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1.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 1052, 2019 03 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30837455

RESUMO

Mouth ulcers are the most common ulcerative condition and encompass several clinical diagnoses, including recurrent aphthous stomatitis (RAS). Despite previous evidence for heritability, it is not clear which specific genetic loci are implicated in RAS. In this genome-wide association study (n = 461,106) heritability is estimated at 8.2% (95% CI: 6.4%, 9.9%). This study finds 97 variants which alter the odds of developing non-specific mouth ulcers and replicate these in an independent cohort (n = 355,744) (lead variant after meta-analysis: rs76830965, near IL12A, OR 0.72 (95% CI: 0.71, 0.73); P = 4.4e-483). Additional effect estimates from three independent cohorts with more specific phenotyping and specific study characteristics support many of these findings. In silico functional analyses provide evidence for a role of T cell regulation in the aetiology of mouth ulcers. These results provide novel insight into the pathogenesis of a common, important condition.


Assuntos
Loci Gênicos/imunologia , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Fatores Imunológicos/genética , Úlceras Orais/genética , Estomatite Aftosa/genética , Adulto , Idoso , Estudos de Coortes , Simulação por Computador , Feminino , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Fatores Imunológicos/imunologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Úlceras Orais/imunologia , Estomatite Aftosa/imunologia , Linfócitos T/imunologia
2.
Nat Genet ; 51(3): 394-403, 2019 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30804565

RESUMO

Insomnia is the second most prevalent mental disorder, with no sufficient treatment available. Despite substantial heritability, insight into the associated genes and neurobiological pathways remains limited. Here, we use a large genetic association sample (n = 1,331,010) to detect novel loci and gain insight into the pathways, tissue and cell types involved in insomnia complaints. We identify 202 loci implicating 956 genes through positional, expression quantitative trait loci, and chromatin mapping. The meta-analysis explained 2.6% of the variance. We show gene set enrichments for the axonal part of neurons, cortical and subcortical tissues, and specific cell types, including striatal, hypothalamic, and claustrum neurons. We found considerable genetic correlations with psychiatric traits and sleep duration, and modest correlations with other sleep-related traits. Mendelian randomization identified the causal effects of insomnia on depression, diabetes, and cardiovascular disease, and the protective effects of educational attainment and intracranial volume. Our findings highlight key brain areas and cell types implicated in insomnia, and provide new treatment targets.


Assuntos
Predisposição Genética para Doença/genética , Locos de Características Quantitativas/genética , Distúrbios do Início e da Manutenção do Sono/genética , Cromatina/genética , Feminino , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla/métodos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fenótipo , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética , Sono/genética
3.
Hum Mol Genet ; 27(11): 2025-2038, 2018 06 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29659830

RESUMO

The ratio of the length of the index finger to that of the ring finger (2D:4D) is sexually dimorphic and is commonly used as a non-invasive biomarker of prenatal androgen exposure. Most association studies of 2D:4D ratio with a diverse range of sex-specific traits have typically involved small sample sizes and have been difficult to replicate, raising questions around the utility and precise meaning of the measure. In the largest genome-wide association meta-analysis of 2D:4D ratio to date (N = 15 661, with replication N = 75 821), we identified 11 loci (9 novel) explaining 3.8% of the variance in mean 2D:4D ratio. We also found weak evidence for association (ß = 0.06; P = 0.02) between 2D:4D ratio and sensitivity to testosterone [length of the CAG microsatellite repeat in the androgen receptor (AR) gene] in females only. Furthermore, genetic variants associated with (adult) testosterone levels and/or sex hormone-binding globulin were not associated with 2D:4D ratio in our sample. Although we were unable to find strong evidence from our genetic study to support the hypothesis that 2D:4D ratio is a direct biomarker of prenatal exposure to androgens in healthy individuals, our findings do not explicitly exclude this possibility, and pathways involving testosterone may become apparent as the size of the discovery sample increases further. Our findings provide new insight into the underlying biology shaping 2D:4D variation in the general population.

