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1.
Nutrients ; 12(1)2020 Jan 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31947975

RESUMO

The aim of this study was to assess free fatty acids' (FAs) ex vivo anti-/proinflammatory capabilities and their influence on inflammatory gene expression and H2O2 production by human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs). Anthropometric and clinical measurements were performed in 26 participants with metabolic syndrome. Isolated PBMCs were incubated ex vivo for 2 h with several free fatty acids-palmitic, oleic, α-linolenic, γ-linolenic, arachidonic and docosahexaenoic at 50 µM, and lipopolysaccharide (LPS) alone or in combination. H2O2 production and IL6, NFκB, TLR2, TNFα, and COX-2 gene expressions were determined. Palmitic, γ-linolenic, and arachidonic acids showed minor effects on inflammatory gene expression, whereas oleic, α-linolenic, and docosahexaenoic acids reduced proinflammatory gene expression in LPS-stimulated PBMCs. Arachidonic and α-linolenic acids treatment enhanced LPS-stimulated H2O2 production by PBMCs, while palmitic, oleic, γ-linolenic, and docosahexaenoic acids did not exert significant effects. Oleic, α-linolenic, and docosahexaenoic acids induced anti-inflammatory responses in PBMCs. Arachidonic and α-linolenic acids enhanced the oxidative status of LPS-stimulated PBMCs. In conclusion, PBMC ex vivo assays are useful to assess the anti-/proinflammatory and redox-modulatory effects of fatty acids or other food bioactive compounds.

2.
Nutr Metab Cardiovasc Dis ; 30(2): 214-222, 2020 Feb 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31791636

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: The prevalence of hyperuricemia has increased substantially in recent decades. It has been suggested that it is an independent risk factor for weight gain, hypertension, hypertriglyceridemia, metabolic syndrome (MetS), and cardiovascular disease. Results from epidemiological studies conducted in different study populations have suggested that high consumption of dairy products is associated with a lower risk of developing hyperuricemia. However, this association is still unclear. The aim of the present study is to explore the association of the consumption of total dairy products and their subtypes with the risk of hyperuricemia in an elderly Mediterranean population with MetS. METHODS AND RESULTS: Baseline cross-sectional analyses were conducted on 6329 men/women (mean age 65 years) with overweight/obesity and MetS from the PREDIMED-Plus cohort. Dairy consumption was assessed using a food frequency questionnaire. Multivariable-adjusted Cox regressions were fitted to analyze the association of quartiles of consumption of total dairy products and their subtypes with the prevalence of hyperuricemia. Participants in the upper quartile of the consumption of total dairy products (multiadjusted prevalence ratio (PR) = 0.84; 95% CI: 0.75-0.94; P-trend 0.02), low-fat dairy products (PR = 0.79; 95% CI: 0.70-0.89; P-trend <0.001), total milk (PR = 0.81; 95% CI: 0.73-0.90; P-trend<0.001), low-fat milk (PR = 0.80; 95% CI: 0.72-0.89; P-trend<0.001, respectively), low-fat yogurt (PR = 0.89; 95% CI: 0.80-0.98; P-trend 0.051), and cheese (PR = 0.86; 95% CI: 0.77-0.96; P-trend 0.003) presented a lower prevalence of hyperuricemia. Whole-fat dairy, fermented dairy, and yogurt consumption were not associated with hyperuricemia. CONCLUSIONS: High consumption of total dairy products, total milk, low-fat dairy products, low-fat milk, low-fat yogurt, and cheese is associated with a lower risk of hyperuricemia.

