapine syrup for the baby after childbirth (ARR = 6.2; 95% CI: 5.1-7.6). Enablers were: having attained ≥14 years of schooling (ARR = 0.7; 95% CI: 0.5-0.9), taking a nevirapine-based regimen (ARR = 0.6; 95% CI: 0.4-0.9), long-term ART (≥ 60 months ARR = 0.75; 95% CI: 0.6-0.9), accompanied by a husband to hospital during labour and childbirth (ARR = 0.5; 95% CI: 0.4-0.7) and labour starting at night (ARR = 0.7; 95% CI: 0.6-0.8). CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS: Despite mothers receiving nevirapine syrup from the health workers for the infant, non-adherence rates still prevail at 14.8%. The health system needs to consider giving HIV infected pregnant women the nevirapine syrup before birth to avoid delays and non-adherence. There is need to pay particular attention to younger women and those who recently started ART.

5.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0237085, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32776958

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Sepsis is the third most common cause of death among neonates, with about 225,000 newborns dying every year globally. Data concerning the microbial etiology of neonatal sepsis and antimicrobial resistance profiles of its causative agents are necessary to inform targeted and effective treatment and prevention strategies. OBJECTIVE: To determine the proportion of newborns with symptoms and signs of sepsis who had a positive blood culture, its bacterial etiology, the antimicrobial resistance patterns as well as the factors associated with culture-positivity and case fatality at Mulago national referral hospital in Uganda. METHODS: We conducted a cross-sectional study among 359 neonates with symptoms and signs of sepsis who presented to the pediatric emergency care unit of Mulago national referral hospital from mid-January to end of December 2018. We performed blood culture and antimicrobial susceptibility testing, and conducted polymerase chain reaction to identify methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) isolates. We used multivariable logistic regression to estimate the association between potential risk factors and culture-positive neonatal sepsis. FINDINGS: Of the 359 neonates recruited, 46 (12.8%; 95% CI 9.5%, 16.7%) had a positive blood culture. The predominant isolated bacteria were Staphylococcus aureus in 29 (63.0%), Escherichia coli in seven (15.2%), and Klebsiella pneumoniae in five (10.9%). Of the 46 pathogens, 73.9% were resistant to ampicillin, 23.9% to gentamicin and 8.7% to ceftriaxone. We isolated MRSA from the blood specimens of 19 (5.3%) of the 359 neonates, while 3 (0.8%) grew extended spectrum beta lactamase producers. The case fatality risk among neonates with neonatal sepsis was 9.5% (95% CI: 6.6%, 13.0%). Cesarean section delivery was strongly associated with culture-positive sepsis (adjusted odds ratio 3.45, 95% CI: 1.2, 10.1). CONCLUSION: One in eight neonates with clinical signs of sepsis grew a likely causative bacterial pathogen. S. aureus was the main pathogen isolated and a third of these isolates were MRSA. A significant proportion of the isolated bacterial pathogens were resistant to the first and second line antibiotics used for the treatment of neonatal sepsis. There is need to revisit the current treatment guidelines for neonatal sepsis.


Assuntos
Sepse Neonatal/epidemiologia , Infecções Estafilocócicas/epidemiologia , Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Hospitais Pediátricos/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Staphylococcus aureus Resistente à Meticilina/patogenicidade , Sepse Neonatal/etiologia , Sepse Neonatal/microbiologia , Infecções Estafilocócicas/etiologia , Infecções Estafilocócicas/microbiologia , Uganda
6.
Int J MCH AIDS ; 9(2): 232-241, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32704410