4.
J Am Acad Dermatol ; 78(1): 29-39.e7, 2018 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29146147

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Intrinsic and extrinsic factors, including ultraviolet irradiation, lead to visible signs of skin aging. OBJECTIVE: We evaluated molecular changes occurring in photoexposed and photoprotected skin of white women 20 to 74 years of age, some of whom appeared substantially younger than their chronologic age. METHODS: Histologic and transcriptomics profiling were conducted on skin biopsy samples of photoexposed (face and dorsal forearm) or photoprotected (buttocks) body sites from 158 women. 23andMe genotyping determined genetic ancestry. RESULTS: Gene expression and ontologic analysis revealed progressive changes from the 20s to the 70s in pathways related to oxidative stress, energy metabolism, senescence, and epidermal barrier; these changes were accelerated in the 60s and 70s. The gene expression patterns from the subset of women who were younger-appearing were similar to those in women who were actually younger. LIMITATIONS: Broader application of these findings (eg, across races and Fitzpatrick skin types) will require further studies. CONCLUSIONS: This study demonstrates a wide range of molecular processes in skin affected by aging, providing relevant targets for improving the condition of aging skin at different life stages and defining a molecular pattern of epidermal gene expression in women who appear younger than their chronologic age.


Assuntos
Predisposição Genética para Doença , Envelhecimento da Pele/genética , Envelhecimento da Pele/fisiologia , Raios Ultravioleta/efeitos adversos , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Biópsia por Agulha , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu , Dermatoses Faciais/genética , Dermatoses Faciais/patologia , Feminino , Humanos , Imuno-Histoquímica , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prognóstico , Fatores de Risco , Envelhecimento da Pele/patologia , Adulto Jovem
5.
Hum Mol Genet ; 26(22): 4530-4539, 2017 11 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28973307

RESUMO

Neuroticism reflects emotional instability, and is related to various mental and physical health issues. However, the majority of genetic variants associated with neuroticism remain unclear. Inconsistent genetic variants identified by different genome-wide association studies (GWAS) may be attributable to low statistical power. We proposed a novel framework to improve the power for gene discovery by incorporating prior information of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and combining two relevant existing tools, relative enrichment score (RES) and conditional false discovery rate (FDR). Here, SNP's conditional FDR was estimated given its RES based on SNP prior information including linkage disequilibrium (LD)-weighted genic annotation scores, total LD scores and heterozygosity. A known significant locus in chromosome 8p was excluded before estimating FDR due to long-range LD structure. Only one significant LD-independent SNP was detected by analyses of unconditional FDR and traditional GWAS in the discovery sample (N = 59 225), and notably four additional SNPs by conditional FDR. Three of the five SNPs, all identified by conditional FDR, were replicated (P < 0.05) in an independent sample (N = 170 911). These three SNPs are located in intronic regions of CADM2, LINGO2 and EP300 which have been reported to be associated with autism, Parkinson's disease and schizophrenia, respectively. Our approach using a combination of RES and conditional FDR improved power of traditional GWAS for gene discovery providing a useful framework for the analysis of GWAS summary statistics by utilizing SNP prior information, and helping to elucidate the links between neuroticism and complex diseases from a genetic perspective.


Assuntos
Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla/métodos , Modelos Genéticos , Transtornos Neuróticos/genética , Análise de Sequência de DNA/métodos , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Variação Genética , Genótipo , Humanos , Desequilíbrio de Ligação , Neuroticismo/fisiologia , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único
6.
Nat Commun ; 8(1): 599, 2017 09 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28928442

RESUMO

Infectious diseases have a profound impact on our health and many studies suggest that host genetics play a major role in the pathogenesis of most of them. We perform 23 genome-wide association studies for common infections and infection-associated procedures, including chickenpox, shingles, cold sores, mononucleosis, mumps, hepatitis B, plantar warts, positive tuberculosis test results, strep throat, scarlet fever, pneumonia, bacterial meningitis, yeast infections, urinary tract infections, tonsillectomy, childhood ear infections, myringotomy, measles, hepatitis A, rheumatic fever, common colds, rubella and chronic sinus infection, in over 200,000 individuals of European ancestry. We detect 59 genome-wide significant (P < 5 × 10-8) associations in genes with key roles in immunity and embryonic development. We apply fine-mapping analysis to dissect associations in the human leukocyte antigen region, which suggests important roles of specific amino acid polymorphisms in the antigen-binding clefts. Our findings provide an important step toward dissecting the host genetic architecture of response to common infections.Susceptibility to infectious diseases is, among others, influenced by the genetic landscape of the host. Here, Tian and colleagues perform genome-wide association studies for 23 common infections and find 59 risk loci for 17 of these, both within the HLA region and non-HLA loci.


