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1.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32118411

RESUMO

Perovskite light-emitting diode (PeLED) has been vigorously developed in recent years. As it has demonstrated good performance on the rigid substrates, the next important direction of PeLED is its integration with stretchable components to realize stretchable, responsive device. Here, we describe a facile fabrication of stretchable perovskite light-emissive touch-responsive devices (PeLETDs) by utilizing highly transparent and conductive polyurethane/silver nanowires (PU/AgNWs) as the electrode. Meanwhile, a stretchable tricomposite perovskite emissive layer was developed by blending a small amount of poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO) and poly(vinylpyrrolidone) (PVP) with CsPbBr3. Additionally, a thin PVP layer was introduced at the bottom of the emissive layer. On one hand, it can further improve the morphology of the emissive layer; on the other hand, it can serve as an electron-injection barrier to reduce the high nonradiative recombination at the corresponding interface. Further, to fulfill the responsive function of the fabricated PeLEDs, a poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET) spacer with a 100 µm thickness was inserted between the top electrode and the emissive layer. A stretchable PeLETD is finally demonstrated to possess a low turn-on voltage of 2 V with a brightness of 380.5 cd m-2 at 7.5 V and can sustain 30% uniaxial strain with a small luminance variation of 24%. More interestingly, our stretchable PeLETD exhibited high stability, which could be well touch responsivity, where the luminance is on/off switched for 300 cycles by repeatedly applying pressure.

2.
Soft Matter ; 15(46): 9468-9473, 2019 Nov 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31696894

RESUMO

Oligo(ethylene glycol) (OEG) side chains are widely used in donor-acceptor conjugated polymers (D-A CPs) and enable the polymers to dissolve and be processed in environmentally friendly and cost-effective nonchlorinated solvents, such as water. However, the OEG effect on the physical properties of D-A CPs has not been thoroughly studied and sometimes the results are controversial. In this study, two oligothiophene-isoindigo based conjugated polymers, P3TI and P4TI, are selected as model polymers to investigate the OEG effect. PnTI has octyl side chains on the oligothiophene unit and 2-hexyldecyl side chains on the isoindigo unit. The replacement of an alkyl side chain with OEG not only changes the optical and thermal properties but also the molecular arrangements of the polymers such as π-π d-spacing, crystallinity, and packing orientation. The domination of the crystallization behavior changes from the oligothiophene unit to the isoindigo unit when the bulky alkyl group is replaced by the flexible and linear OEG. The packing changes from edge-on to face-on orientation. The results are intriguing and provide new insights into this class of polymers.

3.
Nanomaterials (Basel) ; 9(10)2019 Sep 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31569663

RESUMO

Elegant integration of three-dimensional (3D) boron nitride (BN) into the porous structure of a polymer nanofiber (NF) membrane system results in a surface with enhanced absorption capacity for removal. Various BN-based applications were designed and developed successfully, but BN-based absorption systems remain relatively unexplored. To develop a reusable absorption strategy with high removal efficiency, we used a composite of 3D BN and polyacrylonitrile (PAN) to prepare a NF membrane with a porous structure by using electrospinning and spray techniques (BN-PAN ES NFs). The removal efficiency of the 3D BN NF membrane was higher than that of a pure carbon NF membrane. Water pollutants, such as the dyes Congo red (CR), basic yellow 1 (BY), and rhodamine B (Rh B), were tested, and the absorption ratios were 46%, 53%, and 45%, respectively. Furthermore, the aforementioned dyes and pollutants can be completely eliminated and removed from water by heating because of the high heat resistance of 3D BN. The membrane can be recycled and reused at least 10 times. These results indicate that BN-PAN ES NFs have can be used in water purification and treatment for absorption applications, and that they can be reused after heat treatment.