3.
Am J Clin Nutr ; 111(2): 291-306, 2020 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31868210

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Overall quality of dietary carbohydrate intake rather than total carbohydrate intake may determine the risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD). OBJECTIVE: We examined 6- and 12-mo changes in carbohydrate quality index (CQI) and concurrent changes in several CVD risk factors in a multicenter, randomized, primary-prevention trial (PREDIMED-Plus) based on an intensive weight-loss lifestyle intervention program. METHODS: Prospective analysis of 5373 overweight/obese Spanish adults (aged 55-75 y) with metabolic syndrome (MetS). Dietary intake information obtained from a validated 143-item semiquantitative food-frequency questionnaire was used to calculate 6- and 12-mo changes in CQI (categorized in quintiles), based on 4 criteria (total dietary fiber intake, glycemic index, whole grain/total grain ratio, and solid carbohydrate/total carbohydrate ratio). The outcomes were changes in intermediate markers of CVD. RESULTS: During the 12-mo follow-up, the majority of participants improved their CQI by increasing their consumption of fruits, vegetables, legumes, fish, and nuts and decreasing their consumption of refined cereals, added sugars, and sugar-sweetened beverages. After 6 mo, body weight, waist circumference (WC), systolic and diastolic blood pressure (BP), fasting blood glucose, glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c), triglyceride levels, triglycerides and glucose (TyG) index, and TyG-WC decreased across successive quintiles of improvement in the CQI. After 12 mo, improvements were additionally observed for HDL cholesterol and for the ratio of total to HDL cholesterol. Favorable improvements (expressed in common units of SD and 95% CI) for quintile 5 compared with quintile 1 of CQI change were observed for most risk factors, including TyG-WC (SD -0.20; 95% CI -0.26, -0.15), HbA1c (SD -0.16; 95% CI -0.23, -0.10), weight (SD -0.12; 95% CI -0.14, -0.09), systolic BP (SD -0.11; 95% CI -0.19, -0.02) and diastolic BP (SD -0.11; 95% CI -0.19, -0.04). CONCLUSIONS: Improvements in CQI were strongly associated with concurrent favorable CVD risk factor changes maintained over time in overweight/obese adults with MetS. This trial was registered as ISRCTN 89898870.

4.
Rev Esp Enferm Dig ; 112(2): 94-100, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31880161

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the most common chronic liver disease in western countries. This study aimed to investigate putative risk factors differentially related with NAFLD in obese males and females diagnosed with metabolic syndrome (MetS), stratified using the non-invasive hepatic steatosis index (HSI). METHODS AND RESULTS: a cross-sectional analysis of the PREDIMED Plus study was performed of 278 participants with MetS (141 males and 137 females) of the Navarra-Nutrition node. Subjects were categorized by HSI tertiles and gender. Baseline clinical, biochemical variants and adherence to a Mediterranean diet and physical activity were evaluated. RESULTS: multivariate analyses showed that females had 4.54 more units of HSI (95% CI: 3.41 to 5.68) than males. Both sexes showed increased levels of triglycerides, TG/HDL cholesterol ratio and triglyceride glucose index across the HSI tertiles. Physical activity exhibited a negative statistical association with HSI (males: r = -0.19, p = 0.025; females: r = -0.18, p = 0.031). The amount of visceral fat showed a positive association with HSI in both sexes (males: r = 0.64, p < 0.001; females: r = 0.46, p < 0.001). Adherence to the Mediterranean diet was lower in those subjects with higher HSI values (males: r = -0.18, p = 0.032; females r= -0.19, p = 0.027). CONCLUSION: females had a poor liver status, suggesting gender differences related to NAFLD. Adherence to a Mediterranean diet and physical activity were associated with beneficial effects on cardiovascular disease features. Thus, reducing the risk of hepatic steatosis in subjects with MetS and obesity.

5.
Redox Biol ; 28: 101317, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31505326

RESUMO

18α-Glycyrrhetinic acid (18α-GA) is a bioactive triterpenoid that has been shown to activate the nuclear factor (erythroid-derived-2)-like 2 (Nrf2), the main transcription factor that orchestrates the cellular antioxidant response, in both cellular and organismal context. Although various beneficial properties of 18α-GA have been revealed, including its anti-oxidation and anti-aging activity, its possible protective effect against DNA damage has never been addressed. In this study, we investigated the potential beneficial properties of 18α-GA against DNA damage induced by mitomycin C (MMC) treatment. Using human primary fibroblasts exposed to MMC following pre-treatment with 18α-GA, we reveal an Nrf2-mediated protective effect against MMC-induced cell death that depends on extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) signaling. In total, our results reveal an additional beneficial effect of the Nrf2 activator 18α-GA, suggesting that this important phytochemical compound is a potential candidate in preventive and/or therapeutic schemes against conditions (such as aging) or diseases that are characterized by both oxidative stress and DNA damage.

