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1.
Reprod Health ; 16(1): 119, 2019 Aug 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31382989

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: There is no consensus on the essential parameters to monitor during childbirth, when to start, and the rate of monitoring them. User disagreement contributes to inconsistent use of the twelve-item modified World Health Organization partograph that is started when the cervix is at least 4 cm dilated. The inconsistent use is associated with poor outcomes at birth. Our objective was to identify the perspectives of childbirth experts on what and when to routinely monitor during childbirth in low resource settings as we develop a more acceptable childbirth clinical decision support tool. METHOD: We carried out a Delphi study with two survey rounds in early 2018. The online questionnaire covered the partograph items like foetal heart, cervical dilation, and blood pressure, and their monitoring rates. We invited panellists with experience of childbirth care in sub-Saharan Africa. Consensus was pre-set at 70% panellists rating a parameter and we gathered some qualitative reasons for choices. RESULTS: We analysed responses of 76 experts from 13 countries. There was consensus on six important parameters including foetal heart rate, amniotic fluid clearness, cervical dilation, strength of uterine contractions, maternal pulse, and blood pressure. Two in three experts expressed support for changing the monitoring intervals for some parameters in the partograph. 63% experts would raise the partograph starting point while 58% would remove some items from it. Consensus was reached on monitoring the cervical dilation at 4-hourly intervals and there was agreement on monitoring the foetal heart rate one-hourly. However, other parameters only showed majority intervals and without reaching agreement scores. The suggested intervals were two-hourly for strength of uterine contractions, and four-hourly for amniotic fluid thickness, maternal pulse and blood pressure. The commonest reason for their opinions was the more demanding working conditions. CONCLUSION: There was agreement on six partograph items being essential for routine monitoring at birth, but the frequency of monitoring could be changed. To increase acceptability, revisions to birth monitoring guidelines have to be made in consideration of opinions and working conditions of several childbirth experts in low resource settings.


Assuntos
Parto Obstétrico/estatística & dados numéricos , Técnica Delfos , Guias como Assunto/normas , Recursos em Saúde/economia , Recursos em Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Monitorização Fisiológica , Parto/fisiologia , Adulto , África ao Sul do Saara , Parto Obstétrico/economia , Prova Pericial , Feminino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Gravidez
2.
BMC Public Health ; 19(1): 1176, 2019 Aug 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31455348

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) rates are high in Uganda (6.7%), and rates are especially high among at-risk groups such as youth living in the slums of Kampala, Uganda. The objective of this study was to assess the psychosocial correlates, particularly alcohol use, associated with HIV among youth living in the slums of Kampala, Uganda. METHODS: Analyses are based on cross-sectional survey data collected in Spring of 2014. Participants comprised a convenience sample (N = 1134) of urban service-seeking youth living on the streets or in the slums, 12-18 years of age who were participating in a Uganda Youth Development Link drop-in center (56.1% female and 43.9% male). Chi-Square Tests were used to determine differences in the proportions of alcohol use patterns between self-reported HIV-positive and HIV-negative youth. Bivariate and multivariable logistic regression were conducted to determine the associated risk factors with self-reported HIV. Institutional Review Board approvals were obtained from the Georgia State University and the Uganda National Council for Science and Technology. RESULTS: Among the total sample of youth (N = 1103), 10.5% (n = 116) reported being HIV-positive. There were statistically significant differences between HIV-positive and HIV-negative youth on ever living on the streets (χ2 =10.14, df = 1, p = 0.002), past 12-month alcohol use (χ2 =16.38, df = 1, p < .0001), ever having sexual intercourse (χ2 =14.52, df = 1, p = 0.0001), ever engaging in sex work (χ2 =13.19, df = 1, p = 0.0003), inconsistent condom use in the past 3 months (χ2 =5.03, df = 1, p = 0.03), and ever being raped (χ2 =15.29, df = 1, p < 0.0001). A higher percentage of HIV-positive youth were classified as problem drinkers, defined by the CAGE scores (21.6% vs. 13.9%, respectively). In the multivariable analysis, previously being raped (OR: 1.70; 95% CI: 1.02, 2.83) and alcohol use without problem drinking (OR: 2.14; 95% CI: 1.24, 3.69) was associated with HIV. CONCLUSION: Youth living in the slums of Kampala, Uganda have a high prevalence of HIV. These youth are in dire need of interventions which address both alcohol use behaviors and sexual risk behaviors to reduce further complications of their existing health conditions, including HIV.