RESUMO

Background / Objectives: Detectable HIV viral load among HIV-infected pregnant women remains a public health threat. We aimed to determine factors associated with detectable viral load among HIV-infected pregnant women in Lira, Northern Uganda. Methods: We conducted a cross-sectional survey among 420 HIV-infected pregnant women attending Lira Regional Referral Hospital using a structured questionnaire and combined it with viral load tests from Uganda National Health Laboratories. We conducted multivariable logistic regression while adjusting for confounders to determine the factors associated with detectable viral load and we report adjusted odds ratios and proportion of women with viral load less than 50 copies/ml and above 1000 copies, respectively. Results: The prevalence of detectable viral load (>50 copies/ml) was 30.7% (95%CI: 26.3% - 35.4%) and >1000 copies/ml was 8.1% (95% CI: 5.7% - 11.1%). Factors associated with detectable viral load were not belonging to the Lango ethnicity (adjusted odds ratio = 1.92, 95%CI: 1.05 - 3.90) and taking a second-line (protease inhibitor-based) regimen (adjusted odds ratio = 4.41, 95%CI: 1.13 - 17.22). Conclusions and Global Health Implications: HIV-infected pregnant women likely to have detectable viral load included those taking a protease inhibitor-based regimen and those who were not natives of Lira. We recommend intensified clinical and psychosocial monitoring for medication compliance among HIV-infected pregnant women that are likely to have a detectable viral load to significantly lower the risk of vertical transmission of HIV in Lira specifically those taking a protease inhibitor-based regimen and those who are non-natives to the study setting. Much as the third 90% of the global UNAIDS 90-90-90 target has been achieved, the national implementation of PMTCT guidelines should be tailored to its contextual needs.

7.
BMC Infect Dis ; 20(1): 98, 2020 Jan 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32005177

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Potentially pathogenic bacteria that colonise the lower genital tract of women in labour can be passed to the baby during birth. While many babies become colonised with these bacteria after delivery, a few develop neonatal infections. The lower genital tract is a reservoir for potential pathogens and a source of infection for neonates. We determined the prevalence of vaginal colonisation of potentially pathogenic bacteria among women in labour in Central Uganda and identified potential risk factors associated with this colonisation. METHODS: We conducted a cross sectional study at three primary health care facilities and collected vaginal swabs from HIV-1 negative women in labour. Specimens were cultured on different selective microbiological media, and biochemical tests were used to classify bacterial isolates on the species level. Multivariable logistic regression analyses were used to estimate the association between relevant exposures and colonisation with potentially pathogenic bacteria. RESULTS: We recruited 1472 women in labour whose mean age was 24.6 years (standard deviation [SD] 4.9). Of these, 955 (64.9%; 95% Confidence Interval [CI] 62.4, 67%) were vaginally colonised with at least one potentially pathogenic bacterial species. The most commonly isolated species were Escherichia coli (n = 508; 34.5%), Klebsiella pneumoniae (n = 144; 9.8%) and Staphylococcus aureus (n = 121; 8.2%). Results from exploratory multivariable regression analyses indicated that having had ≥5 previous pregnancies (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] 0.59; 95% CI 0.35, 0.97) or being ≥30 years old (aOR 1.52; 95% CI 1.03, 2.23) could be associated with vaginal colonisation with any potentially pathogenic bacteria, as well as with vaginal colonisation with S. aureus (aOR 0.33; 95% CI 0.12, 0.88, and aOR 2.17; 95% CI 1.17, 4.00, respectively). Possession of domestic animals in a household (aOR 0.57; 95% CI 0.35, 0.92) could be associated with vaginal colonisation with E. coli. CONCLUSIONS: Two-thirds of HIV-1 negative women in labour were vaginally colonised by potentially pathogenic bacteria, mainly E. coli, K. pneumoniae, and S. aureus.


Assuntos
Infecções por Escherichia coli/epidemiologia , Infecções por Klebsiella/epidemiologia , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/microbiologia , Infecções Estafilocócicas/epidemiologia , Vagina/microbiologia , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Soropositividade para HIV/epidemiologia , Humanos , Trabalho de Parto , Gravidez , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/epidemiologia , Prevalência , Atenção Primária à Saúde , Fatores de Risco , Uganda/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
8.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31100814