Assuntos
Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu/genética , Antígenos HLA/genética , Infecção/genética , Candidíase Vulvovaginal/genética , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Varicela/genética , Doença Crônica , Resfriado Comum/genética , Feminino , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Hepatite A/genética , Hepatite B/genética , Herpes Labial/genética , Herpes Zoster/genética , Humanos , Mononucleose Infecciosa/genética , Masculino , Sarampo/genética , Meningites Bacterianas/genética , Ventilação da Orelha Média , Caxumba/genética , Otite Média/genética , Otite Média/cirurgia , Faringite/genética , Pneumonia/genética , Febre Reumática/genética , Rubéola (Sarampo Alemão)/genética , Escarlatina/genética , Sinusite/genética , Infecções Estreptocócicas/genética , Tonsilectomia , Tonsilite/genética , Tonsilite/cirurgia , Teste Tuberculínico , Tuberculose/diagnóstico , Tuberculose/genética , Infecções Urinárias/genética , Verrugas/genética
7.
Nat Commun ; 8: 15539, 2017 05 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28537267

RESUMO

Endometriosis is a heritable hormone-dependent gynecological disorder, associated with severe pelvic pain and reduced fertility; however, its molecular mechanisms remain largely unknown. Here we perform a meta-analysis of 11 genome-wide association case-control data sets, totalling 17,045 endometriosis cases and 191,596 controls. In addition to replicating previously reported loci, we identify five novel loci significantly associated with endometriosis risk (P<5 × 10-8), implicating genes involved in sex steroid hormone pathways (FN1, CCDC170, ESR1, SYNE1 and FSHB). Conditional analysis identified five secondary association signals, including two at the ESR1 locus, resulting in 19 independent single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) robustly associated with endometriosis, which together explain up to 5.19% of variance in endometriosis. These results highlight novel variants in or near specific genes with important roles in sex steroid hormone signalling and function, and offer unique opportunities for more targeted functional research efforts.


Assuntos
Endometriose/genética , Loci Gênicos/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Hormônios Esteroides Gonadais/metabolismo , Redes e Vias Metabólicas/genética , Adulto , Idoso , Endometriose/metabolismo , Receptor alfa de Estrogênio/genética , Receptor alfa de Estrogênio/metabolismo , Feminino , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Genótipo , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único
8.
Sci Rep ; 7(1): 2222, 2017 05 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28533504

RESUMO

Schizophrenia is associated with differences in personality traits, and recent studies suggest that personality traits and schizophrenia share a genetic basis. Here we aimed to identify specific genetic loci shared between schizophrenia and the Big Five personality traits using a Bayesian statistical framework. Using summary statistics from genome-wide association studies (GWAS) on personality traits in the 23andMe cohort (n = 59,225) and schizophrenia in the Psychiatric Genomics Consortium cohort (n = 82,315), we evaluated overlap in common genetic variants. The Big Five personality traits neuroticism, extraversion, openness, agreeableness and conscientiousness were measured using a web implementation of the Big Five Inventory. Applying the conditional false discovery rate approach, we increased discovery of genetic loci and identified two loci shared between neuroticism and schizophrenia and six loci shared between openness and schizophrenia. The study provides new insights into the relationship between personality traits and schizophrenia by highlighting genetic loci involved in their common genetic etiology.