Assuntos
Infecções por HIV/psicologia , Áreas de Pobreza , Adolescente , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/epidemiologia , Criança , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Fatores de Risco , Autorrelato , Uganda/epidemiologia
3.
Afr Health Sci ; 19(3): 2645-2653, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32127837

RESUMO

Background: In Uganda, most-at-riskpopulations(MARPs) such as fishing communities remain vulnerable to preventable HIV acquisition. Safe Male Circumcision (SMC) has been incorporated into Uganda's HIV prevention strategies. This study aimed at determining SMC utilization and associated factors among adult men in a rural fishing community in Uganda. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted in a rural fishing village in central Uganda. Stratified random sampling of 369 fishermen aged 18-54 yearswas used according to their occupational category; fish monger, boat crew and general merchandise. The dependent variable wasutilization of SMC.A forward fitting multivariable logistic regression model was fitted with variables significant at p≤0.05 controlling for confounding and effect modification. Results: Respondents'mean(SD) age was 30.0(9.3) years. Only8.4%hadSMC and among non-circumcised men, 84.9% had adequate knowledge of SMC benefits while 79.3% did not know were SMC services were offered. Peer support(AOR0.17;95%-CI0.05-0.60) and perceived procedural safety (AOR6.8;95%CI2.16-21.17) were independently associated with SMC utilization. Conclusion: In this rural fishing community, SMC utilization was low. These findings underscore the need to inform HIV preventionstrategies inthecontextof peer support and perceptionsheld by rural dwelling men.


Assuntos
Circuncisão Masculina/estatística & dados numéricos , Infecções por HIV/prevenção & controle , Aceitação pelo Paciente de Cuidados de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , População Rural/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Adulto , Circuncisão Masculina/efeitos adversos , Estudos Transversais , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores de Risco , Uganda , Adulto Jovem
4.
Stud Health Technol Inform ; 247: 456-460, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29678002

RESUMO

A third of women in childbirth are inadequately monitored, partly due to the tools used. Some stakeholders assert that the current labour monitoring tools are not efficient and need improvement to become more relevant to childbirth attendants. The study objective was to explore the expectations of maternity service providers for a mobile childbirth monitoring tool in maternity facilities in a low-income country like Uganda. Semi-structured interviews of purposively selected midwives and doctors in rural-urban childbirth facilities in Uganda were conducted before thematic data analysis. The childbirth providers expected a tool that enabled fast and secure childbirth record storage and sharing. They desired a tool that would automatically and conveniently register patient clinical findings, and actively provide interactive clinical decision support on a busy ward. The tool ought to support agreed upon standards for good pregnancy outcomes but also adaptable to the patient and their difficult working conditions. The tool functionality should include clinical data management and real-time decision support to the midwives, while the non-functional attributes include versatility and security.


Assuntos
Parto Obstétrico , Serviços de Saúde Materna , Parto , Feminino , Humanos , Tocologia , Gravidez , Resultado da Gravidez , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Uganda
5.
PLoS One ; 12(6): e0180015, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28665974

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: There is limited data on the effects of alcohol on immunological response among persons living with HIV (PLHIV) in sub-Saharan Africa. We assessed the relationship between hazardous alcohol use and CD4+ T-cell count, among PLHIV in Uganda. METHODS: PLHIV aged ≥ 18 years were enrolled in a cohort study at the Infectious diseases clinic Kampala, Uganda. Alcohol consumption was assessed at enrolment (baseline) and 6 monthly thereafter using the alcohol use disorders identification test (AUDIT). The CD4+ T-cell counts, assessed at baseline and over the next 12 months were compared between alcohol use strata, using linear mixed effects regression. Using longitudinal mediation analysis methods, we estimated the effect of alcohol induced ART non-adherence on CD4+ T-cell count. RESULTS: Of the 1566 participants enrolled, 863(44.1%) were non-alcohol users (AUDIT score = 0), 433(27.7%) were non-hazardous (AUDIT score 1-7) alcohol users while 270 (17.2%) were hazardous (AUDIT score ≥ 8) alcohol users. The overall median (IQR) baseline CD4+ T-cell count was 356 (243-516) cells/µl. There were no differences in the median baseline CD4+ T-cell count between hazardous and non-hazardous alcohol users compared to non-alcohol users in both the non-ART (p = 0.43) and ART group (p = 0.77). The mean CD4+ T-cell count over 12 months was not different between hazardous alcohol users and non-alcohol users (non-ART group p = 0.88 and ART group p = 0.62), nor between non-hazardous alcohol users and non-alcohol users (and non-ART group p = 0.66 and ART group p = 0.20). Alcohol use was not associated with a significant natural direct effect on CD4+ T-cell count (1.37 95%CI [-1.78, 4.52] cells/µl, p = 0.39) but had a statistically significant natural indirect effect on reduction of CD4+ T-cell count (-0.91 cells/µl [-1.36, -0.45], p < 0.001) mediated through ART non-adherence. CONCLUSION: Hazardous alcohol use among PLHIV was not directly associated with lower CD4+ T-cell count but had a significant natural indirect effect on CD4+ T-cell count mediated through ART non-adherence. Among PLHIV with lower than expected CD4+ T-cell count, alcohol consumption should be excluded as an underlying factor for non-adherence to ART and any interventions targeting alcohol use should tackle possible ART non-adherence.