4.
Langmuir ; 35(9): 3383-3390, 2019 Mar 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30735047

RESUMO

The interactions between phospholipids and cholesterol have been extensively studied in the aqueous systems because of their vital functionalities in the cell membrane. In this study, instead of the self-assembly in water, we explored the microphase-separated structures of phospholipids in bulk and thin films in the absence of solvents and created a series of ordered nanostructures by incorporation of cholesterol into phospholipids. Three zwitterionic two-tailed phospholipids, that is, phosphatidylcholines (PCs), with different numbers of double bonds on the hydrocarbon tails were investigated, including egg PC, 1,2-dioleoyl- sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (DOPC), and 1,2-dipalmitoyl- sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (DPPC). We find that the nanostructures are highly dependent on the conformation of the tails on the PCs, which can be tailored by the number of double bonds on tails and the molar ratio of cholesterol to PC. By changing the molar ratio, egg PC with one double bond organizes into rich microdomains, including lamellae, spheres, and cylinders, whereas DOPC with two double bonds form spheres and cylinders and DPPC with no double bond forms lamellae only. The sizes of the microdomains are less than 3 nm, smaller than those of typical block copolymers. The biomolecule-based nanopatterns developed in this work provide a platform toward future applications of nanotechnology and biotechnology.

5.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces ; 11(10): 10118-10127, 2019 Mar 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30761891

RESUMO

Novel transparent conductive electrodes (TCEs) with copper (Cu)/silver (Ag) core/shell nanofibers (NFs) containing random, aligned, and crossed structures were prepared using a combination of electrospinning (ES) and chemical reduction. The ES process was used to prepare continuous copper nanofibers (Cu-NFs), which were used as core materials and were then immersed in silver ink (Ag ink) to form a protective layer of Ag to protect the Cu-NFs from oxidation. The Ag shell layer protected the Cu-NFs against oxidation and enhanced their conductivity. Such Cu/Ag core/shell webs can be easily transferred on the flexible matrix and can be applied in TCEs. The metal NF webs of different structures exhibited various degrees of conductivity and followed the order random type > crossed type > aligned type; however, the order with respect to transmittance ( T) was inverse. The aligned nanowire networks exhibited a high T of over 80%, and the random ones exhibited a low sheet resistance of less than 102 Ω/sq (the best value is 7.85 Ω/sq). The present study demonstrated that TCEs based on Cu/Ag core/shell NF webs have considerable flexibility, transparency, and conductivity and can be applied in novel flexible light-emitting diode devices and solar cells in the future.

6.
Small ; 14(22): e1704379, 2018 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29709108

RESUMO

A one-step core/shell electrospinning technique is exploited to fabricate uniform luminous perovskite-based nanofibers, wherein the perovskite and the polymer are respectively employed in the core and the outer shell. Such a coaxial electrospinning technique enables the in situ formation of perovskite nanocrystals, exempting the needs of presynthesis of perovskite quantum dots or post-treatments. It is demonstrated that not only the luminous electrospun nanofibers can possess color-tunability by simply tuning the perovskite composition, but also the grain size of the formed perovskite nanocrystals is largely affected by the perovskite precursor stoichiometry and the polymer solution concentration. Consequently, the optimized perovskite electrospun nanofiber yields a high photoluminescence quantum yield of 30.9%, significantly surpassing the value of its thin-film counterpart. Moreover, owing to the hydrophobic characteristic of shell polymer, the prepared perovskite nanofiber is endowed with a high resistance to air and water. Its photoluminescence intensity remains constant while stored under ambient environment with a relative humidity of 85% over a month and retains intensity higher than 50% of its initial intensity while immersed in water for 48 h. More intriguingly, a white light-emitting perovskite-based nanofiber is successfully fabricated by pairing the orange light-emitting compositional perovskite with a blue light-emitting conjugated polymer.

7.
Macromol Rapid Commun ; 39(13): e1800271, 2018 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29845682

RESUMO

Exploiting biomass has raised great interest as an alternative to the fossil resources for environmental protection. In this respect, polyethylene furanoate (PEF), one of the bio-based polyesters, thus reveals a great potential to replace the commonly used polyethylene terephthalate (PET) on account of its better mechanical, gas barrier, and thermal properties. Herein, a bio-based, flexible, conductive film is successfully developed by coupling a PEF plastic substrate with silver nanowires (Ag NWs). Besides the appealing advantage of renewable biomass, PEF also exhibits a good transparency around 90% in the visible wavelength range, and its constituent polar furan moiety is revealed to enable an intense interaction with Ag NWs to largely enhance the adhesion of Ag NWs grown above, as exemplified by the superior bending and peeling durability than the currently prevailing PET substrate. Finally, the efficiency of conductive PEF/Ag NWs film in fabricating efficient flexible organic thin-film transistor and organic photovoltaic (OPV) is demonstrated. The OPV device achieves a power conversion efficiency of 6.7%, which is superior to the device based on ITO/PEN device, manifesting the promising merit of the bio-based PEF for flexible electronic applications.


