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1.
JACC Clin Electrophysiol ; 6(1): 111-124, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31971899

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: This study compared the efficacy and safety of the VASCADE MVP Venous Vascular Closure System (VVCS) device (Cardiva Medical, Santa Clara, California) to manual compression (MC) for closing multiple access sites after catheter-based electrophysiology procedures. BACKGROUND: The VASCADE MVP VVCS is designed to provide earlier ambulatory hemostasis than MC after catheter-based procedures. METHODS: The AMBULATE (A Randomized, Multi-center Trial to Compare Cardiva Mid-Bore [VASCADE MVP] VVCS to Manual Compression in Closure of Multiple Femoral Venous Access Sites in 6 - 12 Fr Sheath Sizes) trial was a multicenter, randomized trial of device closure versus MC in patients who underwent ablation. Outcomes included time to ambulation (TTA), total post-procedure time (TPPT), time to discharge eligibility (TTDe), time to hemostasis (TTH), 30-day major and minor complications, pain medication usage, and patient-reported outcomes. RESULTS: A total of 204 patients at 13 sites were randomized to the device arm (n = 100; 369 access sites) or the MC arm (n = 104; 382 access sites). Baseline characteristics were similar between groups. Mean TTA, TPPT, TTDe, and TTH were substantially lower in the device arm (respective decreases of 54%, 54%, 52%, and 55%; all p < 0.0001). Opioid use was reduced by 58% (p = 0.001). There were no major access site complications. Incidence of minor complications was 1.0% for the device arm and 2.4% for the MC arm (p = 0.45). Patient satisfaction scores with duration of and comfort during bedrest were 63% and 36% higher in device group (both p < 0.0001). Satisfaction with bedrest pain was 25% higher (p = 0.001) for the device overall, and 40% higher (p = 0.002) for patients with a previous ablation. CONCLUSIONS: Use of the closure device for multiple access ablation procedures resulted in significant reductions in TTA, TPPT, TTH, TTDe, and opioid use, with increased patient satisfaction and no increase in complications. (A Randomized, Multi-center Trial to Compare Cardiva Mid-Bore VVCS to Manual Compression in Closure of Multiple Femoral Venous Access Sites in 6 - 12 Fr Sheath Sizes [AMBULATE]; NCT03193021).

3.
J Atr Fibrillation ; 12(1): 2141, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31687065

RESUMO

Atrial fibrillation (AF) is the most common sustained arrhythmia encountered in practice and is the leading cause of debilitating strokes with significant economic burden. It is currently not known whether asymptomatic undiagnosed AF should be treated if detected by various screening methods. Currently, United States guidelines have no recommendations for identifying patients with asymptomatic undiagnosed AF due to lack of evidence. The American Heart Association Center for Health Technology & Innovation undertook a plan to identify tools in 3 phases that may be useful in improving outcomes in patients with undiagnosed AF. In phase I we sought to identify AF risk factors that can be used to develop a risk score to identify high-risk patients using a large commercial insurance dataset. The principal findings of this study show that individuals at high risk for AF are those with advanced age, the presence of heart failure, coronary artery disease, hypertension, metabolic disorders, and hyperlipidemia. Our analysis also found that chronic respiratory failure was a significant risk factor for those over 65 years of age and chronic kidney disease for those less than 65 years of age.

