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1.
BMC Public Health ; 21(1): 544, 2021 Mar 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33740935

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Few studies have investigated the association between alcohol use, intimate partner violence, and HIV sexual risk behavior among young people in fishing communities from eastern and central Uganda. Therefore, we aimed to determine the association between alcohol use, intimate partner violence, and HIV sexual risk behavior among young people in the fishing communities on the shores of Lake Victoria, in Uganda. METHODS: We conducted multivariable logistic regression analyses of HIV risk behavior using cross-sectional data from 501 young people from Mukono (Katosi landing site) and Namayingo districts (Lugala landing site). RESULTS: Almost all (97%) respondents reported at least one HIV risk behavior; more than half (54%) reported engagement in three or more HIV risk behaviors. Results from the adjusted model indicate that alcohol use, working for cash or kind, being married, and having multiple sexual partners increased the odds of HIV risk behavior. IPV was not associated with HIV risk behavior. CONCLUSION: Interventions to promote consistent condom use and fewer sexual partnerships are critical for young people in the fishing communities in Uganda.

2.
BMJ Glob Health ; 6(2)2021 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33547174

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: With a view to inform policy for improved postabortion care, we describe abortion-related near-miss and mortality by sociodemographic risk factors and management options by pregnancy trimester in Uganda. METHODS: This secondary data analysis used an adapted WHO near-miss methodology to collect cross-sectional maternal near-miss and abortion complications data at 43 health facilities in Central and Eastern Uganda in 2016-2017. We computed abortion severe morbidity, near-miss and mortality ratios per 100 000 live births, and described the proportion of cases that worsened to an abortion near-miss or death, stratified by geographical region and trimester. We tested for association between independent variables and abortion near-miss, and obtained prevalence ratios for association between second trimester near-miss and independent demographic and management indicators. We assessed health facility readiness for postabortion care provision in Central and Eastern regions. RESULTS: Of 3315 recorded severe abortion morbidity cases, 1507 were near-misses. Severe abortion morbidity, near-miss and mortality ratios were 2063, 938 and 23 per 100 000 live births, respectively. Abortion-related mortality ratios were 11 and 57 per 100 000 in Central and Eastern regions, respectively. Abortion near-miss cases were significantly associated with referral (p<0.001). Second trimester had greater abortion mortality than first trimester. Eastern region had greater abortion-related morbidity and mortality than Central region with facilities in the former characterised by inferior readiness to provide postabortion care. CONCLUSIONS: Uganda has a major abortion near-miss morbidity and mortality; with mortality higher in the second trimester. Life-saving commodities are lacking especially in Eastern region compromising facility readiness for postabortion care provision.

3.
Subst Abuse Treat Prev Policy ; 16(1): 3, 2021 Jan 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33397420

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Alcohol use during pregnancy has been associated with several births and developmental disorders. This study set out to determine the various forms of alcohol consumption among pregnant women and their predictors in post conflict Northern Uganda. METHODS: In the months of May to June 2019, we conducted a cross sectional study among 420 pregnant women seeking antenatal care services at both Government and private health facilities in Gulu, Kitgum and Pader districts in Northern Uganda. We asked them about consumption of various alcoholic beverages. A three stage stratified cluster sampling approach was used and study participants randomly selected from health facilities of interest. We used descriptive statistics to estimate the prevalence of various forms of alcohol use. The chi- square test and logistic regression were used to assess associations of alcohol use among respondents and their socio - demographic and other characteristics. RESULTS: Overall 99 women (23.6%) reported current alcohol use (any amount). Up to 11% (N = 11) of all drinkers were identified by the AUDIT to be women with problem drinking behavior, 8% (N = 8) of women reported hazardous drinking and only four (4%) were women with active alcohol dependent behavior. Predictors of maternal alcohol use included pre-pregnancy alcohol consumption, knowledge, attitude, education level, parity and residence. CONCLUSIONS: This study indicates that alcohol use (any mount) during pregnancy is high while alcohol dependence, problematic and hazardous drinking is low. Knowledge and attitude were important predictors of alcohol use. While alleviating alcohol use, development partners and relevant government departments should consider communication and other interventions that increase knowledge and risk perception on maternal drinking. Other risk factors that predict maternal drinking such as prior alcohol use, residence and parity should be mitigated or eliminated.