6.
Nutrition ; 71: 110620, 2019 Oct 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31838461

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the most common cause of chronic liver morbidity. This condition often is accompanied by obesity, diabetes, and metabolic syndrome (MetS). The aim of this study was to evaluate the connection between lifestyle factors and NAFLD in individuals with MetS. METHODS: A cross-sectional study with 328 participants (55-75 y of age) diagnosed with MetS participating in the PREDIMED-Plus trial was conducted. NAFLD status was evaluated using the non-invasive hepatic steatosis index (HSI). Sociodemographic, clinical, and dietary data were collected. Adherence to the Mediterranean diet (mainly assessed by the consumption of olive oil, nuts, legumes, whole grain foods, fish, vegetables, fruits, and red wine) and physical activity were assessed using validated questionnaires. RESULTS: Linear regression analyses revealed that HSI values tended to be lower with increasing physical activity tertiles (T2, ß = -1.47; 95% confidence interval [CI], -2.73 to -0.20; T3, ß = -1.93; 95% CI, -3.22 to -0.65 versus T1, Ptrend = 0.001) and adherence to the Mediterranean diet was inversely associated with HSI values: (moderate adherence ß = -0.70; 95% CI, -1.92 to 0.53; high adherence ß = -1.57; 95% CI, -3.01 to -0.13 versus lower, Ptrend = 0.041). Higher tertiles of legume consumption were inversely associated with the highest tertile of HSI (T2, relative risk ratio [RRR], 0.45; 95% CI, 0.22-0.92; P = 0.028; T3, RRR, 0.48; 95% CI, 0.24-0.97; P = 0.041 versus T1). CONCLUSION: Physical activity, adherence to the Mediterranean diet, and consumption of legumes were inversely associated with a non-invasive marker of NAFLD in individuals with MetS. This data can be useful in implementing precision strategies aimed at the prevention, monitoring, and management of NAFLD.

7.
Nutr Res ; 73: 67-74, 2019 Nov 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31865217

RESUMO

The proportion of fat has increased at the expense of carbohydrates in the past years, and we aimed to assess total fat and fatty acids intake and their food sources among Mediterranean older adults and compare them to national and international recommendations. This study was conducted in 211 participants to determine lipid and fatty acid intake using a Spanish food database. The mean daily intake of lipids was 68.6g/d (standard deviation [SD]: 24.6; 34.4%, SD: 7.0 of total energy consumed). Men, younger participants, and those with higher education ingested more lipids than their peers. Fatty acids were ingested as follows (expressed as percentage of total energy intake): monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA) (16.7%, SD: 4.1), saturated fatty acids (SFA) (9.6%, SD: 2.6), and polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) (5.0%, SD: 1.7). Oils and seeds were the highest contributors in the intake of lipids (38.8%, SD: 16.0), MUFA (53.9%, SD: 18.7), and PUFA (33.0%, SD: 16.4). The total fat intake (34.4%, SD: 7.0) was within the range of International and Spanish recommendations among Mediterranean older adults; however, the intake of fatty acids did not abide by the international (PUFA) and Spanish recommendations (SFA, MUFA). α-Linoleic acid, eicosapentaenoic acid, and docosahexaenoic acid intake were lower than recommendations, but cholesterol intake (243.9mg, SD: 140.4) was within the range of recommendations. Therefore, public health campaigns are needed to encourage older adults to decrease SFA intake and increase adherence to the Mediterranean diet pattern for a better health.