RESUMO

Knowledge of key decision makers and actors in newborn care is necessary to ensure that health interventions are targeted at the right people. This was a cross-sectional study carried out in Lira district, Northern Uganda. Multivariable logistic regression was used to determine factors associated with mothers being the key decision maker regarding where to give birth from and when to initiate breastfeeding. Fathers were the key decision makers on the place of birth (54.3%, n = 505) and on whether to seek care for a sick newborn child (47.7%, n = 92). Grandmothers most commonly bathed the baby immediately after birth (55.5%, n = 516), whereas mothers and health workers were common decision makers regarding breastfeeding initiation. Predictors for a mother being the key decision maker on the place of birth included: Mother having a secondary education (AOR 1.9: 95% C.I (1.0-3.6)) and mother being formally employed (AOR 2.0: 95% (1.5-2.9)). Mothers, fathers, grandmothers, health-workers, and traditional birth attendants were the most influential in the selected newborn care practices. Programs that aim to promote newborn care need to involve husbands, grandmothers, and health workers in addition to mothers.


Assuntos
Tomada de Decisões , Cuidado do Lactente , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto , Aleitamento Materno , Pré-Escolar , Estudos Transversais , Pai , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Tocologia , Mães , Parto , Gravidez , Uganda
9.
BMC Pregnancy Childbirth ; 18(1): 476, 2018 Dec 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30514237

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cleansing the umbilical cord with chlorhexidine reduces neonatal morbidity and mortality, particularly in communities where newborn deaths and home births are common. As a result, the World Health Organization and national authorities are advocating the scale up of this intervention. In order for such a scale up to be effective, it has to be acceptable to the targeted population. With the overall aim to clarify conditions for scale-up, this study explored the acceptability of single dose chlorhexidine solution for umbilical cord care among health workers and infant care providers in the districts of Kampala and Mukono in Central Uganda. METHODS: This was a qualitative study that involved mothers of neonates enrolled in a chlorhexidine trial, nurses implementing the trial, key community members and opinion leaders in childcare. We conducted 30 in depth interviews (IDIs) with mothers (18), health workers (8), traditional birth attendants (2), a father (1) and a grandmother (1) and 4 focus group discussions (FGDs), 3 with mothers and 1 with health workers. We used qualitative content analysis to analyze our findings and borrow upon Sekhon's model when presenting our findings. RESULTS: Cognitive and emotional responses to chlorhexidine use included ease of use, and a perception that chlorhexidine reduced smell and abdominal colic. We also found that wider social and cultural factors were important to chlorhexidine use. These included cultural value put on quick separation of the umbilical cord as well as the practice of bathing the baby in a herbal mixture called kyogero. We also found that older relatives were key decision makers in umbilical cord care for newborns, but were seldom present during health workers' counseling of mothers about hygienic care of the cord. CONCLUSIONS: The application of chlorhexidine on the umbilical cord stump at birth was acceptable as an addition rather than a total replacement of traditional substances. The scale up of chlorhexidine should consider how to accommodate local beliefs and practices in a way that does not compromise the effect of the intervention; encouraging mothers to delay the bathing of babies in kyogero could be one way of doing this.


Assuntos
Anti-Infecciosos Locais/uso terapêutico , Atitude do Pessoal de Saúde , Atitude Frente a Saúde , Clorexidina/uso terapêutico , Doenças do Recém-Nascido/prevenção & controle , Mães , Aceitação pelo Paciente de Cuidados de Saúde , Assistência Perinatal/métodos , Cordão Umbilical , Adulto , Agentes Comunitários de Saúde , Feminino , Grupos Focais , Humanos , Ciência da Implementação , Recém-Nascido , Infecções , Tocologia , Enfermeiras e Enfermeiros , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Autoeficácia , Uganda
10.
Glob Health Action ; 10(1): 1410975, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29243560

