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1.
J Clin Anesth ; 62: 109729, 2020 Jan 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32006800

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Childhood and adolescent obesity increased in recent decades, and caregivers face an increasing number of obese pediatric surgical patients. Some clinical and pharmacogenetic data suggest that obese patients have altered pain sensitivity and analgesic requirements. OBJECTIVE: To test the primary hypothesis that increased BMI in pediatric patients is associated with increased pain during the initial 48 postoperative hours. Secondarily, we tested whether BMI is associated with increased opioid consumption during the same period. DESIGN: Retrospective single-center cohort study. SETTING: Pediatric surgical wards in a tertiary medical center. PATIENTS: A total of 808 opioid naïve patients aged 8 to 18 years having elective non-cardiac surgery with hospital stay of at least 48 h in the Cleveland Clinic between 2010 and 2015. INTERVENTIONS: None. MEASUREMENTS: Using U.S. Centers for Disease Control definitions for childhood weight classifications, we retrospectively evaluated the association between body mass index (BMI) percentile and time-weighted average pain scores and opioid consumption. We used multivariable linear regression to test for an association with postoperative pain scores, and multivariable gamma regression to test for an association with postoperative opioid consumption (in mg morphine equivalents Kg-1). RESULTS: BMI was not associated with postoperative pain after general, orthopedic, or neuro-spinal surgeries. Pain increased by 0.07 [98.75% CI: (0.01, 0.13), Padj < 0.05] points per 5 percentile increase in BMI after neuro-cranial surgery. Higher BMI was associated with a decrease in postoperative opioid consumption (mean change [95% CI] -2.12% [-3.12%, -1.10%] in morphine equivalents Kg-1 per 5 percentile increase in BMI, P < 0.001). CONCLUSION: We found no clinically important increase in pain scores or opioid consumption in association with higher BMI in patients 8 to 18 years of age recovering from elective non-cardiac surgery.

2.
Anesthesiology ; 2020 Feb 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32022771

RESUMO

WHAT WE ALREADY KNOW ABOUT THIS TOPIC: The Perioperative Ischemic Evaluation-2 study (POISE-2) authors previously reported that neither aspirin nor clonidine reduced a 30-day composite of nonfatal myocardial infarction or death. Aspirin caused perioperative bleeding, and clonidine provoked hypotension and bradycardia.In a subgroup analysis of patients who had previous percutaneous coronary interventions, those given aspirin had fewer infarctions or deaths. WHAT THIS ARTICLE TELLS US THAT IS NEW: This article reports 1-yr outcomes of the POISE-2 study. Consistent with the 30-day analysis, neither aspirin nor clonidine reduced a 1-yr composite of nonfatal myocardial infarction or death.In a subgroup analysis of patients who had prior percutaneous coronary interventions, those given aspirin had significantly fewer nonfatal myocardial infarctions and/or deaths. BACKGROUND: The authors previously reported that perioperative aspirin and/or clonidine does not prevent a composite of death or myocardial infarction 30 days after noncardiac surgery. Moreover, aspirin increased the risk of major bleeding and clonidine caused hypotension and bradycardia. Whether these complications produce harm at 1 yr remains unknown. METHODS: The authors randomized 10,010 patients with or at risk of atherosclerosis and scheduled for noncardiac surgery in a 1:1:1:1 ratio to clonidine/aspirin, clonidine/aspirin placebo, clonidine placebo/aspirin, or clonidine placebo/aspirin placebo. Patients started taking aspirin or placebo just before surgery; those not previously taking aspirin continued daily for 30 days, and those taking aspirin previously continued for 7 days. Patients were also randomly assigned to receive clonidine or placebo just before surgery, with the study drug continued for 72 h. RESULTS: Neither aspirin nor clonidine had a significant effect on the primary 1-yr outcome, a composite of death or nonfatal myocardial infarction, with a 1-yr hazard ratio for aspirin of 1.00 (95% CI, 0.89 to 1.12; P = 0.948; 586 patients [11.8%] vs. 589 patients [11.8%]) and a hazard ratio for clonidine of 1.07 (95% CI, 0.96 to 1.20; P = 0.218; 608 patients [12.1%] vs. 567 patients [11.3%]), with effect on death or nonfatal infarction. Reduction in death and nonfatal myocardial infarction from aspirin in patients who previously had percutaneous coronary intervention at 30 days persisted at 1 yr. Specifically, the hazard ratio was 0.58 (95% CI, 0.35 to 0.95) in those with previous percutaneous coronary intervention and 1.03 (95% CI, 0.91to 1.16) in those without (interaction P = 0.033). There was no significant effect of either drug on death, cardiovascular complications, cancer, or chronic incisional pain at 1 yr (all P > 0.1). CONCLUSIONS: Neither perioperative aspirin nor clonidine have significant long-term effects after noncardiac surgery. Perioperative aspirin in patients with previous percutaneous coronary intervention showed persistent benefit at 1 yr, a plausible sub-group effect.