9.
J Allergy Clin Immunol ; 140(3): 771-781, 2017 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28188724

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The relationship between allergy and autoimmune disorders is complex and poorly understood. OBJECTIVE: We sought to investigate commonalities in genetic loci and pathways between allergy and autoimmune diseases to elucidate shared disease mechanisms. METHODS: We meta-analyzed 2 genome-wide association studies on self-reported allergy and sensitization comprising a total of 62,330 subjects. These results were used to calculate enrichment for single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) previously associated with autoimmune diseases. Furthermore, we probed for enrichment within genetic pathways and of transcription factor binding sites and characterized commonalities in variant burden on tissue-specific regulatory sites by calculating the enrichment of allergy SNPs falling in gene regulatory regions in various cells using Encode Roadmap DNase-hypersensitive site data. Finally, we compared the allergy data with those of all known diseases. RESULTS: Among 290 loci previously associated with 16 autoimmune diseases, we found a significant enrichment of loci also associated with allergy (P = 1.4e-17) encompassing 29 loci at a false discovery rate of less than 0.05. Such enrichment seemed to be a general characteristic for autoimmune diseases. Among the common loci, 48% had the same direction of effect for allergy and autoimmune diseases. Additionally, we observed an enrichment of allergy SNPs falling within immune pathways and regions of chromatin accessible in immune cells that was also represented in patients with autoimmune diseases but not those with other diseases. CONCLUSION: We identified shared susceptibility loci and commonalities in pathways between allergy and autoimmune diseases, suggesting shared disease mechanisms. Further studies of these shared genetic mechanisms might help in understanding the complex relationship between these diseases, including the parallel increase in disease prevalence.


Assuntos
Doenças Autoimunes/genética , Hipersensibilidade/genética , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único
10.
J Allergy Clin Immunol ; 139(4): 1148-1157, 2017 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27554816

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Hundreds of genetic variants are thought to contribute to variation in asthma risk by modulating gene expression. Methods that increase the power of genome-wide association studies (GWASs) to identify risk-associated variants are needed. OBJECTIVE: We sought to develop a method that aggregates the evidence for association with disease risk across expression quantitative trait loci (eQTLs) of a gene and use this approach to identify asthma risk genes. METHODS: We developed a gene-based test and software package called EUGENE that (1) is applicable to GWAS summary statistics; (2) considers both cis- and trans-eQTLs; (3) incorporates eQTLs identified in different tissues; and (4) uses simulations to account for multiple testing. We applied this approach to 2 published asthma GWASs (combined n = 46,044) and used mouse studies to provide initial functional insights into 2 genes with novel genetic associations. RESULTS: We tested the association between asthma and 17,190 genes that were found to have cis- and/or trans-eQTLs across 16 published eQTL studies. At an empirical FDR of 5%, 48 genes were associated with asthma risk. Of these, for 37, the association was driven by eQTLs located in established risk loci for allergic disease, including 6 genes not previously implicated in disease cause (eg, LIMS1, TINF2, and SAFB). The remaining 11 significant genes represent potential novel genetic associations with asthma. The association with 4 of these replicated in an independent GWAS: B4GALT3, USMG5, P2RY13, and P2RY14, which are genes involved in nucleotide synthesis or nucleotide-dependent cell activation. In mouse studies, P2ry13 and P2ry14-purinergic receptors activated by adenosine 5-diphosphate and UDP-sugars, respectively-were upregulated after allergen challenge, notably in airway epithelial cells, eosinophils, and neutrophils. Intranasal exposure with receptor agonists induced the release of IL-33 and subsequent eosinophil infiltration into the lungs. CONCLUSION: We identified novel associations between asthma and eQTLs for 4 genes related to nucleotide synthesis/signaling and demonstrated the power of gene-based analyses of GWASs.


Assuntos
Asma/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença/genética , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla/métodos , Nucleotídeos/genética , Software , Animais , Variação Genética/genética , Humanos , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , ATPases Mitocondriais Próton-Translocadoras/genética , Nucleotídeos/biossíntese , Locos de Características Quantitativas/genética , Receptores Purinérgicos P2/genética , Receptores Purinérgicos P2Y/genética
11.
Nat Genet ; 49(1): 152-156, 2017 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27918536