Assuntos
Condutividade Elétrica , Membranas Artificiais , Nanofios/química , Polietilenos/química , Prata/química , Energia Solar
8.
J Phys Chem B ; 121(33): 7878-7888, 2017 08 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28737387

RESUMO

The influence of inorganic salt on the structure of lecithin/bile salt mixtures in aqueous solution is studied by means of dissipative particle dynamics simulations. We propose a coarse-grained model of phosphatidylcholine and two types of bile salts (sodium cholate and sodium deoxycholate) and also take into account the presence of low molecular weight salt. This model allows us to study the system on rather large time and length scales (up to about ∼20 µs and 50 nm) and to reveal mechanisms of experimentally observed increasing viscosity upon increasing the low molecular weight salt concentration in this system. We show that increasing the low molecular weight salt concentration induces the growth of cylinder-like micelles formed in lecithin/bile salt mixtures in water. These wormlike micelles can entangle into transient networks displaying perceptible viscoelastic properties. Computer simulation results are in good qualitative agreement with experimental observations.

9.
Chem Commun (Camb) ; 53(43): 5898-5901, 2017 May 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28513666

RESUMO

Three new organic semiconductors with alkyl chain-substituted tetrathienoacene (TTAR) as the central core and both ends capped with thiophene (DT-TTAR), thienothiophene (DTT-TTAR) and dithienothiophene (DDTT-TTAR) have been synthesized and characterized for organic field effect transistor (OFET) applications. A hole mobility of 0.81 cm2 V-1 s-1 was achieved for the DDTT-TTAR film, which represents the highest mobility yet found for a solution-processable p-type TTAR-based small molecular semiconductors.

10.
Langmuir ; 32(46): 12166-12174, 2016 11 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27802053

RESUMO

The interactions between ions and phospholipids are closely associated with the structures and functions of cell membrane. Instead of conventional aqueous systems, we systematically investigated the effects of inorganic ions on the self-assembly of lecithin, a zwitterionic phosphatidylcholine, in cyclohexane. Previous studies have shown that addition of inorganic salts with specific divalent and trivalent cations can transform lecithin organosols into organogels. In this study, we focused on the effect of monovalent alkali halides. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy was used to demonstrate that the binding strength of the alkali cations with the phosphate of lecithin is in the order Li+ > Na+ > K+. More importantly, the cation-phosphate interaction is affected by the paired halide anions, and the effect follows the series I- > Br- > Cl-. The salts of stronger interactions with lecithin, including LiCl, LiBr, LiI, and NaI, were found to induce cylindrical micelles sufficiently long to form organogels, while others remain organosols. A mechanism based on the charge density of ions and the enthalpy change of the ion exchange between alkali halides and lecithin headgroup is provided to explain the contrasting interactions and the effectiveness of the salts to induce organogelation.