Assuntos
Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas , Contagem de Linfócito CD4 , Infecções por HIV/fisiopatologia , Adulto , Fármacos Anti-HIV/uso terapêutico , Feminino , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por HIV/imunologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Cooperação do Paciente , Estudos Prospectivos , Uganda
6.
JMIR Med Inform ; 5(2): e14, 2017 Jun 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28619702

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Proper monitoring of labor and childbirth prevents many pregnancy-related complications. However, monitoring is still poor in many places partly due to the usability concerns of support tools such as the partograph. In 2011, the World Health Organization (WHO) called for the development and evaluation of context-adaptable electronic health solutions to health challenges. Computerized tools have penetrated many areas of health care, but their influence in supporting health staff with childbirth seems limited. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this scoping review was to determine the scope and trends of research on computerized labor monitoring tools that could be used by health care providers in childbirth management. METHODS: We used key terms to search the Web for eligible peer-reviewed and gray literature. Eligibility criteria were a computerized labor monitoring tool for maternity service providers and dated 2006 to mid-2016. Retrieved papers were screened to eliminate ineligible papers, and consensus was reached on the papers included in the final analysis. RESULTS: We started with about 380,000 papers, of which 14 papers qualified for the final analysis. Most tools were at the design and implementation stages of development. Three papers addressed post-implementation evaluations of two tools. No documentation on clinical outcome studies was retrieved. The parameters targeted with the tools varied, but they included fetal heart (10 of 11 tools), labor progress (8 of 11), and maternal status (7 of 11). Most tools were designed for use in personal computers in low-resource settings and could be customized for different user needs. CONCLUSIONS: Research on computerized labor monitoring tools is inadequate. Compared with other labor parameters, there was preponderance to fetal heart monitoring and hardly any summative evaluation of the available tools. More research, including clinical outcomes evaluation of computerized childbirth monitoring tools, is needed.

8.
BMC Res Notes ; 9(1): 501, 2016 Dec 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27927247

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: We conducted a study to assess the frequency and distribution patterns of selected opportunistic infections (OIs) and opportunistic cancers (OCs) in different geographical areas before and after HAART in Uganda. METHODS: This was a cross-sectional serial review of observation data for adult HIV positive patients (≥15 years) enrolled with the AIDS support organization (TASO) in Uganda covering the period from January 2001 to December 2013. Both AIDS defining OIs/OCs and non-AIDS defining OIs were analyzed. The study period was structured into three time periods: "pre- HAART" (2001-2003), "early-HAART" (2004-2008) and "late-HAART" (2009-2013). Descriptive statistics were used to summarize the data by time period, age, gender and geographical location. Chi squared test used to test the significance of the differences in proportions. RESULTS: A total of 108,619 HIV positive patients were included in the analysis. 64% (64,240) were female with median age of 33 years (IQR 27-40). The most frequent OIs before HAART were oral candida (34.6%) diarrhoeal infection (<1 month) (30.6%), geohelminths (26.5%), Mycobacterium tuberculosis (TB) (17.7%), malaria (15.1%) and bacterial pneumonia (11.2%). In early HAART (2004-2008), the most frequent OIs were geohelminths (32.4%), diarrhoeal infection (25.6%), TB (18.2%) and oral candida (18.1%). In late HAART (2009-2013), the most frequent OIs were geohelminths (23.5%) and diarrhoeal infection (14.3%). By gender, prevalence was consistently higher in women (p < 0.05) before and after HAART for geohelminths, candidiasis, diarrhoeal infection, bacterial pneumonia and genital ulcer disease but consistently higher in men for TB and Kaposi's sarcoma (p < 0.05). By age, prevalence was consistently higher in older age groups (>30 years) before and after HAART for oral candida and TB (p < 0.05) and higher in young age groups (<30 years) for malaria and genital ulcers (p < 0.05). By geographical location, prevalence was consistently higher in Eastern and Northern Uganda before and after HAART for diarrheal infection and geohelminths (p < 0.0001). CONCLUSIONS: The frequency and pattern of OIs before and after HAART differs by gender, age and geographical location. Prevalence of geohelminths and diarrhea infection(<1 month) remains high especially in Northern and Eastern Uganda even after HAART and should therefore be given special attention in HIV/AIDS care programmes in these settings.


Assuntos
Infecções Oportunistas Relacionadas com a AIDS/epidemiologia , Síndrome de Imunodeficiência Adquirida/epidemiologia , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Síndrome de Imunodeficiência Adquirida/tratamento farmacológico , Adolescente , Adulto , Terapia Antirretroviral de Alta Atividade , Candidíase Bucal/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Modelos Estatísticos , Neoplasias/epidemiologia , Prevalência , Tuberculose/epidemiologia , Uganda/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
9.
BMC Public Health ; 16(1): 766, 2016 08 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27515983