4.
N Engl J Med ; 381(20): 1909-1917, 2019 11 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31722151

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Optical sensors on wearable devices can detect irregular pulses. The ability of a smartwatch application (app) to identify atrial fibrillation during typical use is unknown. METHODS: Participants without atrial fibrillation (as reported by the participants themselves) used a smartphone (Apple iPhone) app to consent to monitoring. If a smartwatch-based irregular pulse notification algorithm identified possible atrial fibrillation, a telemedicine visit was initiated and an electrocardiography (ECG) patch was mailed to the participant, to be worn for up to 7 days. Surveys were administered 90 days after notification of the irregular pulse and at the end of the study. The main objectives were to estimate the proportion of notified participants with atrial fibrillation shown on an ECG patch and the positive predictive value of irregular pulse intervals with a targeted confidence interval width of 0.10. RESULTS: We recruited 419,297 participants over 8 months. Over a median of 117 days of monitoring, 2161 participants (0.52%) received notifications of irregular pulse. Among the 450 participants who returned ECG patches containing data that could be analyzed - which had been applied, on average, 13 days after notification - atrial fibrillation was present in 34% (97.5% confidence interval [CI], 29 to 39) overall and in 35% (97.5% CI, 27 to 43) of participants 65 years of age or older. Among participants who were notified of an irregular pulse, the positive predictive value was 0.84 (95% CI, 0.76 to 0.92) for observing atrial fibrillation on the ECG simultaneously with a subsequent irregular pulse notification and 0.71 (97.5% CI, 0.69 to 0.74) for observing atrial fibrillation on the ECG simultaneously with a subsequent irregular tachogram. Of 1376 notified participants who returned a 90-day survey, 57% contacted health care providers outside the study. There were no reports of serious app-related adverse events. CONCLUSIONS: The probability of receiving an irregular pulse notification was low. Among participants who received notification of an irregular pulse, 34% had atrial fibrillation on subsequent ECG patch readings and 84% of notifications were concordant with atrial fibrillation. This siteless (no on-site visits were required for the participants), pragmatic study design provides a foundation for large-scale pragmatic studies in which outcomes or adherence can be reliably assessed with user-owned devices. (Funded by Apple; Apple Heart Study ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT03335800.).


Assuntos
Fibrilação Atrial/diagnóstico , Eletrocardiografia/instrumentação , Aplicativos Móveis , Telemedicina/instrumentação , Dispositivos Eletrônicos Vestíveis , Adulto , Idoso , Algoritmos , Confidencialidade , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Estudos Prospectivos
5.
Circulation ; 140(17): 1426-1436, 2019 Oct 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31634011

RESUMO

The complexity and costs associated with traditional randomized, controlled trials have increased exponentially over time, and now threaten to stifle the development of new drugs and devices. Nevertheless, the growing use of electronic health records, mobile applications, and wearable devices offers significant promise for transforming clinical trials, making them more pragmatic and efficient. However, many challenges must be overcome before these innovations can be implemented routinely in randomized, controlled trial operations. In October of 2018, a diverse stakeholder group convened in Washington, DC, to examine how electronic health record, mobile, and wearable technologies could be applied to clinical trials. The group specifically examined how these technologies might streamline the execution of clinical trial components, delineated innovative trial designs facilitated by technological developments, identified barriers to implementation, and determined the optimal frameworks needed for regulatory oversight. The group concluded that the application of novel technologies to clinical trials provided enormous potential, yet these changes needed to be iterative and facilitated by continuous learning and pilot studies.

6.
Circ Cardiovasc Qual Outcomes ; 12(10): e005595, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31610712

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Atrial fibrillation (AF) increases the risk of stroke 5-fold and there is rising interest to determine if AF severity or burden can further risk stratify these patients, particularly for near-term events. Using continuous remote monitoring data from cardiac implantable electronic devices, we sought to evaluate if machine learned signatures of AF burden could provide prognostic information on near-term risk of stroke when compared to conventional risk scores. METHODS AND RESULTS: We retrospectively identified Veterans Health Administration serviced patients with cardiac implantable electronic device remote monitoring data and at least one day of device-registered AF. The first 30 days of remote monitoring in nonstroke controls were compared against the past 30 days of remote monitoring before stroke in cases. We trained 3 types of models on our data: (1) convolutional neural networks, (2) random forest, and (3) L1 regularized logistic regression (LASSO). We calculated the CHA2DS2-VASc score for each patient and compared its performance against machine learned indices based on AF burden in separate test cohorts. Finally, we investigated the effect of combining our AF burden models with CHA2DS2-VASc. We identified 3114 nonstroke controls and 71 stroke cases, with no significant differences in baseline characteristics. Random forest performed the best in the test data set (area under the curve [AUC]=0.662) and convolutional neural network in the validation dataset (AUC=0.702), whereas CHA2DS2-VASc had an AUC of 0.5 or less in both data sets. Combining CHA2DS2-VASc with random forest and convolutional neural network yielded a validation AUC of 0.696 and test AUC of 0.634, yielding the highest average AUC on nontraining data. CONCLUSIONS: This proof-of-concept study found that machine learning and ensemble methods that incorporate daily AF burden signature provided incremental prognostic value for risk stratification beyond CHA2DS2-VASc for near-term risk of stroke.