4.
AIDS Res Ther ; 17(1): 48, 2020 08 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32738909

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In Sub-Saharan Africa where HIV disproportionately affects women, heterosexual male sex workers (HMSW) and their female clients are at risk of acquiring or transmitting HIV and other STIs. However, few studies have described HIV and STI risk among HMSW. We aimed to assess and compare recent HIV and syphilis screening practices among HMSW and female sex workers (FSW) in Uganda. METHODS: Between August and December 2019, we conducted a cross-sectional study among 100 HMSW and 240 female sex workers (FSW). Participants were enrolled through snowball sampling, and an interviewer-administered questionnaire used to collect data on HIV and syphilis testing in the prior 12 and 6 months respectively. Integrated change model constructs were used to assess intentions, attitudes, social influences, norms and self-efficacy of 3-monthly Syphilis and 6-monthly HIV testing. Predictors of HIV and syphilis recent testing behaviors were estimated using negative binomial regression. RESULTS: We enrolled 340 sex workers of whom 100 (29%) were HMSW. The median age was 27 years [interquartile range (IQR) 25-30] for HMSW and 26 years [IQR], (23-29) for FSW. The median duration of sex work was 36 and 30 months for HMSW and FSW, respectively. HMSW were significantly less likely than FSW to have tested for HIV in the prior 12 months (50% vs. 86%; p = 0.001). For MSW, non-testing for HIV was associated with higher education [adjusted prevalence ratio (aPR) 1.66; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.09-2.50], poor intention to seek HIV testing (aPR 1.64; 95% CI 1.35-2.04), perception that 6-monthly HIV testing was not normative (aPR 1.33; 95% CI 1.09-1.67) and low self-efficacy (aPR 1.41; 95% CI 1.12-1.79). Not testing for syphilis was associated with low intention to seek testing (aPR 3.13; 95% CI 2.13-4.55), low self-efficacy (aPR 2.56; 95% CI 1.35-4.76), negative testing attitudes (aPR 2.33; 95% CI 1.64-3.33), and perception that regular testing was not normative (aPR 1.59; 95% CI 1.14-2.22). CONCLUSIONS: Non-testing for HIV and syphilis was common among HMSW relative to FSW. Future studies should evaluate strategies to increase testing uptake for this neglected sub-population of sex workers.

5.
Prev Med Rep ; 19: 101141, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32685360

RESUMO

The prevalence of non-communicable diseases including hypertension and obesity is rising and alcohol consumption is a predisposing factor. This study explored the effect of alcohol consumption patterns on the hypertension-age group and obesity-age group relationships. The data were extracted from the 2014 National NCD Survey of adults aged 18-69 years. Hypertension was defined as a condition of having systolic blood pressure ≥140 mmHg or diastolic blood pressure ≥90 mmHg while obesity was defined as having a body mass index ≥30 kg/m2. Frequent alcohol consumption was measured as alcohol use ≥3 times a week. Multivariable log binomial regression analysis was used to assess independent relationship between the outcomes and alcohol consumption. The prevalences of hypertension, frequent alcohol consumption and obesity increased across age groups but were divergent towards last age group. Hypertension prevalence ratios were higher with higher age groups among moderate and nondrinkers but not among frequent drinkers. Alcohol drinking pattern modified the age hypertension relationship in a model with ungrouped age. The drinking pattern did not modify obesity-age relationship. Alcohol consumption pattern appeared to modify the hypertension-age group relationship. However, more research is needed to explain why prevalence ratios are higher with higher age groups among moderate drinkers and abstainers while they stagnate among the frequent drinkers. There was no evidence to show the effect of alcohol consumption on obesity-age group relationship.

6.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32260246

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The purpose of this paper is to investigate the prevalence and context of alcohol use, problem drinking and alcohol-related harm among boys and girls in the slums of Kampala, Uganda. METHODS: The Kampala Youth Survey is a cross-sectional study conducted in 2014 among youth (ages 12-18 years) living in the slums of Kampala (n = 1133) who were participating in Uganda Youth Development Link (UYDEL) centers. Chi-square tests were used to determine differences in alcohol use behaviors between 1) gender (boys vs. girls), and 2) alcohol use behaviors between problem drinkers and non-problem drinkers, stratified by gender. RESULTS: Among all participants (n = 1133), the prevalence of any alcohol use in the past 12 months was 31% (n = 346). A higher percentage of girl drinkers reported having sex in the past month, without a condom (57.9%) due to alcohol consumption, compared to boy drinkers (41.9%) (   χ 2 = 8.09, df = 1, p = 0.005). For girl and boy drinkers, nearly half (49.5% and 44.1%, respectively) met the criteria for problem drinkers, measured using the Cut-Annoyed-Guilty-Eye-Opener (CAGE) questionnaire. CONCLUSIONS: The high prevalence of alcohol use and problem drinking among youth, as well as alcohol-related harm, warrant urgent alcohol prevention and intervention strategies, particularly among these underserved girls.