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Predicting future prevalence of any opportunistic infection (OI) among persons infected with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) on highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) in resource poor settings is important for proper planning, advocacy and resource allocation. We conducted a study to forecast 5-years prevalence of any OI among HIV-infected individuals on HAART in Uganda. METHODS: Monthly observational data collected over a 10-years period (2004-2013) by the AIDS support organization (TASO) in Uganda were used to forecast 5-years annual prevalence of any OI covering the period 2014-2018. The OIs considered include 14 AIDS-defining OIs, two non-AIDS defining OIs (malaria & geohelminths) and HIV-associated Kaposi's sarcoma. Box-Jenkins autoregressive integrated moving average (ARIMA) forecasting methodology was used. RESULTS: Between 2004 and 2013, a total of 36,133 HIV patients were enrolled on HAART of which two thirds (66 %) were female. Mean annual prevalence for any OI in 2004 was 57.6 % and in 2013 was 27.5 % (X(2) trend = 122, b = -0.0283, p <0.0001). ARIMA (1, 1, 1) model was the most parsimonious and best fit for the data. The forecasted mean annual prevalence of any OI was 26.1 % (95 % CI 21.1-31.0 %) in 2014 and 15.3 % (95 % CI 10.4-20.3 %) in 2018. CONCLUSIONS: While the prevalence of any OI among HIV positive individuals on HAART in Uganda is expected to decrease overall, it's unlikely that OIs will be completely eliminated in the foreseeable future. There is therefore need for continued efforts in prevention and control of opportunistic infections in all HIV/AIDS care programmes in these settings.


Assuntos
Infecções Oportunistas Relacionadas com a AIDS/epidemiologia , Terapia Antirretroviral de Alta Atividade/tendências , Previsões , Infecções por HIV/complicações , Adulto , Feminino , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prevalência , Uganda/epidemiologia
10.
PLoS One ; 11(2): e0148511, 2016.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26918871

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Road traffic injuries are the eighth leading cause of death globally and the most affected are young people aged 15-29. By 2030 road traffic deaths will become the fifth leading cause of death unless urgent action is taken. Motorcyclists are among the most vulnerable road users and in Uganda they contribute 41% of all road traffic injuries. This paper establishes factors associated with the injuries of commercial motorcycle riders also known as boda-boda riders in Kampala, Uganda's capital city. METHODS: The study was matched case-control with a case being a boda-boda rider that was seen at one of the 5 major city hospitals with a road traffic injury while a control was a boda-boda rider that was at the parking stage where the case operated from before the injury. The sample size was 289 riders per arm and data collection took 7 months. A structured questionnaire was used to collect data on background and exposing factors. Being matched case-control data conditional logistic regression was used in the analysis. RESULTS: Factors independently associated with injury among motorcyclists were younger age group, being a current alcohol drinker (OR = 2.30, 95%CI: 1.19-4.45), lower engine capacity (<100 cc) (OR = 5.03, 95%CI: 2.91-8.70), riding experience of less than 3 years, not changing a motorcycle in past 1 year (OR = 2.04, 95%CI: 1.19-3.52), riding for a longer time in a day (OR = 6.05, 95%CI: 2.58-14.18) and sharing a motorcycle (OR = 8.25, 95%CI:2.62-25.9). Other factors associated with injury were low level of knowledge of traffic rules, being stopped by police for checks on condition of motorcycle/license/insurance, working till late. RECOMMENDATIONS: More road safety sensitization is required among riders to raise awareness against sharing motorcycles, working for a longer time and alcohol consumption. Police enforcement of drink-driving laws should include riders of commercial motorcycles. Investigate the validity of motorcycle riding licenses and test the riding competency of all who got licenses in last 3 years.


Assuntos
Acidentes de Trânsito , Motocicletas , Acidentes de Trânsito/mortalidade , Acidentes de Trânsito/prevenção & controle , Acidentes de Trânsito/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Adulto , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/efeitos adversos , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Humanos , Licenciamento , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Análise Multivariada , Fatores de Risco , Segurança , Uganda/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29201404

RESUMO

Background: Young people in Uganda have a large unmet need for modern contraception, and the reasons are unclear. This study describes young peoples' experiences of contraceptive care, client-provider interactions and its aftermath on choice, access and satisfaction. Methods: Simulated client method, with 128 encounters with providers in public and private health care facilities was used. Semi-structured narrative debriefing and a structured questionnaire were used to collect data. Content analysis, descriptive and inferential statistics were applied. Results: Both qualitative and quantitative results highlight favorable reception, provider bias, low client satisfaction and reservations about contraceptive methods. Two thirds of the providers choose a contraceptive method for the client. The clients reported satisfaction with contraceptive services in 29 % of the consultations. Privacy was reported to be observed in 42 % and clients felt respectfully treated in 50 % of the consultations. However, most clients would not recommend the visited facility to others. Client-provider interactions revealed contradictory views on methods to use, whether to first have children, and whether to use contraceptives at all. Younger clients seemed to be treated differently than older clients; contraceptives were provided after a prolonged debate. Inaccurate information about contraceptives was provided and costs were high. Providers conveyed potential adverse effects of contraceptives to young people in a way that indicated providers own fears and doubts. Conclusion: Young people are not able to exercise their rights to choose, obtain and use contraceptives when needed. Overall satisfaction with the services was rated low and client- provider interactions were often unfavorable.