8.
Int J Behav Nutr Phys Act ; 16(1): 137, 2019 12 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31870449

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: This study explored the association between inactive time and measures of adiposity, clinical parameters, obesity, type 2 diabetes and metabolic syndrome components. It further examined the impact of reallocating inactive time to time in bed, light physical activity (LPA) or moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) on cardio-metabolic risk factors, including measures of adiposity and body composition, biochemical parameters and blood pressure in older adults. METHODS: This is a cross-sectional analysis of baseline data from 2189 Caucasian men and women (age 55-75 years, BMI 27-40 Kg/m2) from the PREDIMED-Plus study (http://www.predimedplus.com/). All participants had ≥3 components of the metabolic syndrome. Inactive time, physical activity and time in bed were objectively determined using triaxial accelerometers GENEActiv during 7 days (ActivInsights Ltd., Kimbolton, United Kingdom). Multiple adjusted linear and logistic regression models were used. Isotemporal substitution regression modelling was performed to assess the relationship of replacing the amount of time spent in one activity for another, on each outcome, including measures of adiposity and body composition, biochemical parameters and blood pressure in older adults. RESULTS: Inactive time was associated with indicators of obesity and the metabolic syndrome. Reallocating 30 min per day of inactive time to 30 min per day of time in bed was associated with lower BMI, waist circumference and glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) (all p-values < 0.05). Reallocating 30 min per day of inactive time with 30 min per day of LPA or MVPA was associated with lower BMI, waist circumference, total fat, visceral adipose tissue, HbA1c, glucose, triglycerides, and higher body muscle mass and HDL cholesterol (all p-values < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Inactive time was associated with a poor cardio-metabolic profile. Isotemporal substitution of inactive time with MVPA and LPA or time in bed could have beneficial impact on cardio-metabolic health. TRIAL REGISTRATION: The trial was registered at the International Standard Randomized Controlled Trial (ISRCTN: http://www.isrctn.com/ISRCTN89898870) with number 89898870 and registration date of 24 July 2014, retrospectively registered.

9.
JAMA ; 322(15): 1486-1499, 2019 10 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31613346

RESUMO

Importance: High-quality dietary patterns may help prevent chronic disease, but limited data exist from randomized trials about the effects of nutritional and behavioral interventions on dietary changes. Objective: To assess the effect of a nutritional and physical activity education program on dietary quality. Design, Setting, and Participants: Preliminary exploratory interim analysis of an ongoing randomized trial. In 23 research centers in Spain, 6874 men and women aged 55 to 75 years with metabolic syndrome and no cardiovascular disease were enrolled in the trial between September 2013 and December 2016, with final data collection in March 2019. Interventions: Participants were randomized to an intervention group that encouraged an energy-reduced Mediterranean diet, promoted physical activity, and provided behavioral support (n = 3406) or to a control group that encouraged an energy-unrestricted Mediterranean diet (n = 3468). All participants received allotments of extra-virgin olive oil (1 L/mo) and nuts (125 g/mo) for free. Main Outcomes and Measures: The primary outcome was 12-month change in adherence based on the energy-reduced Mediterranean diet (er-MedDiet) score (range, 0-17; higher scores indicate greater adherence; minimal clinically important difference, 1 point). Results: Among 6874 randomized participants (mean [SD] age, 65.0 [4.9] years; 3406 [52%] men), 6583 (96%) completed the 12-month follow-up and were included in the main analysis. The mean (SD) er-MedDiet score was 8.5 (2.6) at baseline and 13.2 (2.7) at 12 months in the intervention group (increase, 4.7 [95% CI, 4.6-4.8]) and 8.6 (2.7) at baseline and 11.1 (2.8) at 12 months in the control group (increase, 2.5 [95% CI, 2.3-2.6]) (between-group difference, 2.2 [95% CI, 2.1-2.4]; P < .001). Conclusions and Relevance: In this preliminary analysis of an ongoing trial, an intervention that encouraged an energy-reduced Mediterranean diet and physical activity, compared with advice to follow an energy-unrestricted Mediterranean diet, resulted in a significantly greater increase in diet adherence after 12 months. Further evaluation of long-term cardiovascular effects is needed. Trial Registration: isrctn.com Identifier: ISRCTN89898870.


Assuntos
Restrição Calórica , Dieta Mediterrânea , Exercício , Síndrome Metabólica/dietoterapia , Cooperação do Paciente , Idoso , Doenças Cardiovasculares/prevenção & controle , Inquéritos sobre Dietas , Feminino , Educação em Saúde , Humanos , Modelos Lineares , Lipídeos/sangue , Masculino , Síndrome Metabólica/terapia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Obesidade/dietoterapia , Fatores de Risco , Espanha
10.
Nutrients ; 11(10)2019 Oct 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31652512