Assuntos
Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas , Áreas de Pobreza , Adolescente , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/epidemiologia , Criança , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Prevalência , Uganda/epidemiologia
7.
AIDS Res Ther ; 16(1): 28, 2019 09 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31533749

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Limited data are available regarding correlates of regular sexually transmitted infections (STIs) and HIV screening among female sex workers (FSW) in Sub-Saharan Africa. In this study, we aimed to assess the frequency of regular syphilis and HIV screening and the psychosocial correlates associated with screening among FSW in Uganda. METHODS: This cross-sectional correlational study was conducted among 441 FSW, aged 17-49 years. We enrolled FSW through peer referrals and ascertained self-reported data on number of serological tests for HIV, syphilis and other STIs in the prior 12 months using an interviewer-administered questionnaire. In addition, we assessed attitudes, norms, social influences and self-efficacy towards 3-monthly Syphilis and 6-monthly HIV testing. We estimated the correlates of regular STI and HIV testing using negative binomial regression. RESULTS: Of the respondents 420 (95.2%) reported to have ever taken an HIV test with 297 (67.4%) testing two or more times in the prior 12 months. Over half of the respondents (59%) reported ever taking a syphilis test with only 62 (14.1%) reporting testing three or more times in the prior 12 months. After adjusting for socio-demographics, attitude and norms, high perceived self-efficacy was associated with a 33% increase in the likelihood of repeated HIV testing [prevalence ratio (PR), 1.33, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.15-1.53] while low perceived confidence was associated with a 25% decrease in the likelihood of repeated HIV testing (PR, 0.75, 95% CI 0.63-0.89). Similarly low attitudes and norms were associated with a decrease of 52.6% (PR, 0.47, 95% CI 0.37-0.61) and 47% (PR, 0.53, 95% CI 0.41-0.69) in the likelihood of repeated syphilis testing respectively. CONCLUSION: Compared to HIV, uptake of repeated syphilis testing was very low. Correlates of HIV testing include; perceived self-efficacy amidst barriers and perceived confidence for HIV and low attitudes and accepting norms for syphilis. Health campaigns should emphasize overcoming barriers to HIV testing while promoting attitudes and norms including integration of serological syphilis testing and other STIs into HIV services.


Assuntos
Infecções por HIV/diagnóstico , Programas de Rastreamento/psicologia , Profissionais do Sexo/psicologia , Doenças Sexualmente Transmissíveis/diagnóstico , Sífilis/diagnóstico , Adolescente , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Infecções por HIV/psicologia , Humanos , Programas de Rastreamento/estatística & dados numéricos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco , Doenças Sexualmente Transmissíveis/psicologia , Sífilis/epidemiologia , Sífilis/psicologia , Uganda/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
8.
Trials ; 20(1): 376, 2019 Jun 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31227019

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: A large proportion of abortion-related mortality and morbidity occurs in the second trimester of pregnancy. The Uganda Ministry of Health policy restricts management of second-trimester incomplete abortion to physicians who are few and unequally distributed, with most practicing in urban regions. Unsafe and outdated methods like sharp curettage are frequently used. Medical management of second-trimester post-abortion care by midwives offers an advantage given the difficulty in providing surgical management in low-income settings and current health worker shortages. The study aims to assess the safety, effectiveness and acceptability of treatment of incomplete second-trimester abortion using misoprostol provided by midwives compared with physicians. METHODS: A randomized controlled equivalence trial implemented at eight hospitals and health centers in Central Uganda will include 1192 eligible women with incomplete abortion of uterine size > 12 weeks up to 18 weeks. Each participant will be randomly assigned to undergo a clinical assessment and treatment by either a midwife (intervention arm) or a physician (control arm). Enrolled participants will receive 400 µg misoprostol administered sublingually every 3 h up to five doses within 24 h at the health facility until a complete abortion is confirmed. Women who do not achieve complete abortion within 24 h will undergo surgical uterine evacuation. Pre discharge, participants will receive contraceptive counseling and information on what to expect in terms of side effects and signs of complications, with follow-up 14 days later to assess secondary outcomes. Analyses will be by intention to treat. Background characteristics and outcomes will be presented using descriptive statistics. Differences between groups will be analyzed using risk difference (95% confidence interval) and equivalence established if this lies between the predefined range of - 5% and + 5%. Chi-square tests will be used for comparison of outcome and t tests used to compare mean values. P ≤ 0.05 will be considered statistically significant. DISCUSSION: Our study will provide evidence to inform national and international policies, standard care guidelines and training program curricula on treatment of second-trimester incomplete abortion for improved access. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT03622073 . Registered on 9 August 2018.