12.
Infect Dis Rep ; 7(3): 5967, 2015 Aug 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26500739

RESUMO

Knowledge of mortality trends and predictors among HIV-positive patients in the era of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) in resource poor settings is still limited. The aim of this study was to describe trends and predictors of mortality among HIV-positive patients in the era of HAART in Uganda. Data from 2004 to 2013 for adult HIV-positive patients (≥15 years) obtaining care and treatment from the AIDS Support Organization in Uganda were reviewed for mortality. Descriptive statistics were analyzed by frequencies and cross tabulations. Calendar period was used as a proxy measure for HAART exposure and a time plot of the proportion of HIV-positive patients reporting dead per year was used to describe the trends. Logistic regression was used to determine the predictors of mortality at bivariate and multivariate levels, respectively. We included in the analysis 95,857 HIV positive patients; 64% were female with median age of 33 years (interquartile range 27-40). Of these 36,133 (38%) were initiated on ART and a total of 4279 (4.5%) died; 19.5% (835/4279) of those who died had an opportunistic infection. Overall, mortality first increased between 2004 and 2006 and thereafter substantially declined (X(2) trend=211.9, P<0.001). Mortality was relatively higher in Eastern Uganda compared to other geographical areas. Male gender, older age (>45 years), being from Eastern or Northern Uganda, having none or primary education, being unemployed, advanced immunodeficiency (CD4 count <100 cell/µL or WHO stage III or IV) and underweight (<45 kg weight) at HAART initiation and calendar period 2004-2008 were significant predictors of mortality (P<0.001). Overall, the expanding coverage of HAART is associated with a declining trend in mortality among HIV positive patients in Uganda. However, mortality trends differed significantly by geographical area and men remain potentially at higher risk of death probably because of delayed initiation on ART. There is urgent need for men targeted interventions for improved ART performance.

13.
AIDS Res Ther ; 12: 20, 2015.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26075005

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Trends in prevalence of opportunistic infections (OIs) associated with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) in resource poor settings have previously not been well documented. The objective of this study was to describe the trends in prevalence of Diarrhoea, Bacterial pneumonia, Kaposi's sarcoma, Malaria and Geohelminths among HIV positive individuals over a 12 year period in Uganda. METHODS: Observation data for 5972 HIV positive individuals enrolled with the AIDS support organisation (TASO) in Uganda were analysed. Study participants were drawn from three HIV clinics located in different geographical areas of Uganda and followed from January 2002 to December 2013. The prevalence trends for the above OIs were plotted using the Box Jenkins moving average technique. X (2)-test for trend was used to test for the significance of the trends and Pearson's correlation coefficient used to test for the strength of linear relationship between OI prevalence and calendar time. Mixed effect linear regression was used to estimate average monthly change in prevalence with monthly variation modelled as a random effect. RESULTS: A total of 204,871 monthly medical reports were retrieved and analysed. 73 % (4301/5972) were female with a median age of 32 years (inter-quartile range 26-39). Overall, significant decreasing mean annual prevalence trends (p < 0.05, X(2) trend) were observed for Diarrhoea (<1 month) with Pearson's correlation coefficient (r = -0.89), Malaria (r = -0.75), Bacterial Pneumonia (r = -0.52), and Geohelminth (r = -0.32). Non-significant increasing mean annual prevalence trend was observed for Kaposis sarcoma (p = 0.20, X(2) trend; r = +0.26). After adjusting for age, sex and clinic in a mixed effects linear regression model, average monthly prevalence declined significantly at a rate of 0.4 % for Kaposis sarcoma, 0.3 % for Geohelminths, 2 % for Malaria, 1 % for Bacterial Pneumonia and 3 % for Diarrhoea(<1 month). However, the rate of decline per month differed significantly (p < 0.05) by HIV clinic for Diarrhoea (<1 month), and age, sex and clinic for malaria. CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS: Overall, decreasing trends were observed in the above OIs. However the trends differed significantly by OI, geographical location and demographic characteristics. There is urgent need to integrate interventions targeting malaria and geohelminths in HIV programmes.