11.
Chem Sci ; 7(6): 3556-3563, 2016 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29997847

RESUMO

Fundamental insight into excimer formation has been gained by using 9,10-bis[4-(9-carbazolyl)phenyl]anthracene] (Cz9PhAn) as a probe. Cz9PhAn exhibits a highly emissive blue fluorescence in solution and is found to emit a panchromatic white light spectrum (400-750 nm) in film, powder and single crystal, in which an additional excimer band appears at ∼550 nm. Detailed structural analyses, emission relaxation dynamics and a theoretical approach conclude the formation of an anthracene*/phenyl ring excimer through an overlap between π* (anthracene) and π (phenyl ring) orbitals in a face-to-edge stacking orientation. The rate of excimer formation is determined to be 2.2 × 109 s-1 at room temperature, which requires coupling with lattice motion with an activation energy of 0.44 kcal mol-1. Exploiting Cz9PhAn as a single emitter, a fluorescent white organic light emitting diode (WOLED) is fabricated with a maximum external quantum efficiency (ηext) of 3.6% at 1000 cd m-2 (4.2 V) and Commission Internationale de L'Eclairage (CIE) coordinates of (0.30, 0.33). The white-light Cz9PhAn reveals a preferred orientation of the transition dipole moment in the emitting layer to enhance light outcoupling. This non-doped, single component (Cz9PhAn) WOLED greatly reduces the complexity of the fabrication process, rendering a green and cost-effective alternative among the contemporary display/lighting technologies.

12.
Langmuir ; 31(49): 13312-20, 2015 Dec 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26574777

RESUMO

The self-assembly of lecithin-bile salt mixtures in solutions has long been an important research topic, not only because they are both biosurfactants closely relevant to physiological functions but also for the potential biomedical applications. In this paper, we report an unusual biological hydrogel formed by mixing bile salts and lecithin at low bile salt/lecithin molar ratios (B0) in water. The gel can be prepared at a total lipid concentration as low as ∼15 wt %, and the solidlike property of the solutions was confirmed by dynamic rheological measurements. We used cryo-TEM and SAXS/SANS techniques to probe the self-assembled structure and clearly evidence that the gel is made up of jammed swollen multilamellar vesicles (liposomes), instead of typical fibrous networks found in conventional gels. A mechanism-based on the strong repulsion between bilayers due to the incorporation of negatively charged bile salts is proposed to explain the swelling of the liposomes. In addition to gel, a series of phases, including viscoelastic, gel-like, and low-viscosity fluids, can be created by increasing B0. Such a variety of phase behaviors are caused by the transformation of bilayers into cylindrical and spheroidal micelles upon the change of the effective molecular geometry with B0.


Assuntos
Hidrogéis/química , Lipossomos/química , Ácidos e Sais Biliares/química , Portadores de Fármacos/química , Lecitinas/química , Reologia , Água/química
13.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces ; 7(10): 5663-73, 2015 Mar 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25711539

RESUMO

Organic field-effect transistors (OFETs) memory devices based on hybrid nanocomposite electret were fabricated by cooperative supramolecular polystyrene-block-poly(4-vinylpyridine) (PS-b-P4VP) with two different block compositions (asymmetric L1 and symmetric L2) that contain hydroxyl-functionalized ferrocene small molecules (FMs). Because of the selective hydrogen interaction between the hydroxyl groups of FM and pyridine groups in P4VP block, the small FMs can preferentially disperse in the P4VP nanodomain, which can be used as nanostructured charge-trapping nanocomposite electret (L1-FMX and L2-FMX) under solvent-annealing process. The charge-storage functionalities can be easily tailored by morphologies of the hybrid nanocomposite thin film and spatial distribution of the FM molecules in which the relative molecular mass of block copolymers and the FM loading ratio can further control both of them. These block copolymer nanocomposite thin film electrets with charge-controlling guest FM for OFETs memory devices exhibit significant features including the ternary bits storage, high-density trapping sites, charge-carrier trapping of both polarities (ambipolar trapping), and solution processing that can make important progress for future advanced storage and memory technology.

14.
Langmuir ; 30(34): 10221-30, 2014 Sep 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25121460

RESUMO

The self-assembly of biological surfactants in water is an important topic for study because of its relevance to physiological processes. Two common types of biosurfactants are lecithin (phosphatidylcholine) and bile salts, which are both present in bile and involved in digestion. Previous studies on lecithin-bile salt mixtures have reported the formation of short, rodlike micelles. Here, we show that lecithin-bile salt micelles can be further induced to grow into long, flexible wormlike structures. The formation of long worms and their resultant entanglement into transient networks is reflected in the rheology: the fluids become viscoelastic and exhibit Maxwellian behavior, and their zero-shear viscosity can be up to a 1000-fold higher than that of water. The presence of worms is further confirmed by data from small-angle neutron and X-ray scattering and from cryo-transmission electron microscopy (cryo-TEM). We find that micellar growth peaks at a specific molar ratio (near equimolar) of bile salt:lecithin, which suggests a strong binding interaction between the two species. In addition, micellar growth also requires a sufficient concentration of background electrolyte such as NaCl or sodium citrate that serves to screen the electrostatic repulsion of the amphiphiles and to "salt out" the amphiphiles. We postulate a mechanism based on changes in the molecular geometry caused by bile salts and electrolytes to explain the micellar growth.