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Initiation of breastfeeding later than 1 hour after birth is associated with increased neonatal morbidity and mortality. OBJECTIVE: To determine the prevalence and factors associated with delayed initiation of breastfeeding. METHODS: We conducted a survey in 2016 of 930 children under the age of 2 years in Lira district, northern Uganda. Mothers of the children were interviewed and data was collected on mobile phones using Open Data Kit software ( https://opendatakit.org ). Multivariable logistic regression was used to determine factors associated with delayed initiation of breastfeeding. RESULTS: Almost half [48.2%, 95% confidence interval (CI) (44.3-52.1)] of the mothers delayed initiation of breastfeeding. Factors significantly associated with delayed initiation of breastfeeding in multivariable analysis included caesarean delivery [Adjusted Odds Ratio (AOR) 11.10 95% CI (3.73-33.04)], discarding initial breast milk [AOR 2.02 95% CI (1.41-2.88)], home delivery [AOR 1.43 95% CI (1.04-1.97)] and mother being responsible for initiating breastfeeding as compared to a health worker or relative [AOR 1.73 95% CI (1.33-2.26)]. Mothers having a secondary education were less likely [AOR 0.54 95% CI (0.30-0.96)] to delay initiation of breastfeeding as compared to those with no education. CONCLUSION: About half the mothers delayed initiation of breastfeeding until after 1 hour after birth. Programs to promote, protect and support breastfeeding in this post conflict region are urgently needed.


Assuntos
Aleitamento Materno/estatística & dados numéricos , Mães/psicologia , Cesárea/estatística & dados numéricos , Criança , Estudos Transversais , Escolaridade , Feminino , Parto Domiciliar/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Lactente , Modelos Logísticos , Razão de Chances , Gravidez , Prevalência , Inquéritos e Questionários , Uganda
11.
Trials ; 18(1): 322, 2017 07 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28701228

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Yearly, nearly all the estimated worldwide 2.7 million neonatal deaths occur in low- and middle-income countries. Infections, including those affecting the umbilical cord (omphalitis), are a significant factor in approximately a third of these deaths. In fact, the odds of all-cause mortality are 46% higher among neonates with omphalitis than in those without. Five large randomized controlled trials in Asia and Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) have examined the effect of multiple cord stump applications with 4% chlorhexidine (CHX) for at least 7 days on the risk of omphalitis and neonatal death. These studies, all community-based, show that multiple CHX applications reduced the risk of omphalitis. Of these trials, only one study from South Asia (the Bangladeshi study) and none from Africa examined the effect of a single application of CHX as soon as possible after birth. In this Bangladeshi trial, CHX led to a reduction in the risk of mild-moderate omphalitis and neonatal death. It is important, in an African setting, to explore the effect of a single application among health-facility births. A single application is programmatically much simpler to implement than daily applications for 7 days. Therefore, our study compares umbilical cord cleansing with a single application of 4% CHX at birth with dry cord care among Ugandan babies born in health facilities, on the risk of omphalitis and severe neonatal illness. METHODS: The CHX study is a facility-based, individually randomized controlled trial that will be conducted among 4760 newborns in Uganda. The primary outcomes are severe illness and omphalitis during the neonatal period. Analysis will be by intention-to-treat. DISCUSSION: This study will provide novel evidence, from a Sub-Saharan African setting, of the effect of umbilical cord cleansing with a single application of 4% CHX at birth and identify modifiable risk factors for omphalitis. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov, identifier: NCT02606565 . Registered on 12 November 2015.


Assuntos
Anti-Infecciosos Locais/administração & dosagem , Infecções Bacterianas/prevenção & controle , Clorexidina/administração & dosagem , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis/métodos , Doenças do Recém-Nascido/prevenção & controle , Cordão Umbilical/efeitos dos fármacos , Administração Tópica , Anti-Infecciosos Locais/efeitos adversos , Infecções Bacterianas/diagnóstico , Infecções Bacterianas/microbiologia , Clorexidina/efeitos adversos , Protocolos Clínicos , Feminino , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Doenças do Recém-Nascido/diagnóstico , Doenças do Recém-Nascido/microbiologia , Gravidez , Projetos de Pesquisa , Fatores de Risco , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento , Uganda , Cordão Umbilical/microbiologia , Cordão Umbilical/cirurgia
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