Assuntos
Aborto Incompleto/tratamento farmacológico , Tocologia , Misoprostol/uso terapêutico , Médicos , Feminino , Humanos , Misoprostol/efeitos adversos , Avaliação de Resultados em Cuidados de Saúde , Gravidez , Segundo Trimestre da Gravidez , Projetos de Pesquisa
9.
BMC Pregnancy Childbirth ; 19(1): 132, 2019 Apr 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30991975

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cesarean section (CS) is an important intervention in complicated births when the safety of the mother or baby is compromised. Despite worldwide concerns about the overutilization of CS in recent years, many African women and their newborns still die because of limited or no access to CS services. We evaluated temporal and spatial trends in CS births in Uganda and modeled future trends to inform programming. METHODS: We performed secondary analysis of total births data from the Uganda National Health Management Information System (HMIS) reports during 2012-2016. We reviewed data from 3461 health facilities providing basic, essential obstetric and emergency obstetric care services in all 112 districts. We defined facility-based CS rate as the proportion of cesarean deliveries among total live births in facilities, and estimated the population-based CS rate using the total number of cesarean deliveries as a proportion of annual expected births (including facility-based and non-facility-based) for each district. We predicted CS rates for 2021 using Generalised Linear Models with Poisson family, Log link and Unbiased Sandwich Standard errors. We used cesarean deliveries as the dependent variable and calendar year as the independent variable. RESULTS: Cesarean delivery rates increased both at facility and population levels in Uganda. Overall, the CS rate for live births at facilities was 9.9%, increasing from 8.5% in 2012 to 11% in 2016. The overall population-based CS rate was 4.7%, and increased from 3.2 to 5.9% over the same period. Health Centre IV level facilities had the largest annual rate of increase in CS rate between 2012 and 2016. Among all 112 districts, 80 (72%) had a population CS rate below 5%, while 38 (34%) had a CS rate below 1% over the study period. Overall, Uganda's facility-based CS rate is projected to increase by 36% (PRR 1.36, 95% CI 1.35-1.36) in 2021 while the population-based CS rate is estimated to have doubled (PRR 2.12, 95% CI 2.11-2.12) from the baseline in 2016. CONCLUSION: Cesarean deliveries are increasing in Uganda. Health center IVs saw the largest increases in CS, and while there was regional heterogeneity in changes in CS rates, utilization of CS services is inadequate in most districts. We recommend expansion of CS services to improve availability.


Assuntos
Cesárea/tendências , Instalações de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Serviços de Saúde Materna/tendências , Sobremedicalização/tendências , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Gravidez , Análise Espaço-Temporal , Uganda , Adulto Jovem
10.
AIDS Behav ; 23(9): 2347-2360, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30924063

RESUMO

Fishing communities are a most-at-risk population for HIV in Uganda. Alcohol use and abuse and economic vulnerability fuel risky sexual practices and lead to increased risk of HIV infection in these communities. Economic strengthening is an emerging intervention approach and interventions promoting saving money via mechanisms with a "soft commitment" in the form of restricting or charging small fees for withdrawals, may serve to reduce spending on alcohol and spending that leads to HIV risk behaviors in cash-based economies. However, little research has been conducted to explore the potential for commitment savings-led economic strengthening interventions to address alcohol use and sexual risk behavior among fisherfolk. This cross-sectional study explored the associations between commitment savings, HIV sexual risk behavior, and problematic alcohol among fisherfolk. We also determined whether commitment savings moderated the associations between problematic alcohol use and risky sexual behaviors. 300 (132 male, 168 female) residents of fishing communities on Lake Victoria, Uganda completed a structured interviewer-assisted interview. Over half (55.3%) used commitment savings by saving money in a bank or savings cooperative or via mobile money. Having problematic alcohol use increased the rate of risky unprotected sex with: all partners (adjIRR 6.08, 95% CI 4.30-8.60) and with casual partners and CSWs/clients (adjIRR 4.90, 95% CI 3.09-7.78), and increased the odds of having met a sex partner at an alcohol venue (adjOR 2.84, 95% CI 1.46-5.51) compared to those without problematic alcohol use. Commitment savings was associated with lower odds of: problematic alcohol use (adjOR 0.50, 95% CI 0.26-0.96), meeting a sex partner at an alcohol venue (adjOR 0.43, 95% CI 0.24-0.78), as well as lower rates of risky unprotected sex with all partners (adjIRR 0.68, 95% CI 0.48-0.96), and with causal partners, CSWs/clients (adjIRR 0.38, 95% CI 0.17-0.85). Use of commitment savings moderated the associations between problematic alcohol use and unprotected sex. However, the moderating effects of commitment savings varied by gender. These findings suggest that promoting saving money in savings mechanisms which involve a commitment may be a potentially viable avenue for HIV prevention among fishing communities and may be particularly helpful for those who have problematic alcohol use.