RESUMO

The prevalence of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is increasing worldwide. NAFLD management is mainly focused on weight loss, but the optimal characteristics of the diet demand further investigation. This study aims to evaluate the effects of two personalized energy-restricted diets on the liver status in overweight or obese subjects with NAFLD after a 6 months follow-up. Ninety-eight individuals from the Fatty Liver in Obesity (FLiO) study were randomized into two groups and followed different energy-restricted diets. Subjects were evaluated at baseline and after 6 months. Diet, anthropometry, body composition, and biochemical parameters were evaluated. Liver assessment included ultrasonography, Magnetic Resonance Imaging, elastography, and determination of transaminases. Both dietary groups significantly improved their metabolic and hepatic markers after the intervention, with no significant differences between them. Multivariate regression models evidenced a relationship between weight loss, adherence to the Mediterranean Diet (MedDiet), and a decrease in liver fat content, predicting up to 40.9% of its variability after 6 months. Moreover, the antioxidant capacity of the diet was inversely associated with liver fat content. Participants in the group with a higher adherence to the MedDiet showed a greater reduction in body weight, total fat mass, and hepatic fat. These results support the benefit of energy-restricted diets, high adherence to the MedDiet, and high antioxidant capacity of the diet for the management of NAFLD in individuals with overweight or obesity.

11.
Nutrients ; 11(10)2019 Oct 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31623368

RESUMO

Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is considered the hepatic manifestation of metabolic syndrome. Obesity and unhealthy dietary habits are described as risk factors for NAFLD. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between the consumption of different animal protein sources and hepatic status in NAFLD adults. A total of 112 overweight/obese participants with NAFLD from Fatty Liver in Obesity (FLiO) study were evaluated at baseline. Diet, body composition, and biochemical variables were evaluated. Hepatic status was also assessed by Magnetic Resonance Imaging, ultrasonography, and elastography. Red meat consumption showed a positive relationship with liver iron content (r = 0.224; p = 0.021) and ferritin concentration (r = 0.196; p = 0.037). Processed meat consumption exhibited a positive association with liver iron content (r = 0.308; p = 0.001), which was also found in the quantile regression (ß = 0.079; p = 0.028). Fish consumption was related with lower concentration of ferritin (r = -0.200; p = 0.034). This association was further evidenced in the regression model (ß = -0.720; p = 0.033). These findings suggest that the consumption of different animal protein sources differentially impact on liver status in obese subjects with NAFLD, showing fish consumption as a healthier alternative for towards NAFLD features.

12.
Biochem Pharmacol ; : 113649, 2019 Oct 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31586588

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Nutrition is a key factor in determining exercise response. The aim of this review is to assess the response to exercise in older adults who take supplements of antioxidants and/or omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids. METHODS: A systematic literature search was performed (June 2009- September 2019) in MEDLINE via Pubmed. The following search strategy was used with Boolean markers: ("omega-3 fatty acids" [Major] OR "antioxidants" [Major]) AND "exercise" AND "aged" [MesH]. Fourteen articles were finally included. RESULTS: Exercise-induced free radical and inflammatory marker blood levels, but not changed the plasma total antioxidant capacity (TAC), after administration of antioxidant supplement. The oral administration of antioxidants produced null or negative effect on endothelial function, but the infusion into the brachial artery during rhythmic handgrip exercise produced a significant improvement in muscle blood flow, due to an on increase in the availability of nitric acid derived from the nitric oxide synthase. Aerobic exercise and antioxidant supplementation improved submaximal and maximal aerobic parameters, as well as mitochondrial density and mitochondria-regulated apoptotic signaling. Antioxidant supplementation, but not omega-3 PUFA, decreased pro-inflammatory marker levels and fat oxidation induced by exercise. Strength training decreased serum B12 concentration but combined with omega-3 PUFA or antioxidant supplementation, B12 levels were maintained. Antioxidant supplementation has protective effect after fatigue in isometric exercise but improved appendicular fat-free mass just combined with resistance exercise. Omega-3 fatty acid supplement combined with exercise increased lean mass in women, but not in men. Muscle damage induced by exercise is protected by antioxidant supplementation. CONCLUSIONS: Older people who take antioxidant and/or omega-3 PUFA supplements showed improved exercise response, as well as lower muscle damage.