14.
BMC Infect Dis ; 15: 187, 2015 Apr 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25879621

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: After more than a decade of establishing and expanding access to highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART), empirical evidence on its impact on trends of opportunistic infections (OIs) associated with the deadly human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) in resource poor settings is scarce. The primary objective of this study was to assess the effect of HAART coverage on trends of five most common OIs in Uganda. METHODS: Observational data from January 2002 to December 2013 for 5972 HIV positive individuals attending the AIDS Support Organisation (TASO) HIV/AIDS care programme in Uganda were extracted and analysed. Trends were analysed using autoregressive moving average time series and mixed effects linear regression models adjusting for all available potential confounders. RESULTS: A total of 204,871 monthly medical reports were retrieved and analysed. Majority of the participants were female (73%) with a median age of 32 years (inter-quartile range 26-39). Overall, significant decreasing mean annual prevalence trends were observed for Mycobacterium tuberculosis, herpes zoster, genital ulcer and oral candidiasis (p < 0.05, X(2)trend). Non-significant declining mean annual prevalence trend was observed for cryptococcal meningitis (p = 0.181, X(2)trend). The largest impact of HAART was observed in Oral candidiasis and TB whose average annual prevalence reduced by 61% and 43% respectively following the introduction of HAART. Monthly series for TB, Herpes zoster and genital ulcers differed significantly by age and clinic but only genital ulcer series differed significantly by sex (p < 0.05, kruskal wallis). After controlling for the effects of age, sex and clinic (fixed) and monthly clustering (random effect) in a mixed effects linear regression model, all the five OIs showed a significant monthly change in prevalence (p < 0.001). CONCLUSION: Overall, prevalence of most OIs declined especially after the introduction of HAART. However significant variations exist in the trends of different OIs in different geographical areas in Uganda. It is therefore important that site specific factors are properly identified to enable the development of targeted interventions.


Assuntos
Infecções Oportunistas Relacionadas com a AIDS/epidemiologia , Terapia Antirretroviral de Alta Atividade , Infecções Oportunistas Relacionadas com a AIDS/prevenção & controle , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prevalência , Fatores Sexuais , Uganda/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
15.
BMC Womens Health ; 15: 5, 2015 Jan 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25627072

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Eliminating family planning (FP) unmet need among HIV-infected individuals (PLHIV) is critical to elimination of mother-to-child HIV transmission. We assessed FP unmet need among PLHIV attending two clinics with differing models of FP services. Nsambya Home Care provided only FP information while Mulago HIV clinic provided information and contraceptives onsite. METHODS: In a cross-sectional study conducted between February-June 2011, we documented pregnancies, fertility desires, and contraceptive use among 797 HIV-infected men and women (408 in Mulago and 389 in Nsambya). FP unmet need was calculated among women who were married, unmarried but had sex within the past month, did not desire the last or future pregnancy at all or wished to postpone for ≥ two years and were not using contraceptives. Multivariable analyses for correlates of FP unmet need were computed for each clinic. RESULTS: Overall, 40% (315) had been pregnant since HIV diagnosis; 58% desired the pregnancies. Of those who were not pregnant, 49% (366) did not desire more children at all; 15.7% wanted children then and 35.3% later. The unmet need for FP in Nsambya (45.1%) was significantly higher than that in Mulago at 30.9% (p = 0.008). Age 40+ compared to 18-29 years (OR = 6.05; 95% CI: 1.69, 21.62 in Mulago and OR = 0.21; 95% CI: 0.05, 0.90 in Nsambya), other Christian denominations (Pentecostal and Seventh Day Adventists) compared to Catholics (OR = 7.18; 95% CI: 2.14, 24.13 in Mulago and OR = 0.23; 95% CI: 0.06, 0.80 in Nsambya), and monthly expenditure > USD 200 compared to < USD40 in Nsambya (OR = 0.17; 95% CI: 0.03, 0.90) were associated with FP unmet need. CONCLUSIONS: More than half of the pregnancies in this population were desired. Unmet need for FP was very high at both clinics and especially at the clinic which did not have contraceptives onsite. Lower income and younger women were most affected by the lack of contraceptives onsite. Comprehensive and aggressive FP programs are required for fertility support and elimination of FP unmet need among PLHIV, even with integration of FP information and supplies into HIV clinics.


Assuntos
Comportamento Contraceptivo , Serviços de Planejamento Familiar , Fertilidade , Infecções por HIV , Educação Sexual/métodos , Adulto , Comportamento Contraceptivo/psicologia , Comportamento Contraceptivo/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudos Transversais , Assistência à Saúde/métodos , Serviços de Planejamento Familiar/métodos , Serviços de Planejamento Familiar/organização & administração , Feminino , Infecções por HIV/diagnóstico , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Infecções por HIV/psicologia , Necessidades e Demandas de Serviços de Saúde , Humanos , Masculino , Casamento/psicologia , Casamento/estatística & dados numéricos , Modelos Organizacionais , Motivação , Gravidez , Parceiros Sexuais/psicologia , Uganda/epidemiologia
16.
J Int AIDS Soc ; 18: 19312, 2015.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25556374