RESUMO

Personality is influenced by genetic and environmental factors and associated with mental health. However, the underlying genetic determinants are largely unknown. We identified six genetic loci, including five novel loci, significantly associated with personality traits in a meta-analysis of genome-wide association studies (N = 123,132-260,861). Of these genome-wide significant loci, extraversion was associated with variants in WSCD2 and near PCDH15, and neuroticism with variants on chromosome 8p23.1 and in L3MBTL2. We performed a principal component analysis to extract major dimensions underlying genetic variations among five personality traits and six psychiatric disorders (N = 5,422-18,759). The first genetic dimension separated personality traits and psychiatric disorders, except that neuroticism and openness to experience were clustered with the disorders. High genetic correlations were found between extraversion and attention-deficit-hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and between openness and schizophrenia and bipolar disorder. The second genetic dimension was closely aligned with extraversion-introversion and grouped neuroticism with internalizing psychopathology (e.g., depression or anxiety).


Assuntos
Loci Gênicos/genética , Marcadores Genéticos/genética , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Transtornos Mentais/genética , Personalidade/genética , Adulto , Idoso , Feminino , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Humanos , Masculino , Metanálise como Assunto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Estudos Prospectivos
13.
Nat Genet ; 48(9): 1031-6, 2016 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27479909

RESUMO

Despite strong evidence supporting the heritability of major depressive disorder (MDD), previous genome-wide studies were unable to identify risk loci among individuals of European descent. We used self-report data from 75,607 individuals reporting clinical diagnosis of depression and 231,747 individuals reporting no history of depression through 23andMe and carried out meta-analysis of these results with published MDD genome-wide association study results. We identified five independent variants from four regions associated with self-report of clinical diagnosis or treatment for depression. Loci with a P value <1.0 × 10(-5) in the meta-analysis were further analyzed in a replication data set (45,773 cases and 106,354 controls) from 23andMe. A total of 17 independent SNPs from 15 regions reached genome-wide significance after joint analysis over all three data sets. Some of these loci were also implicated in genome-wide association studies of related psychiatric traits. These studies provide evidence for large-scale consumer genomic data as a powerful and efficient complement to data collected from traditional means of ascertainment for neuropsychiatric disease genomics.


Assuntos
Transtorno Depressivo Maior/genética , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu/genética , Loci Gênicos/genética , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética , Adulto , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Genótipo , Humanos , Masculino , Metanálise como Assunto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fenótipo , Fatores de Risco
14.
Blood ; 128(8): 1121-8, 2016 08 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27365426

RESUMO

We conducted a genome-wide association study (GWAS) to identify novel predisposition alleles associated with Philadelphia chromosome-negative myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPNs) and JAK2 V617F clonal hematopoiesis in the general population. We recruited a web-based cohort of 726 individuals with polycythemia vera, essential thrombocythemia, and myelofibrosis and 252 637 population controls unselected for hematologic phenotypes. Using a single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) array platform with custom probes for the JAK2 V617F mutation (V617F), we identified 497 individuals (0.2%) among the population controls who were V617F carriers. We performed a combined GWAS of the MPN cases plus V617F carriers in the control population (n = 1223) vs the remaining controls who were noncarriers for V617F (n = 252 140). For these MPN cases plus V617F carriers, we replicated the germ line JAK2 46/1 haplotype (rs59384377: odds ratio [OR] = 2.4, P = 6.6 × 10(-89)), previously associated with V617F-positive MPN. We also identified genome-wide significant associations in the TERT gene (rs7705526: OR = 1.8, P = 1.1 × 10(-32)), in SH2B3 (rs7310615: OR = 1.4, P = 3.1 × 10(-14)), and upstream of TET2 (rs1548483: OR = 2.0, P = 2.0 × 10(-9)). These associations were confirmed in a separate replication cohort of 446 V617F carriers vs 169 021 noncarriers. In a joint analysis of the combined GWAS and replication results, we identified additional genome-wide significant predisposition alleles associated with CHEK2, ATM, PINT, and GFI1B All SNP ORs were similar for MPN patients and controls who were V617F carriers. These data indicate that the same germ line variants endow individuals with a predisposition not only to MPN, but also to JAK2 V617F clonal hematopoiesis, a more common phenomenon that may foreshadow the development of an overt neoplasm.