13.
Nutr. hosp ; 36(5): 1087-1094, sept.-oct. 2019. tab
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-184631

RESUMO

Objetivos: analizar la prevalencia de salud metabólica en pacientes obesos de Mallorca. Métodos: los participantes se clasificaron en obesos sanos metabólicamente (OSM) y obesos no sanos metabólicamente (ONSM) en función de si presentaban o no síndrome metabólico (SMet), definido según los criterios del NCEP ATP III. Se evaluaron hábitos alimentarios, tóxicos y estilo de vida, tiempo de evolución de la obesidad, antecedentes de lactancia materna, obesidad en la infancia y familiares de obesidad y diabetes mellitus, así como glucosa, colesterol total, colesterol-HDL y triglicéridos plasmáticos en 457 pacientes obesos residentes en Mallorca. Resultados: la prevalencia de OSM fue del 49,2% y la de ONSM fue del 50,8%. El fenotipo de OSM disminuyó con la edad. Todos los pacientes presentaron hábitos inadecuados. Ambos grupos presentaron similar consumo de frutas, ensaladas y verduras, hábito tabáquico y práctica de actividad física. El 37,4% de los sujetos consumía bebidas azucaradas y el 52,9% consumía alcohol, más en ONSM (4,3%) que en OSM (0,4%). Los sujetos ONSM presentaron mayores valores de índice de masa corporal (IMC), circunferencia abdominal, porcentaje de grasa e índice de grasa visceral (IGV) y variables metabólicas estudiadas que los OSM. Conclusiones: más de la mitad de la población obesa analizada presentó complicaciones metabólicas, aunque toda la población obesa mostró similares hábitos alimentarios y de estilo de vida inadecuados. El incremento de edad, el bajo nivel educativo, los años de evolución de la obesidad y la localización visceral de la grasa se asocian a un estado metabólico no saludable. Deberían aunarse criterios para definir y tipificar el estado metabólico de los sujetos obesos


Aims: to assess the prevalence of metabolic health in Mallorca obese patients. Methods: participants were classified in metabolically healthy obese (MHO) and metabolically non-healthy obese (MNHO). Food, toxic and lifestyle habits, time of obesity evolution, breastfeeding, obesity in childhood and family history of obesity and diabetes mellitus, as well as glycemia, total cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol and triglyceridemia were evaluated in 457 obese patients. Results: prevalence of MHO was 49.2% and that of MNHO was 50.8%. MHO phenotype decreased with age. All patients showed inadequate habits. Consumption of fruits, salads and vegetables, tobacco and physical activity were similar between both groups; 37.4% of patients consumed sugary sweet drinks, and 52.9% consumed alcohol, higher in MNHO (4.3%) than in MHO (0.4%). MNHO showed higher values of BMI, abdominal circumference, fat percentage and visceral fatty index, as well as all metabolically studied outcomes. Conclusions: more than half of assessed obese population showed metabolic complications, but all obese population showed similar inadequate food and lifestyle habits. Increase of age, low educational level, years of obesity evolution, and visceral localization of fat are associated with a metabolically non-healthy status. Criteria to define and typify the metabolic state of obese subjects should be unified


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Obesidade/epidemiologia , Síndrome Metabólica/epidemiologia , Síndrome Metabólica/complicações , Espanha/epidemiologia , Obesidade/classificação , Comportamento Alimentar , Atividade Motora , Índice de Massa Corporal , Estilo de Vida , Inquéritos Nutricionais , Antropometria , Estudos Transversais
14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31514471

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Metabolic syndrome (MetS) is a cluster of risk factors for cardiovascular disease, atherosclerosis and diabetes mellitus type 2 which may be reduced by practicing regular physical activity. OBJECTIVE: To assess the leisure-time physical activity (LTPA) of older adults with MetS and without MetS. METHODS: Cross-sectional study of older adults (55-80 years old) from Balearic Islands (Spain) with MetS (n = 333; 55% men) and without MetS (n = 144; 43.8% men). LTPA was assessed with the validated Spanish version of the Minnesota LTPA Questionnaire. Two criteria of physically active were used: >150 min/week of moderate physical activity or >75 min/week of vigorous physical activity or a combination of both, and total leisure-time energy expenditure of >300 MET·min/day. Sociodemographic and lifestyle characteristics, anthropometric variables, MetS components, and adherence to the Mediterranean diet (MD) were also measured. RESULTS: MetS subjects showed lower energy expenditure in LTPA, lower adherence to the MD, higher obesity and waist circumference, and were less active than non-MetS peers. LTPA increased as participants got older and there was higher LTPA intensity as educational level increased. Adherence to MD was as high as LTPA was. CONCLUSIONS: MetS is associated with physical inactivity and unhealthy diet. To increase LTPA recommendations and raise awareness in the population about the health benefits of PA and high adherence to MD is highly recommended.