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Male circumcision (MC) reduces the risk of HIV infection. However, the risk reduction effect of MC can be modified by type of circumcision (medical, traditional and religious) and sexual risk behaviours post-circumcision. Understanding the risk behaviours associated with HIV infection among circumcised men (regardless of form of circumcision) is critical to the design of comprehensive risk reduction interventions. This study assessed risk factors for HIV infection among men circumcised through various circumcision approaches. METHODS: This was a case-control study which enrolled 155 cases (HIV-infected) and 155 controls (HIV-uninfected), all of whom were men aged 18-35 years presenting at the AIDS Information Center for HIV testing and care. The outcome variable was HIV sero-status. Using SPSS version 17, multivariable logistic regression was performed to identify factors independently associated with HIV infection. RESULTS: Overall, 83.9% among cases and 56.8% among controls were traditionally circumcised; 7.7% of cases and 21.3% of controls were religiously circumcised while 8.4% of cases and 21.9% of controls were medically circumcised. A higher proportion of cases than controls reported resuming sexual intercourse before complete wound healing (36.9% vs. 14.1%; p<0.01). Risk factors for HIV infection prior to circumcision were:being in a polygamous marriage (AOR: 6.6, CI: 2.3-18.8) and belonging to the Bagisu ethnic group (AOR: 6.1, CI: 2.6-14.0). After circumcision, HIV infection was associated with: being circumcised at >18 years (AOR: 5.0, CI: 2.4-10.2); resuming sexual intercourse before wound healing (AOR: 3.4, CI: 1.6-7.3); inconsistent use of condoms (AOR: 2.7, CI: 1.5-5.1); and having sexual intercourse under the influence of peers (AOR: 2.9, CI: 1.5-5.5). Men who had religious circumcision were less likely to have HIV infection (AOR: 0.4, 95% CI: 0.2-0.9) than the traditionally circumcised but there was no statistically significant difference between those who were traditionally circumcised and those who were medically circumcised (AOR: 0.40, 95% CI: 0.1-1.1). CONCLUSIONS: Being circumcised at adulthood, resumption of sexual intercourse before wound healing, inconsistent condom use and having sex under the influence of peers were significant risk factors for HIV infection. Risk reduction messages should address these risk factors, especially among traditionally circumcised men.


Assuntos
Circuncisão Masculina , Infecções por HIV/etiologia , Adulto , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Infecções por HIV/prevenção & controle , Humanos , Masculino , Fatores de Risco , Comportamento de Redução do Risco , Assunção de Riscos , Comportamento Sexual , Uganda
17.
Reprod Health ; 11(1): 25, 2014 Mar 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24656204

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Safe male circumcision (SMC) is a known efficacious intervention in the prevention of heterosexual HIV acquisition. However, there are perceptions that SMC may lead to behavior disinhibition towards risky sexual behaviors. We assessed the association between male circumcision, risky sexual behaviors and HIV prevalence among men in a nationally representative sample. METHODS: Data was extracted from the Uganda AIDS Indicator Survey (2011), a stratified two-stage cluster sample, with a total of 7,969 ever sexually active men aged 15-59 years. The association between risky sexual behaviors (non- marital/non-cohabiting sexual relations, non-use of condoms, transactional sex, multiple (4+) lifetime partners) and male circumcision status were determined using odds ratios (OR) and their 95% confidence intervals, through logistic regression models. All analyses were conducted in Stata version 12. RESULTS: Overall, the prevalence of male circumcision was 28%; higher among men aged 25-34 years, 32%, and lowest among those aged 45-59 years, 18%. HIV prevalence was significantly lower among the circumcised, 4.8% compared to the uncircumcised men, 7.8% (p < 0.001). The commonest risky sexual behaviors were multiple life-time sexual partners (4+), 59%; non-use of condoms with non-marital sexual partners, 55%; and having non-marital sex, 33%. In comparison with the uncircumcised, circumcised men had higher odds of engaging in non-marital sex AOR = 1.26 (95% CI: 1.05-1.52), reporting multiple (4+) life-time partners, AOR = 1.46 (95% CI: 1.27-1.67). The odds of non-use of condoms with a non-marital partner were also significantly lower among the circumcised compared to the uncircumcised men, AOR = 0.79 (95% CI: 0.63-0.98). CONCLUSIONS: Although risky sexual behaviors were more common among circumcised men, HIV prevalence was lower among the circumcised men relative to the uncircumcised. These observations suggest a need to promote the already known HIV intervention strategies especially among the circumcised men.


Assuntos
Circuncisão Masculina , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Sexo sem Proteção , Adolescente , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco , Assunção de Riscos , Uganda
18.
BMC Pregnancy Childbirth ; 13: 189, 2013 Oct 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24134717