7.
Circ Cardiovasc Interv ; 12(8): e007604, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31416357

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Patients with atrial fibrillation (AF) treated with percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) require multiple antithrombotic therapies. The optimal strategy is debated suggesting increased treatment variation. This study sought to characterize site-level variation in antithrombotic therapies in AF patients after PCI and determine the association with outcomes. METHODS: Using the retrospective TREAT-AF study (The Retrospective Evaluation and Assessment of Therapies in AF) from the Veterans Health Administration, patients with newly diagnosed, nonvalvular AF between 2004 and 2015 followed by a PCI with a P2Y12-antagonist prescription were identified. Patients were grouped according to the therapy dispensed 7 days before until 30 days after the PCI: oral anticoagulation plus platelet inhibition (OAC+PI) or platelet inhibition only. A combined outcome of death, myocardial infarction, stroke, or major bleeding was assessed 1 year after PCI and Cox regression was performed to estimate hazard ratios. RESULTS: Of 230 762 patients with newly diagnosed AF, 4042 (1.8%) underwent PCI and received a P2Y12-antagonist during the observation period (age, 67±9 years; CHA2DS2-VASc, 2.7±1.7; HAS-BLED, 2.6±1.2). Among these, 47% were prescribed OAC+PI, and 53% platelet inhibition only 7 days before until 30 days after the PCI. Across 63 sites, the use of OAC+PI ranged from 19% to 66%. Prescription of OAC+PI was independently associated with a reduction in the combined outcome of death, myocardial infarction, stroke, or major bleeding compared with platelet inhibition only (adjusted hazard ratio, 0.85; 95% CI, 0.73-0.99; P=0.033). CONCLUSIONS: In patients with established AF undergoing PCI, the use of OAC+PI varied substantially across sites in the 30 days post-PCI. Anticoagulation appeared to be underutilized but was associated with improved outcomes. Strategies to promote OAC+PI and minimize site variation may be useful, particularly in light of recent randomized trials.

8.
Circ Arrhythm Electrophysiol ; 12(8): e006835, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31352796

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Localized drivers are proposed mechanisms for persistent atrial fibrillation (AF) from optical mapping of human atria and clinical studies of AF, yet are controversial because drivers fluctuate and ablating them may not terminate AF. We used wavefront field mapping to test the hypothesis that AF drivers, if concurrent, may interact to produce fluctuating areas of control to explain their appearance/disappearance and acute impact of ablation. METHODS: We recruited 54 patients from an international registry in whom persistent AF terminated by targeted ablation. Unipolar AF electrograms were analyzed from 64-pole baskets to reconstruct activation times, map propagation vectors each 20 ms, and create nonproprietary phase maps. RESULTS: Each patient (63.6±8.5 years, 29.6% women) showed 4.0±2.1 spatially anchored rotational or focal sites in AF in 3 patterns. First, a single (type I; n=7) or, second, paired chiral-antichiral (type II; n=5) rotational drivers controlled most of the atrial area. Ablation of 1 to 2 large drivers terminated all cases of types I or II AF. Third, interaction of 3 to 5 drivers (type III; n=42) with changing areas of control. Targeted ablation at driver centers terminated AF and required more ablation in types III versus I (P=0.02 in left atrium). CONCLUSIONS: Wavefront field mapping of persistent AF reveals a pathophysiologic network of a small number of spatially anchored rotational and focal sites, which interact, fluctuate, and control varying areas. Future work should define whether AF drivers that control larger atrial areas are attractive targets for ablation.