Assuntos
Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/psicologia , Infecções por HIV/prevenção & controle , Renda , Assunção de Riscos , Comportamento Sexual/psicologia , Sexo sem Proteção/estatística & dados numéricos , Populações Vulneráveis/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Pesqueiros , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Humanos , Entrevistas como Assunto , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Ocupações/estatística & dados numéricos , Fatores de Risco , Comportamento Sexual/estatística & dados numéricos , Parceiros Sexuais , Uganda/epidemiologia , Populações Vulneráveis/psicologia
11.
Bull World Health Organ ; 96(6): 423-427, 2018 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29904225

RESUMO

Problem: The burden of trauma and injuries in Uganda is substantial and growing. Two important gaps that need addressing are the shortage of trained people and a lack of national data on noncommunicable diseases and their risk factors in Uganda. Approach: We developed and implemented a new track within an existing master of public health programme, aimed at developing graduate-level capacity and promoting research on key national priorities for trauma and injuries. We also offered training opportunities to a wider audience and set up a high-level national injury forum to foster national dialogue on addressing the burden of trauma, injuries and disability. Local setting: The Chronic Consequences of Trauma, Injuries and Disability in Uganda programme was implemented in 2012 at Makerere University School of Public Health in Kampala, Uganda, in conjunction with Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health in Baltimore, United States of America. Relevant changes: Over the years 2012 to 2017 we supported four cohorts of master's students, with a total of 14 students (9 females and 5 males; mean age 30 years). Over 1300 individuals participated in workshops and seminars of the short-term training component of the programme. The forum hosted three research symposia and two national injury forums. Lessons learnt: Institutional support and collaborative engagement is important for developing and implementing successful capacity development programmes. Integration of training components within existing academic structures is key to sustainability. Appropriate mentorship for highly motivated and talented students is valuable for guiding students through the programme.


Assuntos
Educação de Pós-Graduação em Medicina , Vigilância em Saúde Pública , Pesquisa , Ferimentos e Lesões/prevenção & controle , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Estudantes , Uganda
12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29882915

RESUMO

This paper examines problem drinking, alcohol-related violence, and homelessness among youth living in the slums of Kampala—an understudied population at high-risk for both alcohol use and violence. This study is based on a cross-sectional survey conducted in 2014 with youth living in the slums and streets of Kampala, Uganda (n = 1134), who were attending Uganda Youth Development Link drop-in centers. The analyses for this paper were restricted to youth who reported current alcohol consumption (n = 346). Problem drinking patterns were assessed among youth involved in alcohol-related violence. Mediation analyses were conducted to examine the impact of homelessness on alcohol-related violence through different measures of problem drinking. Nearly 46% of youth who consumed alcohol were involved in alcohol-related violence. Problem drinkers were more likely to report getting in an accident (χ² = 6.8, df = 1, p = 0.009), having serious problems with parents (χ² = 21.1, df = 1, p < 0.0001) and friends (χ² = 18.2, df = 1, p < 0.0001), being a victim of robbery (χ² = 8.8, df = 1, p = 0.003), and going to a hospital (χ² = 15.6, df = 1, p < 0.0001). For the mediation analyses, statistically significant models were observed for frequent drinking, heavy drinking, and drunkenness. Interventions should focus on delaying and reducing alcohol use in this high-risk population.


Assuntos
Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/epidemiologia , Alcoolismo/epidemiologia , Pessoas em Situação de Rua/estatística & dados numéricos , Áreas de Pobreza , Violência/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Fatores de Risco , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Uganda/epidemiologia
13.
Int J Inj Contr Saf Promot ; 25(4): 341-346, 2018 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29457914

RESUMO

Road traffic injuries (RTIs) are commonly under-reported in low-and-medium-income countries. This study aimed to estimate the number of RTIs and determine the magnitude of under-reporting by traffic police and hospital registries. A two-source capture-recapture method was applied to RTI data from police and hospital registries. Seven matching variables; sex of the injured, date, place, time, day of crash and road user type were used to get the matched cases. Police independently reported 46 RTIs and the hospitals reported 206 RTIs. Using the capture-recapture analysis, both sources estimated 313 RTIs (95% CI 273-343). The police registry captured 14.4% of the estimated number of RTIs and the hospitals captured 60.4%. The estimated number of RTIs was higher than reported by either the police or the hospitals alone. Neither the police nor the hospitals provided accurate data on RTIs, calling for the strengthening of both sources of data.