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Maternal morbidity and mortality remains high in Uganda; largely due to inadequate antenatal care (ANC), low skilled deliveries and poor quality of other maternal health services. In order to address both the demand and quality of ANC and skilled deliveries, we introduced community mobilization and health facility capacity strengthening interventions. METHODS: Interventions were introduced between January 2010 and September 2011. These included: training health workers, provision of medical supplies, community mobilization using village health teams, music dance and drama groups and male partner access clubs. These activities were implemented at Kitgum Matidi health center III and its catchment area. Routinely collected health facility data on selected outcomes in the year preceding the interventions and after 21 months of implementation of the interventions was reviewed. Trend analysis was performed using excel and statistical significance testing was performed using EPINFO StatCal option. RESULTS: The number of pregnant women attending the first ANC visit significantly increased from 114 to 150 in the first and fourth quarter of 2010 (OR 1.72; 95% CI 1.39-2.12) and to 202 in the third quarter of 2011(OR 11.41; 95% CI 7.97-16.34). The number of pregnant women counselled, tested and given results for HIV during the first ANC attendance significantly rose from 92 (80.7%) to 146 (97.3%) in the first and fourth quarter of 2010 and then to 201 (99.5%) in the third quarter of 2011. The number of male partners counseled, tested and given results together with their wives at first ANC visit rose from 13 (16.7%) in the fourth quarter of 2009 to 130 (89%) in the fourth quarter of 2010 and to 180 (89.6%) in the third quarter of 2011. There was a significant rise in the number of pregnant women delivering in the health facility with provision of mama-kits (delivery kits), from 74 (55.2%) to 149 (99.3%) in the second and fourth quarter of 2010. CONCLUSIONS: Combined community and facility systems strengthening interventions led to increased first ANC visits by women and their partners, and health facility deliveries. Interventions aimed at increasing uptake of maternal health services should address both the demand and availability of quality services.


Assuntos
Fortalecimento Institucional , Instalações de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Promoção da Saúde/métodos , Aceitação pelo Paciente de Cuidados de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Cuidado Pré-Natal/estatística & dados numéricos , Serviços de Saúde Rural/estatística & dados numéricos , Aconselhamento , Feminino , Infecções por HIV/diagnóstico , Instalações de Saúde/tendências , Humanos , Masculino , Parto , Gravidez , Cuidado Pré-Natal/tendências , Avaliação de Programas e Projetos de Saúde , Serviços de Saúde Rural/tendências , Cônjuges , Uganda
19.
Subst Use Misuse ; 48(12): 1130-7, 2013 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24041174

RESUMO

Fish landing sites have high levels of harmful use of alcohol. This paper examines the role of religion and religiosity on alcohol consumption at two fish landing sites on Lake Victoria in Uganda. Questionnaires were administered to randomly selected people at the sites. Dependent variables included alcohol consumption during the previous 30 days, whereas the key independent variables were religion and religiosity. Bivariate and multivariate analysis techniques were applied. People reporting low religiosity were five times more likely to have consumed alcohol (95% confidence interval: 2.45-10.04) compared with those reporting low/average religiosity. Religion and religiosity are potential channels for controlling alcohol use.


Assuntos
Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/epidemiologia , Religião , Adolescente , Adulto , Feminino , Inquéritos Epidemiológicos , Humanos , Incidência , Lagos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Inquéritos e Questionários , Uganda
20.
Malar J ; 12: 170, 2013 May 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23705591

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Malaria is the leading cause of morbidity and mortality in Uganda. The Ministry of Health (MoH) plans to scale up indoor residual spraying (IRS) for malaria vector control. However, there is limited information on community knowledge and perceptions towards IRS. This study assessed community knowledge and perceptions about IRS in Soroti district, eastern Uganda. METHODS: The study was cross-sectional and it covered 770 randomly selected households in urban and rural settings in Soroti district, Eastern Uganda. The respondents were heads of household and or their proxies. The data were collected on the sociodemographic characteristics, knowledge of the insecticides that could be used for IRS, parts of the houses that would be sprayed, importance of IRS, role of household heads in IRS programme, frequency and the time of spraying. Responses to the questions on these areas were used to create a composite dependent variable categorized as knowledgeable if they had responded correctly to at least three questions or not knowledgeable about IRS if they responded correctly to less than three questions. In addition, respondents were asked if they thought the IRS programme would be beneficial or not. Bivariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses were carried out using SPSS version 17. RESULTS: Less than half, (48.6%, 374/770) of the respondents were knowledgeable about IRS. Urban residents (AOR 1.92, 95% CI 1.04-3.56) and those with secondary education or higher (AOR 4.81, 95% CI 2.72-8.52) were knowledgeable about IRS. Three-quarters, (74.4%, 354/473) of respondents who had ever heard of IRS, perceived it as beneficial. Two-thirds, (66.4%, 314/473) reported that IRS would have negative effects. Respondents who reported that, IRS programme is beneficial were: 23 years or older (AOR 2.17, 95% CI 1.07-4.38), had attained secondary education or higher (AOR 2.16, 95% CI 1.22-3.83) and were knowledgeable about IRS (AOR 2.21, 95% CI 1.17-4.17). CONCLUSIONS: Knowledge about IRS is inadequate and negative perceptions about its use are prominent especially among the rural and less educated individuals. To ensure householders' cooperation and participation in the IRS programme, adequate community mobilization and sensitization is needed prior to use of IRS for effective malaria control.


Assuntos
Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Inseticidas/administração & dosagem , Malária/prevenção & controle , Controle de Mosquitos/métodos , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Características da Família , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Uganda , Adulto Jovem
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