Assuntos
Ácidos e Sais Biliares/química , Lecitinas/química , Micelas , Microscopia Crioeletrônica , Microscopia Eletrônica de Varredura , Espalhamento de Radiação , Soluções , Viscosidade , Água/química
15.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces ; 6(8): 5506-15, 2014 Apr 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24673527

RESUMO

In this work, a single electrospun polymer nanofiber was employed as an additional dielectric in organic field-effect transistors where the active channel was a layer of pentacene. A high field-effect mobility (>1.50 cm(2)/(V·s)) and a high ON/OFF current ratio (>10(6)) could be achieved by the use of such a nanofiber. Probing by electron microscopy, atomic force microscopy, and scattering techniques, we found that the geometry of the fiber is key to induce a pentacene morphology with large and oriented grains that facilitates the charge transport in pentacene layer along the fiber. The feasibility of nonvolatile memory based on this new type of transistor has been explored and the devices showed a fairly high memory window and reliable memory characteristics. In addition to pure polymers, the effects of composite nanofibers with dispersed [6,6]-phenyl-C61-butyric acid methyl ester were also investigated, and the electrical properties and memory characteristics of the transistors were found to be further improved. This study highlights the importance of dielectric geometry to pentacene morphology that is decisive for the performances of organic field-effect transistors.

16.
Sci Rep ; 3: 2621, 2013.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24018554

RESUMO

Polymeric composite films with a high loading of nano-size silicates can hardly meet the increasingly stringent fireproof and smoke-free requirements during burning. Thus, it is desirable to prepare pure clay films that can block air, heat, and flame. Here we report an organic-free clay film capable of both flame- and heat-shielding. The film was prepared from the self-assembly of nanometer-thick silicate platelets derived from the exfoliation of natural clays. The self-assembled film has a highly regular multilayered nanostructure over a large area and an appreciable volume of air entrapped in between. The combination of regular structure and substantial air volume contributes to the low thermal conductivity and flame blocking property of the film. It was demonstrated that the film can shield flame over hour duration and prevent temperature rising on the backside of film. This remarkable clay film has a myriad of uses including gas barrier, heat insulator, and fireproof devices.

17.
Langmuir ; 29(12): 3879-88, 2013 Mar 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23441904

RESUMO

It has been known that the addition of bile salts to lecithin organosols induces the formation of reverse wormlike micelles and that the worms are similar to long polymer chains that entangle each other to form viscoelastic solutions. In this study, we further investigated the effects of different bile salts and bile acids on the growth of lecithin reverse worms in cyclohexane and n-decane. We utilized rheological and small-angle scattering techniques to analyze the properties and structures of the reverse micelles. All of the bile salts can transform the originally spherical lecithin reverse micelles into wormlike micelles and their rheological behaviors can be described by the single-relaxation-time Maxwell model. However, their efficiencies to induce the worms are different. In contrast, before phase separation, bile acids can induce only short cylindrical micelles that are not long enough to impart viscoelasticity. We used Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy to investigate the interactions between lecithin and bile salts/acids and found that different bile salts/acids employ different functional groups to form hydrogen bonds with lecithin. Such effects determine the relative positions of the bile salts/acids in the headgroups of lecithin, thus resulting in varying efficiencies to alter the effective critical packing parameter for the formation of wormlike micelles. This work highlights the importance of intermolecular interactions in molecular self-assembly.