Assuntos
Acidentes de Trânsito/estatística & dados numéricos , Ferimentos e Lesões/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Hospitais/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Polícia/estatística & dados numéricos , Sistema de Registros , Fatores Sexuais , Uganda/epidemiologia , Ferimentos e Lesões/etiologia , Adulto Jovem
14.
Glob Health Action ; 10(1): 1356641, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28799450

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In most low and middle-income countries vital events registration for births and child deaths is poor, with reporting of pregnancy outcomes highly inadequate or non-existent. Health and Demographic Surveillance System (HDSS) sites and periodic population-based household-level surveys can be used to identify pregnancies and retrospectively capture pregnancy outcomes to provide data for decision making. However, little is known about the performance of different methods in identifying pregnancy and pregnancy outcomes, yet this is critical in assessing improvements in reducing maternal and newborn mortality and stillbirths. OBJECTIVE: To explore differences between a population-based household pregnancy survey and prospective health demographic surveillance system in identifying pregnancies and their outcomes in rural eastern Uganda. METHODS: The study was done within the Iganga-Mayuge HDSS site, a member centre of the INDEPTH Network. Prospective data about pregnancies and their outcomes was collected in the routine biannual census rounds from 2006 to 2010 in the HDSS. In 2011 a cross-sectional survey using the pregnancy history survey (PHS) tool was conducted among women aged 15 to 49 years in the HDSS area. We compared differences between the HDSS biannual census updates and the PHS capture of pregnancies identified as well as neonatal and child deaths, stillbirths and abortions. FINDINGS: A total of 10,540 women aged 15 to 49 years were interviewed during the PHS. The PHS captured 12.8% more pregnancies than the HDSS in the most recent year (2010-2011), though between 2006 and 2010 (earlier periods) the PHS captured only 137 (0.8%) more pregnancies overall. The PHS also consistently identified more stillbirths (18.2%), spontaneous abortions (94.5%) and induced abortions (185.8%) than the prospective HDSS update rounds. CONCLUSIONS: Surveillance sites are designed to prospectively track population-level outcomes. However, the PHS identified more pregnancy-related outcomes than the HDSS in this study. Asking about pregnancy and its outcomes may be a useful way to improve measurement of pregnancy outcomes. Further research is needed to identify the most effective methods of improving the capture of pregnancies and their outcomes within HDSS sites, household surveys and routine health information systems.


Assuntos
Mortalidade Infantil , Vigilância da População/métodos , Resultado da Gravidez , Adolescente , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Assistência Médica , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Gravidez , Estudos Prospectivos , Inquéritos e Questionários , Uganda/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
15.
BMC Public Health ; 18(1): 30, 2017 Jul 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28720083

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In May 2015, a cholera outbreak that had lasted 3 months and infected over 100 people was reported in Kasese District, Uganda, where multiple cholera outbreaks had occurred previously. We conducted an investigation to identify the mode of transmission to guide control measures. METHODS: We defined a suspected case as onset of acute watery diarrhoea from 1 February 2015 onwards in a Kasese resident. A confirmed case was a suspected case with Vibrio cholerae O1 El Tor, serotype Inaba cultured from a stool sample. We reviewed medical records to find cases. We conducted a case-control study to compare exposures among confirmed case-persons and asymptomatic controls, matched by village and age-group. We conducted environmental assessments. We tested water samples from the most affected area for total coliforms using the Most Probable Number (MPN) method. RESULTS: We identified 183 suspected cases including 61 confirmed cases of Vibrio cholerae 01; serotype Inaba, with onset between February and July 2015. 2 case-persons died of cholera. The outbreak occurred in 80 villages and affected all age groups; the highest attack rate occurred in the 5-14 year age group (4.1/10,000). The outbreak started in Bwera Sub-County bordering the Democratic Republic of Congo and spread eastward through sustained community transmission. The first case-persons were involved in cross-border trading. The case-control study, which involved 49 confirmed cases and 201 controls, showed that 94% (46/49) of case-persons compared with 79% (160/201) of control-persons drank water without boiling or treatment (ORM-H=4.8, 95% CI: 1.3-18). Water collected from the two main sources, i.e., public pipes (consumed by 39% of case-persons and 38% of control-persons) or streams (consumed by 29% of case-persons and 24% control-persons) had high coliform counts, a marker of faecal contamination. Environmental assessment revealed evidence of open defecation along the streams. No food items were significantly associated with illness. CONCLUSIONS: This prolonged, community-wide cholera outbreak was associated with drinking water contaminated by faecal matter and cross-border trading. We recommended rigorous disposal of patients' faeces, chlorination of piped water, and boiling or treatment of drinking water. The outbreak stopped 6 weeks after these recommendations were implemented.