9.
Pacing Clin Electrophysiol ; 42(7): 951-958, 2019 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31168821

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Urinary tract infection (UTI) is common after surgical procedures and a quality improvement target. For non-surgical procedures such as catheter ablation of atrial fibrillation (AF), UTI risk has not been characterized. We sought to determine incidence and risk factors of UTI after AF ablation and risk variation across sites. METHODS: Using Marketscan commercial claims databases, we performed a retrospective cohort study of patients who underwent AF ablation from 2007 to 2011. The primary outcome was UTI diagnosis within 30 days after ablation. We performed multivariate analyses to determine risk factors for UTI and risk of sepsis within 30 days after ablation with UTI as the predictor variable. Median odds ratio was used to quantify UTI site variation. RESULTS: Among 21 091 patients (age 59.2 ± 10.9; 29.1% female; CHA2 DS2 -VASc 2.0 ± 1.6), 622 (2.9%) were diagnosed with UTI within 30 days. In multivariate analyses, UTI was independently associated with age, female sex, prior UTI, and general anesthesia (all P < .01). UTI diagnosis was associated with a substantial increased risk of sepsis within 30 days (5.0% vs. 0.3%; odds ratio 17.5; 95% confidence interval [CI] 10.8-28.2; P < .0001). Among 416 sites, 211 had at least one UTI. Among these 211 sites, the incidence of postablation UTI ranged from 0.7 to 26.7% (median: 5.4%; Interquartile Range (IQR): 3.0-7.1%; 95th percentile: 14.3%; median odds ratio: 1.45; 95% CI 1.41-1.50). CONCLUSIONS: UTI after AF ablation is not uncommon and varies substantially across sites. Consideration of UTI as a quality measure and interventions targeted at high-risk patients or sites warrant consideration.

10.
Clin J Am Soc Nephrol ; 14(7): 1029-1038, 2019 Jul 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31175104

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: We examined the association of predialysis systolic and diastolic BP and intradialytic hypotension with incident atrial fibrillation in older patients initiating hemodialysis. DESIGN, SETTING, PARTICIPANTS, & MEASUREMENTS: We used the US Renal Data System linked to the records of a large dialysis provider to identify patients aged ≥67 years initiating hemodialysis between January 2006 and October 2011. We examined quarterly average predialysis systolic BP, diastolic BP, and proportion of sessions with intradialytic hypotension (i.e., nadir systolic BP <90 mm Hg). We applied an extended Cox model to compute adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) of each exposure with incident atrial fibrillation. RESULTS: Among 17,003 patients, 3785 developed atrial fibrillation. When comparing predialysis systolic BP to a fixed reference of 140 mm Hg, lower predialysis systolic BP was associated with a higher hazard of atrial fibrillation, whereas higher systolic BP was associated with a lower hazard of atrial fibrillation. When comparing across a range of systolic BP for two hypothetical patients with similar measured covariates, the association varied by mean systolic BP: at systolic BP 190 mm Hg, each 10 mm Hg lower systolic BP was associated with lower atrial fibrillation hazard (HR, 0.94; 95% confidence interval, 0.90 to 1.00), whereas at systolic BP 140 mm Hg, a 10 mm Hg lower systolic BP was associated with a higher atrial fibrillation hazard (HR, 1.12; 95% confidence interval, 1.10 to 1.14). Lower diastolic BP was associated with higher atrial fibrillation hazards. Intradialytic hypotension was weakly associated with atrial fibrillation. CONCLUSIONS: In this observational study of older patients initiating hemodialysis, lower predialysis systolic BP and diastolic BP were associated with higher incidence of atrial fibrillation.