Assuntos
Ácidos e Sais Biliares/química , Lecitinas/química , Micelas , Óleos/química , Alcanos/química , Cicloexanos/química , Elasticidade , Ligações de Hidrogênio , Reologia , Espectroscopia de Infravermelho com Transformada de Fourier , Viscosidade
18.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces ; 4(7): 3387-95, 2012 Jul 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22712723

RESUMO

We report the synthesis, morphology, and applications of conjugated rod-coil-coil triblock copolymers, polyfluorene-block-poly(N-isopropylacrylamide)-block-poly(N-methylolacrylamide) (PF-b-PNIPAAm-b-PNMA), prepared by atom transfer radical polymerization first and followed by click coupling reaction. The blocks of PF, PNIPAAm, and PNMA were designed for fluorescent probing, hydrophilic thermo-responsive and chemically cross-linking, respectively. In the following, the electrospun (ES) nanofibers of PF-b-PNIPAAm-b-PNMA were prepared in pure water using a single-capillary spinneret. The SAXS and TEM results suggested the lamellar structure of the PF-b-PNIPAAm-b-PNMA along the fiber axis. These obtained nanofibers showed outstanding wettability and dimension stability in the aqueous solution, and resulted in a reversible on/off transition on photoluminescence as the temperatures varied. Furthermore, the high surface/volume ratio of the ES nanofibers efficiently enhanced the temperature-sensitivity and responsive speed compared to those of the drop-cast film. The results indicated that the ES nanofibers of the conjugated rod-coil block copolymers would have potential applications for multifunctional sensory devices.


Assuntos
Nanofibras/química , Polímeros/síntese química , Acrilamidas/química , Resinas Acrílicas/química , Técnicas Biossensoriais/instrumentação , Galvanoplastia , Polimerização , Polímeros/química , Temperatura Ambiente
19.
Langmuir ; 26(17): 13831-8, 2010 Sep 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-20677736

RESUMO

It is known that lecithin, a zwitterionic phospholipid, self-assembles into spherical reverse micelles in organic solvents. We have explored the effects of adding inorganic salts to lecithin organosols. Salts are insoluble in organic solvents, and hence their effects on reverse self-assembly have rarely been studied. Our studies show, however, that salts can indeed be dissolved in organic liquids in the presence of lecithin. More interestingly, salts of multivalent cations like calcium (Ca(2+)), magnesium (Mg(2+)), lanthanum (La(3+)), and cerium (Ce(3+)) greatly increase the viscosity of lecithin organosols and transform the samples into optically transparent organogels. In comparison, monovalent cations or transition-metal cations have negligible effect on reverse self-assembly. On the basis of data from small-angle neutron scattering (SANS), we show that gelation is accompanied by a nanostructural transition from spherical micelles to cylindrical micelles/filaments. The varying abilities of different cations to induce gelation is shown to correlate with their binding tendencies to the phosphocholine headgroups of lecithin. A two-component gelator such as lecithin/Ca(2+) could be attractive for applications due to its negligible cost and nontoxic nature. We demonstrate how such a gelator combination can convert a liquid fuel such as kerosene into a gel without the use of heat or shear. The same gel can also further be ungelled by addition of a few drops of alcohol.

20.
ACS Nano ; 4(5): 2721-9, 2010 May 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-20402495

RESUMO

Organic small molecule semiconductors have many advantages over their polymer analogues. However, to fabricate organic semiconductor-based devices using solution processing, it is requisite to eliminate dewetting to ensure film uniformity and desirable to assemble nanoscopic features with tailored macroscopic alignment without compromising their electronic properties. To this end, we present a modular supramolecular approach. A quaterthiophene organic semiconductor is attached to the side chains of poly(4-vinylpyridine) via noncovalent hydrogen bonds to form supramolecular assemblies that act as p-type semiconductors in field-effect transistors. In thin films, the quaterthiophenes can be readily assembled into microdomains, tens of nanometers in size, oriented normal to the surface. The supramolecules exhibited the same field-effect mobilities as that of the quaterthiophene alone (10(-4) cm(2)/(V.s)). Since the organic semiconductors can be readily substituted, this modular supramolecular approach is a viable method for the fabrication of functional, nanostructured organic semiconductor films using solution processing.

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