Assuntos
Cólera/transmissão , Surtos de Doenças , Água Potável/microbiologia , Esgotos/microbiologia , Vibrio cholerae , Abastecimento de Água , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Cólera/epidemiologia , Cólera/etiologia , Cólera/microbiologia , Diarreia/epidemiologia , Diarreia/etiologia , Fezes/microbiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Rios , Saneamento , Sorogrupo , Uganda/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
16.
PLoS One ; 12(6): e0179448, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28662036

RESUMO

Since 2012, the WHO recommends Option B+ for the prevention of mother-to-child transmission of HIV. This approach entails the initiation of lifelong antiretroviral therapy in all HIV-positive pregnant women, also implying protection during breastfeeding for 12 months or longer. Research on long-term adherence to Option B+ throughout breastfeeding is scarce to date. Therefore, we conducted a prospective observational cohort study in Fort Portal, Western Uganda, to assess adherence to Option B+ until 18 months postpartum. In 2013, we recruited 67 HIV-positive, Option B+ enrolled women six weeks after giving birth and scheduled them for follow-up study visits after six, twelve and 18 months. Two adherence measures, self-reported drug intake and amount of drug refill visits, were combined to define adherence, and were assessed together with feeding information at all study visits. At six months postpartum, 51% of the enrolled women were considered to be adherent. Until twelve and 18 months postpartum, adherence for the respective follow-up interval decreased to 19% and 20.5% respectively. No woman was completely adherent until 18 months. At the same time, 76.5% of the women breastfed for ≥12 months. Drug adherence was associated with younger age (p<0.01), lower travel costs (p = 0.02), and lower number of previous deliveries (p = 0.04). Long-term adherence to Option B+ seems to be challenging. Considering that in our cohort, prolonged breastfeeding until ≥12 months was widely applied while postpartum adherence until the end of breastfeeding was poor, a potential risk of postpartum vertical transmission needs to be taken seriously into account for Option B+ implementation.


Assuntos
Fármacos Anti-HIV/uso terapêutico , Infecções por HIV/prevenção & controle , Transmissão Vertical de Doença Infecciosa/prevenção & controle , Cooperação do Paciente , Período Pós-Parto , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/prevenção & controle , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por HIV/transmissão , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Gravidez , Uganda
17.
Reprod Health ; 14(1): 31, 2017 Mar 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28253893

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Acyclovir (ACV) given to HSV-2 positive women after 36 weeks reduces adverse outcomes but its benefit at lower gestation was undocumented. We determined the effect of oral acyclovir administered from 28 to 36 weeks on premature rupture of membranes (PROM) primarily and preterm delivery risk. METHODS: This was a randomized, double-blind placebo-controlled trial among 200 HSV-2 positive pregnant women at 28 weeks of gestation at Mulago Hospital, Uganda. Participants were assigned randomly (1:1) to take either acyclovir 400 mg orally twice daily (intervention) or placebo (control) from 28 to 36 weeks. Both arms received acyclovir after 36 weeks until delivery. Development of Pre-PROM by 36 weeks and preterm delivery were outcomes. RESULTS: One hundred women were randomised to acyclovir and 100 to placebo arms between January 2014 and February 2015. There was tendency towards reduction of incidence of PROM at 36 weeks but this was not statistically significant (4.0% versus 10.0%; RR 0.35; 95% 0.11-1.10) in the acyclovir and placebo arms respectively. However, there was a significant reduction in the incidence of preterm delivery (11.1% versus 23.5%; RR 0.41; 95% 0.20-0.85) in the acyclovir and placebo arms respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Oral acyclovir given to HSV-2 positive pregnant women from 28 to 36 weeks reduced incidence of preterm delivery but did not significantly reduce incidence of pre-PROM. TRIAL REGISTRATION: www.pactr.org, PACTR201311000558197 .


Assuntos
Aciclovir/administração & dosagem , Parto Obstétrico , Ruptura Prematura de Membranas Fetais/prevenção & controle , Herpes Genital/tratamento farmacológico , Herpesvirus Humano 2/fisiologia , Nascimento Prematuro/prevenção & controle , Adulto , Antivirais/administração & dosagem , Método Duplo-Cego , Feminino , Ruptura Prematura de Membranas Fetais/etiologia , Idade Gestacional , Herpes Genital/complicações , Herpes Genital/virologia , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Mães , Gravidez , Nascimento Prematuro/etiologia , Uganda
18.
BMC Pregnancy Childbirth ; 17(1): 82, 2017 03 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28270119