Assuntos
Dieta Mediterrânea , Exercício , Síndrome Metabólica/epidemiologia , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Atividades de Lazer , Estilo de Vida , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Atividade Motora , Obesidade , Fatores de Risco , Espanha/epidemiologia , Inquéritos e Questionários
15.
Free Radic Res ; 53(sup1): 1056-1067, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31514551

RESUMO

All living organisms are normally undergoing aging. Dietary habits constitute the main environmental factor that may accelerate or decelerate this process. Advanced glycation end products (AGEs) are constituents of dietary products that are consumed daily, such as bread and milk. Although AGEs have been widely regarded as toxic agents, recent studies seem to contradict this view: they either find no adverse effects of AGEs or even attribute beneficial properties to them. The aim of our study was to investigate the effects of sugar-derived AGEs on organismal lifespan using as a model the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans. Exposure to sugar-derived AGEs prolonged the lifespan of wild type animals; this lifespan extension was accompanied by an enhanced pharyngeal pumping rate. We demonstrate that elevation of the pharyngeal pumping rate depends on W06A7.4 and eat-4 expression, as well as on daf-16, which encodes a FOXO family transcription factor. Our results suggest that sugar-derived AGEs modulate the lifespan of C. elegans at least in part through transcriptional regulation of pharyngeal pumping throughout the animals' lifespan.

16.
Eur J Nutr ; 2019 Sep 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31523780

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The prevalence of overweight/obesity and related manifestations such as metabolic syndrome (MetS) is increasing worldwide. High energy density diets, usually with low nutrient density, are among the main causes. Some high-quality dietary patterns like the Mediterranean diet (MedDiet) have been linked to the prevention and better control of MetS. However, it is needed to show that nutritional interventions promoting the MedDiet are able to improve nutrient intake. OBJECTIVE: To assess the effect of improving MedDiet adherence on nutrient density after 1 year of follow-up at the PREDIMED-Plus trial. METHODS: We assessed 5777 men (55-75 years) and women (60-75 years) with overweight or obesity and MetS at baseline from the PREDIMED-Plus trial. Dietary changes and MedDiet adherence were evaluated at baseline and after 1 year. The primary outcome was the change in nutrient density (measured as nutrient intake per 1000 kcal). Multivariable-adjusted linear regression models were fitted to analyse longitudinal changes in adherence to the MedDiet and concurrent changes in nutrient density. RESULTS: During 1-year follow-up, participants showed improvements in nutrient density for all micronutrients assessed. The density of carbohydrates (- 9.0%), saturated fatty acids (- 10.4%) and total energy intake (- 6.3%) decreased. These changes were more pronounced in the subset of participants with higher improvements in MedDiet adherence. CONCLUSIONS: The PREDIMED-Plus dietary intervention, based on MedDiet recommendations for older adults, maybe a feasible strategy to improve nutrient density in Spanish population at high risk of cardiovascular disease with overweight or obesity.