12.
J Am Heart Assoc ; 8(9): e011205, 2019 May 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31023126

RESUMO

Background Patient satisfaction with therapy is an important metric of care quality and has been associated with greater medication persistence. We evaluated the association of patient satisfaction with warfarin therapy to other metrics of anticoagulation care quality and clinical outcomes among patients with atrial fibrillation ( AF ). Methods and Results Using data from the ORBIT - AF (Outcomes Registry for Better Informed Treatment of Atrial Fibrillation) registry, patients were identified with AF who were taking warfarin and had completed an Anti-Clot Treatment Scale ( ACTS ) questionnaire, a validated metric of patient-reported burden and benefit of oral anticoagulation. Multivariate regressions were used to determine association of ACTS burden and benefit scores with time in therapeutic international normalized ratio range ( TTR ; both ≥75% and ≥60%), warfarin discontinuation, and clinical outcomes (death, stroke, major bleed, and all-cause hospitalization). Among 1514 patients with AF on warfarin therapy (75±10 years; 42% women; CHA 2 DS 2- VAS c 3.9±1.7), those most burdened with warfarin therapy were younger and more likely to be women, have paroxysmal AF , and to be treated with antiarrhythmic drugs. After adjustment for covariates, ACTS burden scores were independent of TTR ( TTR ≥75%: odds ratio, 1.01 [95% CI , 0.99-1.03]; TTR ≥60%: odds ratio, 1.01 [95% CI , 0.98-1.05]), warfarin discontinuation (odds ratio, 0.99; 95% CI , 0.97-1.01), or clinical outcomes. ACTS benefit scores were also not associated with TTR , warfarin discontinuation, or clinical outcomes. Conclusions In a large registry of patients with AF taking warfarin, ACTS scores provided independent information beyond other traditional metrics of oral anticoagulation care quality and identified patient groups at high risk for dissatisfaction with warfarin therapy.

13.
Circulation ; 139(22): 2502-2512, 2019 May 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30880434

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Device-detected atrial fibrillation (AF) is associated with increased risk of stroke; however, there are no clearly defined thresholds of AF burden at which to initiate oral anticoagulation (OAC). We sought to describe OAC prescription practice variation in response to new device-detected AF and the association with outcomes. METHODS: We performed a retrospective cohort study using data from the Veterans Health Administration linked to remote monitoring data that included day-level AF burden. We included patients with cardiac implantable electronic devices and remote monitoring from 2011 to 2014, CHA2DS2-VASc score ≥2, and no prior stroke or OAC receipt in the preceding 2 years. We determined the proportion of patients prescribed OAC within 90 days after new device-detected AF across a range of AF thresholds (≥6 minutes to >24 hours) and examined site variation in OAC prescription. We used multivariable Cox proportional hazards regressions to determine the association of OAC prescription with stroke by device-detected AF burden. RESULTS: Among 10 212 patients with cardiac implantable electronic devices, 4570 (45%), 3969 (39%), 3263 (32%), and 2469 (24%) had device-detected AF >6 minutes, >1 hour, >6 hours, and >24 hours, respectively. For device-detected AF >1 hour, 1712 patients met inclusion criteria (72±10 years; 1.5% female; CHA2DS2-VASc score 4.0±1.4; HAS-BLED score 2.6±1.1). The proportion receiving OAC varied based on device-detected AF burden (≥6 minutes: 272/2101 [13%]; >1 hour: 273/1712 [16%]; >6 hours: 263/1279 [21%]; >24 hours: 224/818 [27%]). Across 52 sites (N=1329 patients), there was substantial site-level variation in OAC prescription after device-detected AF >1 hour (median, 16%; range, 3%-67%; median odds ratio, 1.56 [95% credible interval, 1.49-1.71]). In adjusted models, OAC prescription after device-detected AF >24 hours was associated with reduced stroke risk (hazard ratio, 0.28; 95% CI, 0.10-0.81; P=0.02), although the propensity-adjusted model was significant when AF lasted at least 6 minutes. CONCLUSIONS: Among veterans with cardiac implantable electronic devices, device-detected AF is common. There is large practice variation in 90-day OAC initiation after new device-detected AF, with low rates of treatment overall, even for episodes that last >24 hours. The strongest association of OAC with reduction in stroke was observed after device-detected AF >24 hours. Randomized trials are needed to confirm these observational findings.