3.
Anesth Analg ; 2020 Jan 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31904632

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Mechanical ventilation with low tidal volumes appears to provide benefit in patients having noncardiac surgery; however, whether it is beneficial in patients having cardiac surgery is unclear. METHODS: We retrospectively examined patients having elective cardiac surgery requiring cardiopulmonary bypass through a median sternotomy approach who received mechanical ventilation with a single lumen endotracheal tube from January 2010 to mid-August 2016. Time-weighted average tidal volume (milliliter per kilogram predicted body weight [PBW]) during the duration of surgery excluding cardiopulmonary bypass was analyzed. The association between tidal volumes and postoperative oxygenation (measured by arterial partial pressure of oxygen (PaO2)/fraction of inspired oxygen ratio [PaO2/FIO2]), impaired oxygenation (PaO2/FIO2<300), and clinical outcomes were examined. RESULTS: Of 9359 cardiac surgical patients, larger tidal volumes were associated with slightly worse postoperative oxygenation. Postoperative PaO2/FIO2 decreased an estimated 1.05% per 1 mL/kg PBW increase in tidal volume (97.5% confidence interval [CI], -1.74 to -0.37; PBon = .0005). An increase in intraoperative tidal volumes was also associated with increased odds of impaired oxygenation (odds ratio [OR; 97.5% CI]: 1.08 [1.02-1.14] per 1 mL/kg PBW increase in tidal volume; PBon = .0029), slightly longer intubation time (5% per 1 mL/kg increase in tidal volume (hazard ratio [98.33% CI], 0.95 [0.93-0.98] per 1 mL/kg PBW; PBon < .0001), and increased mortality (OR [98.33% CI], 1.34 [1.06-1.70] per 1 mL/kg PBW increase in tidal volume; PHolm = .0144). An increase in intraoperative tidal volumes was also associated with acute postoperative respiratory failure (OR [98.33% CI], 1.16 [1.03-1.32] per 1 mL/kg PBW increase in tidal volume; PHolm = .0146), but not other pulmonary complications. CONCLUSIONS: Lower time-weighted average intraoperative tidal volumes were associated with a very modest improvement in postoperative oxygenation in patients having cardiac surgery.

4.
Anesthesiology ; 2020 Jan 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31977517

RESUMO

WHAT WE ALREADY KNOW ABOUT THIS TOPIC: Infusion of large volumes of saline causes hyperchloremic metabolic acidosisA recent Cochrane review based on 18 small trials reported that major morbidity and mortality were comparable with perioperative saline or lactated Ringer's use WHAT THIS ARTICLE TELLS US THAT IS NEW: In a large single-center alternating cohort trial of patients having elective colorectal or orthopedic surgery, there was no clinically meaningful difference in the risk of a composite of in-hospital mortality and major postoperative complications including renal, respiratory, infectious, and hemorrhagic complications BACKGROUND:: Both saline and lactated Ringer's solutions are commonly given to surgical patients. However, hyperchloremic acidosis consequent to saline administration may provoke complications. The authors therefore tested the primary hypothesis that a composite of in-hospital mortality and major postoperative complications is less common in patients given lactated Ringer's solution than normal saline. METHODS: The authors conducted an alternating cohort controlled trial in which adults having colorectal and orthopedic surgery were given either lactated Ringer's solution or normal saline in 2-week blocks between September 2015 and August 2018. The primary outcome was a composite of in-hospital mortality and major postoperative renal, respiratory, infectious, and hemorrhagic complications. The secondary outcome was postoperative acute kidney injury. RESULTS: Among 8,616 qualifying patients, 4,187 (49%) were assigned to lactated Ringer's solution, and 4,429 (51%) were assigned to saline. Each group received a median 1.9 l of fluid. The primary composite of major complications was observed in 5.8% of lactated Ringer's versus 6.1% of normal saline patients, with estimated average relative risk across the components of the composite of 1.16 (95% CI, 0.89 to 1.52; P = 0.261). The secondary outcome, postoperative acute kidney injury, Acute Kidney Injury Network stage I-III versus 0, occurred in 6.6% of lactated Ringer's patients versus 6.2% of normal saline patients, with an estimated relative risk of 1.18 (99.3% CI, 0.99 to 1.41; P = 0.009, significance criterion of 0.007). Absolute differences between the treatment groups for each outcome were less than 0.5%, an amount that is not clinically meaningful. CONCLUSIONS: In elective orthopedic and colorectal surgery patients, there was no clinically meaningful difference in postoperative complications with lactated Ringer's or saline volume replacement. Clinicians can reasonably use either solution intraoperatively.