Assuntos
Predisposição Genética para Doença , Células Germinativas/metabolismo , Hematopoese/genética , Janus Quinase 2/genética , Mutação/genética , Transtornos Mieloproliferativos/genética , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Alelos , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Estudos de Coortes , Demografia , Feminino , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Adulto Jovem
15.
Nat Genet ; 48(7): 709-17, 2016 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27182965

RESUMO

We performed a scan for genetic variants associated with multiple phenotypes by comparing large genome-wide association studies (GWAS) of 42 traits or diseases. We identified 341 loci (at a false discovery rate of 10%) associated with multiple traits. Several loci are associated with multiple phenotypes; for example, a nonsynonymous variant in the zinc transporter SLC39A8 influences seven of the traits, including risk of schizophrenia (rs13107325: log-transformed odds ratio (log OR) = 0.15, P = 2 × 10(-12)) and Parkinson disease (log OR = -0.15, P = 1.6 × 10(-7)), among others. Second, we used these loci to identify traits that have multiple genetic causes in common. For example, variants associated with increased risk of schizophrenia also tended to be associated with increased risk of inflammatory bowel disease. Finally, we developed a method to identify pairs of traits that show evidence of a causal relationship. For example, we show evidence that increased body mass index causally increases triglyceride levels.


Assuntos
Pleiotropia Genética/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Doenças Inflamatórias Intestinais/genética , Herança Multifatorial/genética , Doença de Parkinson/genética , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética , Esquizofrenia/genética , Índice de Massa Corporal , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Fenótipo , Triglicerídeos/metabolismo
16.
Nat Commun ; 7: 10448, 2016 Feb 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26835600

RESUMO

Circadian rhythms are a nearly universal feature of living organisms and affect almost every biological process. Our innate preference for mornings or evenings is determined by the phase of our circadian rhythms. We conduct a genome-wide association analysis of self-reported morningness, followed by analyses of biological pathways and related phenotypes. We identify 15 significantly associated loci, including seven near established circadian genes (rs12736689 near RGS16, P=7.0 × 10(-18); rs9479402 near VIP, P=3.9 × 10(-11); rs55694368 near PER2, P=2.6 × 10(-9); rs35833281 near HCRTR2, P=3.7 × 10(-9); rs11545787 near RASD1, P=1.4 × 10(-8); rs11121022 near PER3, P=2.0 × 10(-8); rs9565309 near FBXL3, P=3.5 × 10(-8). Circadian and phototransduction pathways are enriched in our results. Morningness is associated with insomnia and other sleep phenotypes; and is associated with body mass index and depression but we did not find evidence for a causal relationship in our Mendelian randomization analysis. Our findings reinforce current understanding of circadian biology and will guide future studies.


Assuntos
Ritmo Circadiano/genética , Depressão/epidemiologia , Síndromes da Apneia do Sono/epidemiologia , Distúrbios do Início e da Manutenção do Sono/epidemiologia , Adulto , Índice de Massa Corporal , Proteínas F-Box/genética , Feminino , Variação Genética , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Masculino , Análise da Randomização Mendeliana , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Receptores de Orexina/genética , Proteínas Circadianas Period/genética , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Proteínas RGS/genética , Peptídeo Intestinal Vasoativo/genética , Proteínas ras/genética
17.
Hum Mol Genet ; 25(9): 1867-74, 2016 05 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26908601

RESUMO

Thrombotic diseases are among the leading causes of morbidity and mortality in the world. To add insights into the genetic regulation of thrombotic disease, we conducted a genome-wide association study (GWAS) of 6135 self-reported blood clots events and 252 827 controls of European ancestry belonging to the 23andMe cohort of research participants. Eight loci exceeded genome-wide significance. Among the genome-wide significant results, our study replicated previously known venous thromboembolism (VTE) loci near the F5, FGA-FGG, F11, F2, PROCR and ABO genes, and the more recently discovered locus near SLC44A2 In addition, our study reports for the first time a genome-wide significant association between rs114209171, located upstream of the F8 structural gene, and thrombosis risk. Analyses of expression profiles and expression quantitative trait loci across different tissues suggested SLC44A2, ILF3 and AP1M2 as the three most plausible candidate genes for the chromosome 19 locus, our only genome-wide significant thrombosis-related locus that does not harbor likely coagulation-related genes. In addition, we present data showing that this locus also acts as a novel risk factor for stroke and coronary artery disease (CAD). In conclusion, our study reveals novel common genetic risk factors for VTE, stroke and CAD and provides evidence that self-reported data on blood clots used in a GWAS yield results that are comparable with those obtained using clinically diagnosed VTE. This observation opens up the potential for larger meta-analyses, which will enable elucidation of the genetics of thrombotic diseases, and serves as an example for the genetic study of other diseases.