14.
JACC Clin Electrophysiol ; 5(2): 231-241, 2019 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30784696

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: In this study the authors investigated effectiveness and safety of an initial treatment strategy with class IC or class III antiarrhythmic drugs (AAD) for newly diagnosed atrial fibrillation (AF) or atrial flutter (AFL). BACKGROUND: There is limited evidence to guide optimal AAD selection for rhythm control in newly diagnosed AF/AFL. METHODS: Using data from TREAT-AF (The Retrospective Evaluation and Assessment of Therapies in AF), the authors performed a retrospective cohort study of patients with AF/AFL from 2004 to 2014 and class IC or class III AAD prescription within 90 days following diagnosis. Patients with prior myocardial infarction, heart failure, or end-stage renal disease were excluded. Inverse probability treatment weighted propensity scores were used to evaluate the association of AAD class on hospitalization and cardiovascular events. To evaluate residual confounding, falsification outcomes were evaluated. RESULTS: A total of 230,762 patients developed newly diagnosed AF/AFL during the study period. Of those, 3,973 patients (1.7%) were prescribed class IC and 6,909 (3.0%) were prescribed class III AAD. Median follow-up was 4.9 years. After inverse probability treatment weighted adjustment, class IC medications were associated with lower risk of hospitalizations for AF/AFL (hazard ratio [HR]: 0.77; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.73 to 0.81), cardiovascular disease (HR: 0.78; 95% CI: 0.75 to 0.81), heart failure (HR: 0.70; 95% CI: 0.64 to 0.76), and lower incidence of ischemic stroke (HR: 0.74; 95% CI: 0.65 to 0.85). Similar results were found in CHADS2 (Congestive Heart Failure, Hypertension, Age ≥75 Years, Diabetes Mellitus, Prior Stroke, Transient Ischemic Attack, or Thromboembolism) 0 or 1 and CHA2DS2-VASc (Congestive Heart Failure, Hypertension, Age ≥75 Years, Diabetes Mellitus, Prior Stroke, Transient Ischemic Attack, or Thromboembolism, Vascular Disease, Age 65 to 74 Years, Sex) 0 or 1 subgroups. Falsification analyses for outcomes of urinary tract infection, pneumonia, and hip fracture were generally nonsignificant. CONCLUSIONS: Prescription of class IC AAD as initial treatment for newly diagnosed AF/AFL, compared with prescription of class III AAD, may be associated with lower risk of hospitalization and cardiovascular events.

15.
Circulation ; 139(10): e56-e528, 2019 03 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30700139
16.
J Pharm Pract ; : 897190019828270, 2019 Feb 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30791808

RESUMO

BACKGROUND:: Direct oral anticoagulants (DOACs) have strict dosing guidelines, but recent studies indicate that inappropriate dosing is common, particularly in chronic kidney disease (CKD), for which it has been reported to be as high as 43%. Since 2011, the Veterans Health Administration (VA) has implemented anticoagulation management programs for DOACs, generally led by pharmacists, which has previously been shown to improve medication adherence. OBJECTIVE:: We investigated the prevalence of overdosing and underdosing of DOACs in the VA. METHODS:: Using data from the TREAT-AF cohort study (The Retrospective Evaluation and Assessment of Therapies in AF), we identified VA patients with newly diagnosed atrial fibrillation (AF) and receipt of a DOAC between 2003 and 2015. We classified dosing as correct, overdosed, or underdosed based on the Food and Drug Administration-approved dosing criteria. RESULTS:: Of 230 762 patients, 5060 received dabigatran (77.3%) or rivaroxaban (22.7%) within 90 days of AF diagnosis (age 69 [10[ years; CHA2DS2-VASc 1.6 [1.4]), of which 1312 (25.9%) had CKD based on estimated glomerular filtration rate <60. Overall, 93.6% of patients, 83.2% with CKD, received appropriate DOAC dosing. Incorrect dosing increased with worsening renal function. CONCLUSION:: Compared to recent studies of commercial payers and health-care systems, incorrect dosing of DOACs is less common across the VA. Pharmacist-led DOAC management or similar anticoagulation management interventions may reduce the risk of incorrect dosing across health-care systems.

18.
Nat Med ; 25(3): 530, 2019 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30679787

RESUMO

In the version of this article originally published, the x axis labels in Fig. 1a were incorrect. The labels originally were 'Specificity,' but should have been '1 - Specificity.' Also, the x axis label in Fig. 2b was incorrect. It was originally 'DNN predicted label,' but should have been 'Average cardiologist label.' The errors have been corrected in the PDF and HTML versions of this article.