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: While most Sub-Saharan African countries are now implementing the WHO-recommended Option B+ protocol for prevention of vertical HIV transmission, there is a lack of knowledge regarding the influence of Option B+ exposure on adverse birth outcomes (ABOs). Against this background, we assessed ABOs among delivering women in Western Uganda. METHODS: A cross-sectional, observational study was performed within a cohort of 412 mother-newborn-pairs in Virika Hospital, Fort Portal in 2013. The occurrence of stillbirth, pre-term delivery, and small size for gestational age (SGA) was analysed, looking for influencing factors related to HIV-status, antiretroviral drug exposure and duration, and other sociodemographic and clinical parameters. RESULTS: Among 302 HIV-negative and 110 HIV-positive women, ABOs occurred in 40.5%, with stillbirth in 6.3%, pre-term delivery in 28.6%, and SGA in 12.2% of deliveries. For Option B+ intake (n = 59), no significant association was found with stillbirth (OR 0.48, p = 0.55), pre-term delivery (OR 0.97, p = 0.92) and SGA (OR 1.5, p = 0.3) compared to seronegative women. Women enrolled on antiretroviral therapy (ART) before conception (n = 38) had no different risk for ABOs than women on Option B+ or HIV-negative women. Identified risk factors for stillbirth included lack of formal education, poor socio-economic status, long travel distance, hypertension and anaemia. Pre-term delivery risk was increased with poor socio-economic status, primiparity, Malaria and anaemia. The occurrence of SGA was influenced by older age and Malaria. CONCLUSION: In our study, women on Option B+ showed no difference in ABOs compared to HIV-negative women and to women on ART. We identified several non-HIV/ART-related influencing factors, suggesting an urgent need for improving early risk assessment mechanisms in antenatal care through better screening and triage systems. Our results are encouraging with regard to continued universal scale-up of Option B+ and ART programmes.


Assuntos
Fármacos Anti-HIV/uso terapêutico , Infecções por HIV/transmissão , Transmissão Vertical de Doença Infecciosa/prevenção & controle , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/tratamento farmacológico , Cuidado Pré-Natal/métodos , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Recém-Nascido Pequeno para a Idade Gestacional , Gravidez , Nascimento Prematuro/virologia , Fatores de Risco , Natimorto , Uganda
19.
J Int Assoc Provid AIDS Care ; 16(3): 276-285, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27215561

RESUMO

We evaluated the efficacy of a brief motivational intervention (MI) counseling in reducing alcohol consumption among persons living with HIV/AIDS in Kampala, Uganda. Persons living with HIV/AIDS with Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Tool (AUDIT) score ≥3 points were randomized to either standardized positive prevention counseling alone or in combination with alcohol brief MI counseling. The mean change in AUDIT-C scores over 6 months was compared by treatment arm. The mean (standard deviation [SD]) AUDIT-C scores were 6.3 (2.3) and 6.8 (2.3) for control and MI arms ( P = .1) at baseline, respectively, and change in mean AUDIT-C score was not statistically different between arms over the 6 months ( P = .8). However, there was a statistically significant decrease in mean AUDIT-C score (-1.10; 95% confidence interval: -2.19 to -0.02, P = .046) among women in the MI arm. There was a nondifferential reduction in alcohol consumption overall, but MI appeared effective among women only. Studies with more than 1 counseling session and evaluation of gender differences in treatment response are needed.


Assuntos
Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/psicologia , Infecções por HIV/psicologia , Síndrome de Imunodeficiência Adquirida/fisiopatologia , Síndrome de Imunodeficiência Adquirida/psicologia , Adulto , Aconselhamento , Feminino , Infecções por HIV/fisiopatologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Entrevista Motivacional , Uganda
20.
Int J Inj Contr Saf Promot ; 24(3): 363-370, 2017 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27378544

RESUMO

The study aimed to determine the drowning burden in four Ugandan lakeside districts; the prevalence of life jacket use, and community knowledge and attitudes regarding water safety. Subjects were recruited as they disembarked from boats. A structured questionnaire was used for demographics, experience on water, details of incidents in water, and awareness of drowning prevention measures. Focus group discussions (FGDs) and key informant interviews were held. The study interviewed 544 participants; 81.1% male, 86.8% below 45 years, and 51.1% involved in the fishing industry. A quarter (26.1%) of the respondents were observed wearing life jackets as they disembarked. Participants who had been in a boat that nearly capsized (57.8%), or that actually capsized (21.7%), were no more likely to wear life jackets than those who had not had these experiences. Three quarters (73.2%) did not know how to call for rescue, and only 48.7% could swim. There drowning fatality rate in this community was 502 deaths per 100,000 population. Majority of drowning events occurred during transportation (51.7%) or fishing (39.0%). The most frequently mentioned factors were stormy weather and overloading. Drowning is a common threat to young adults in the fishing communities around Lake Victoria. Few preventive interventions are in place.


Assuntos
Afogamento/epidemiologia , Peixes , Abastecimento de Alimentos , Traumatismos Ocupacionais/epidemiologia , Equipamento de Proteção Individual/estatística & dados numéricos , Alimentos Marinhos , Transportes , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Animais , Estudos Transversais , Afogamento/mortalidade , Afogamento/prevenção & controle , Feminino , Grupos Focais , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Humanos , Entrevistas como Assunto , Lagos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Saúde do Trabalhador , Traumatismos Ocupacionais/mortalidade , Traumatismos Ocupacionais/prevenção & controle , Equipamento de Proteção Individual/normas , Segurança , Inquéritos e Questionários , Natação/estatística & dados numéricos , Uganda/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
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