Assuntos
Loci Gênicos/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética , Trombose/genética , Complexo 1 de Proteínas Adaptadoras/genética , Subunidades mu do Complexo de Proteínas Adaptadoras/genética , Adolescente , Adulto , Biomarcadores/metabolismo , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Glicoproteínas de Membrana/genética , Proteínas de Membrana Transportadoras/genética , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Proteínas do Fator Nuclear 90/genética , Fatores de Risco , Autorrelato , Adulto Jovem
18.
Sci Transl Med ; 8(322): 322ra9, 2016 Jan 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26791950

RESUMO

More than 100,000 genetic variants are reported to cause Mendelian disease in humans, but the penetrance-the probability that a carrier of the purported disease-causing genotype will indeed develop the disease-is generally unknown. We assess the impact of variants in the prion protein gene (PRNP) on the risk of prion disease by analyzing 16,025 prion disease cases, 60,706 population control exomes, and 531,575 individuals genotyped by 23andMe Inc. We show that missense variants in PRNP previously reported to be pathogenic are at least 30 times more common in the population than expected on the basis of genetic prion disease prevalence. Although some of this excess can be attributed to benign variants falsely assigned as pathogenic, other variants have genuine effects on disease susceptibility but confer lifetime risks ranging from <0.1 to ~100%. We also show that truncating variants in PRNP have position-dependent effects, with true loss-of-function alleles found in healthy older individuals, a finding that supports the safety of therapeutic suppression of prion protein expression.


Assuntos
Penetrância , Doenças Priônicas/genética , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Estudos de Coortes , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Humanos , Mutação/genética , Príons/genética , Fatores de Risco
20.
Nat Commun ; 6: 8842, 2015 Nov 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26548314

RESUMO

Understanding of the genetic regulation of puberty timing has come largely from studies of rare disorders and population-based studies in women. Here, we report the largest genomic analysis for puberty timing in 55,871 men, based on recalled age at voice breaking. Analysis across all genomic variants reveals strong genetic correlation (0.74, P=2.7 × 10(-70)) between male and female puberty timing. However, some loci show sex-divergent effects, including directionally opposite effects between sexes at the SIM1/MCHR2 locus (Pheterogeneity=1.6 × 10(-12)). We find five novel loci for puberty timing (P<5 × 10(-8)), in addition to nine signals in men that were previously reported in women. Newly implicated genes include two retinoic acid-related receptors, RORB and RXRA, and two genes reportedly disrupted in rare disorders of puberty, LEPR and KAL1. Finally, we identify genetic correlations that indicate shared aetiologies in both sexes between puberty timing and body mass index, fasting insulin levels, lipid levels, type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares/genética , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/genética , Síndrome do Ovário Policístico/genética , Puberdade/genética , Adolescente , Fatores de Transcrição Hélice-Alça-Hélice Básicos/genética , Estatura/genética , Índice de Massa Corporal , Densidade Óssea/genética , Criança , HDL-Colesterol/sangue , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu/genética , Proteínas da Matriz Extracelular/genética , Feminino , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Insulina/sangue , Vértebras Lombares/diagnóstico por imagem , Masculino , Proteínas do Tecido Nervoso/genética , Membro 2 do Grupo F da Subfamília 1 de Receptores Nucleares/genética , Radiografia , Receptores Acoplados a Proteínas-G/genética , Receptores para Leptina/genética , Receptores do Hormônio Hipofisário/genética , Proteínas Repressoras/genética , Receptor X Retinoide alfa/genética , Fatores Sexuais , Fatores de Tempo , Triglicerídeos/sangue , Adulto Jovem
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