19.
Nat Med ; 25(1): 65-69, 2019 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30617320

RESUMO

Computerized electrocardiogram (ECG) interpretation plays a critical role in the clinical ECG workflow1. Widely available digital ECG data and the algorithmic paradigm of deep learning2 present an opportunity to substantially improve the accuracy and scalability of automated ECG analysis. However, a comprehensive evaluation of an end-to-end deep learning approach for ECG analysis across a wide variety of diagnostic classes has not been previously reported. Here, we develop a deep neural network (DNN) to classify 12 rhythm classes using 91,232 single-lead ECGs from 53,549 patients who used a single-lead ambulatory ECG monitoring device. When validated against an independent test dataset annotated by a consensus committee of board-certified practicing cardiologists, the DNN achieved an average area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (ROC) of 0.97. The average F1 score, which is the harmonic mean of the positive predictive value and sensitivity, for the DNN (0.837) exceeded that of average cardiologists (0.780). With specificity fixed at the average specificity achieved by cardiologists, the sensitivity of the DNN exceeded the average cardiologist sensitivity for all rhythm classes. These findings demonstrate that an end-to-end deep learning approach can classify a broad range of distinct arrhythmias from single-lead ECGs with high diagnostic performance similar to that of cardiologists. If confirmed in clinical settings, this approach could reduce the rate of misdiagnosed computerized ECG interpretations and improve the efficiency of expert human ECG interpretation by accurately triaging or prioritizing the most urgent conditions.


Assuntos
Arritmias Cardíacas/diagnóstico por imagem , Arritmias Cardíacas/diagnóstico , Cardiologistas , Eletrocardiografia , Monitorização Ambulatorial , Algoritmos , Humanos , Curva ROC
20.
Am J Kidney Dis ; 73(3): 324-331, 2019 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30449517

RESUMO

RATIONALE & OBJECTIVE: Atrial fibrillation (AF) is common in patients with kidney failure treated by maintenance dialysis. Whether the incidence of AF differs between patients receiving hemodialysis and peritoneal dialysis is uncertain. STUDY DESIGN: Retrospective cohort study. SETTING & PARTICIPANTS: Using the US Renal Data System, we identified older patients (≥67 years) with Medicare Parts A and B who initiated dialysis therapy (1996-2011) without a diagnosis of AF during the prior 2 years. EXPOSURE: Dialysis modality at incident end-stage renal disease (ESRD) and maintained for at least 90 days. OUTCOME: Patients were followed up for 36 months or less for a new diagnosis of AF. ANALYTICAL APPROACH: Time-to-event analysis using multivariable Cox proportional hazards regression to estimate cause-specific HRs while censoring at modality switch, kidney transplantation, or death. RESULTS: Overall, 271,722 older patients were eligible; 17,487 (6.9%) were treated with peritoneal dialysis, and 254,235 (93.1%), with hemodialysis, at the onset of ESRD. During 406,225 person-years of follow-up, 69,705 patients had AF newly diagnosed. Because the proportionality assumption was violated, we introduced an interaction term between time (first 90 days vs thereafter) and modality. The AF incidence during the first 90 days was 187/1,000 person-years on peritoneal dialysis therapy and 372/1,000 person-years on hemodialysis therapy. Patients on peritoneal dialysis therapy had an adjusted 39% (95% CI, 34%-43%) lower incidence of AF than those on hemodialysis therapy. From day 91 onward, AF incidence was ∼140/1,000 person-years with no major difference between modalities. LIMITATIONS: Residual confounding from unobserved differences between exposure groups; ascertainment of AF from billing claims; study of first modality may not generalize to patients switching modalities; uncertain generalizability to younger patients. CONCLUSIONS: Although patients initiating dialysis therapy using peritoneal dialysis had a lower AF incidence during the first 90 days of ESRD, there was no major difference in AF incidence thereafter. The value of interventions to reduce the early excess AF risk in patients receiving hemodialysis may warrant further study.


Assuntos
Fibrilação Atrial/epidemiologia , Fibrilação Atrial/etiologia , Falência Renal Crônica/complicações , Falência Renal Crônica/terapia , Diálise Renal/métodos , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Estudos Retrospectivos
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