17.
Eur J Nutr ; 2019 Aug 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31385063

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To assess the association between the consumption of non-soy legumes and different subtypes of non-soy legumes and serum uric acid (SUA) or hyperuricemia in elderly individuals with overweight or obesity and metabolic syndrome. METHODS: A cross-sectional analysis was conducted in the framework of the PREDIMED-Plus study. We included 6329 participants with information on non-soy legume consumption and SUA levels. Non-soy legume consumption was estimated using a semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire. Linear regression models and Cox regression models were used to assess the associations between tertiles of non-soy legume consumption, different subtypes of non-soy legume consumption and SUA levels or hyperuricemia prevalence, respectively. RESULTS: Individuals in the highest tertile (T3) of total non-soy legume, lentil and pea consumption, had 0.14 mg/dL, 0.19 mg/dL and 0.12 mg/dL lower SUA levels, respectively, compared to those in the lowest tertile (T1), which was considered the reference one. Chickpea and dry bean consumption showed no association. In multivariable models, participants located in the top tertile of total non-soy legumes [prevalence ratio (PR): 0.89; 95% CI 0.82-0.97; p trend = 0.01, lentils (PR: 0.89; 95% CI 0.82-0.97; p trend = 0.01), dry beans (PR: 0.91; 95% C: 0.84-0.99; p trend = 0.03) and peas (PR: 0.89; 95% CI 0.82-0.97; p trend = 0.01)] presented a lower prevalence of hyperuricemia (vs. the bottom tertile). Chickpea consumption was not associated with hyperuricemia prevalence. CONCLUSIONS: In this study of elderly subjects with metabolic syndrome, we observed that despite being a purine-rich food, non-soy legumes were inversely associated with SUA levels and hyperuricemia prevalence. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ISRCTN89898870. Registration date: 24 July 2014.

18.
Nutrients ; 11(8)2019 Aug 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31416130

RESUMO

Anthropometry (from the Greek anthropos: human, and metron: measure) refers to the systematic collection and correlation of measurements of human individuals, including the systematic measurement of the physical characteristics of the human body, primarily body weight, body size, and shape [...].

19.
Nutrients ; 11(8)2019 Aug 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31416272

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Metabolic Syndrome (MetS) is associated with higher rates of cardiovascular disease (CVD), type 2 diabetes mellitus, and cancer worldwide. OBJECTIVE: To assess fat intake in older adults with or without MetS. DESIGN: Cross-sectional nutritional survey in older adults living in the Balearic Islands (n = 477, 48% women, 55-80 years old) with no previous CVD. METHODS: Assessment of fat (total fat, MUFA, PUFA, SFA, TFA, linoleic acid, α-linolenic acid, marine and non-marine ω-3 FA, animal fat and vegetable fat, cholesterol) and macronutrient intake using a validated food frequency questionnaire, and its comparison with recommendations of the US Institute of Medicine (IOM) and the Spanish Society of Community Nutrition (SENC). RESULTS: Participants with MetS showed higher BMI, lower physical activity, higher total fat and MUFA intake, and lower intake of energy, carbohydrates, and fiber than participants without MetS. Men and women with MetS were below the Acceptable Macronutrient Distribution Range (AMDR) proposed by IOM for carbohydrates and above the AMDR for total fat and MUFAs, and women were below the AMDR proposed for α-linolenic acid (ALA) compared with participants without MetS. CONCLUSIONS: Subjects with MetS were less likely to meet IOM and SENC recommendations for fat and macronutrient intakes as compared to non-MetS subjects.

20.
Nutr Metab Cardiovasc Dis ; 29(9): 887-905, 2019 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31377181

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: The metabolic syndrome (MetS) is a cluster of coexisting cardiovascular risk factors. The role of specific dietary fats was reemphasized by dietary recommendations. This systematic review aims to assess evidence for the effect of dietary fat intake on MetS occurrence and reversion in adults. METHODS AND RESULTS: The MEDLINE database was used to search the existing literature. We included observational studies that analyzed dietary fat intake in adults with MetS and clinical trials that compared the effects of different dietary fat diets on MetS and/or its components. Thirty articles were selected (14 observational and 16 clinical trials), and we included information of dietary fat and fatty acids as well as MetS, body mass index, cholesterol, hypertension, and diabetes in adults. SFA intake was found to be positively associated with MetS components. Most of the observational reviewed studies found beneficial associations between MUFA and PUFA (including n-3 and n-6 subtypes) intake and MetS components. Clinical trials also supported the benefits of MUFA- or PUFA-enriched diets (including low-fat diets) in reducing MetS. CONCLUSIONS: The effects of dietary SFAs on MetS will be influenced by other specific nutrients. Replacement of SFA by MUFA and PUFA has been associated with a decrease in MetS. Dietary recommendations should emphasize on different qualities of fat intake, not only to reduce total fat intake, to obtain health benefits in adults.

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