5.
Anesthesiology ; 2020 Jan 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31929326

RESUMO

WHAT WE ALREADY KNOW ABOUT THIS TOPIC: Perioperative acute kidney injury is commonIt is unclear whether this merely represents a transient increase in creatinine or has prognostic value WHAT THIS ARTICLE TELLS US THAT IS NEW: Patients with mild postoperative kidney injury (stage I) after noncardiac surgery had an estimated 2.4 times higher odds of having long-term renal dysfunction compared with patients without postoperative kidney injuryA quarter of patients who had stage I acute kidney injury postoperatively still had stage I kidney injury 1 to 2 yr later, and an additional 11% had even worse renal function BACKGROUND:: Perioperative acute kidney injury is common. However, it is unclear whether this merely represents a transient increase in creatinine or has prognostic value. Therefore, the long-term clinical importance of mild postoperative acute kidney injury remains unclear. This study assessed whether adults who do and do not experience mild kidney injury after noncardiac surgery are at similar risk for long-term renal injury. METHODS: This study is a retrospective cohort analysis of adults having noncardiac surgery at the Cleveland Clinic who had preoperative, postoperative, and long-term (1 to 2 yr after surgery) plasma creatinine measurements. The exposure (postoperative kidney injury) and outcome (long-term renal injury) were defined and staged according to the Kidney Disease: Improving Global Outcomes (KDIGO) initiative criteria. The primary analysis was for lack of association between postoperative kidney injury (stage I vs. no injury) and long-term renal injury. RESULTS: Among 15,621 patients analyzed, 3% had postoperative stage I kidney injury. Long-term renal outcomes were not similar in patients with and without postoperative stage I injury. Specifically, about 26% of patients with stage I postoperative kidney injury still had mild injury 1 to 2 yr later, and 11% had even more severe injury. A full third (37%) of patients with stage I kidney injury therefore had renal injury 1 to 2 yr after surgery. Patients with postoperative stage I injury had an estimated 2.4 times higher odds of having long-term renal dysfunction (KDIGO stage I, II, or III) compared with patients without postoperative kidney injury (odds ratio [95% CI] of 2.4 [2.0 to 3.0]) after adjustment for potential confounding factors. CONCLUSIONS: In adults recovering from noncardiac surgery, even small postoperative increases in plasma creatinine, corresponding to stage I kidney injury, are associated with renal dysfunction 1 to 2 yr after surgery. Even mild postoperative renal injury should therefore be considered a clinically important perioperative outcome.

6.
Anesthesiology ; 132(2): 291-306, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31939844

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Arterial pressure is a complex signal that can be characterized by systolic, mean, and diastolic components, along with pulse pressure (difference between systolic and diastolic pressures). The authors separately evaluated the strength of associations among intraoperative pressure components with myocardial and kidney injury after noncardiac surgery. METHODS: The authors included 23,140 noncardiac surgery patients at Cleveland Clinic who had blood pressure recorded at 1-min intervals from radial arterial catheters. The authors used univariable smoothing and multivariable logistic regression to estimate probabilities of each outcome as function of patients' lowest pressure for a cumulative 5 min for each component, comparing discriminative ability using C-statistics. The authors further assessed the association between outcomes and both area and minutes under derived thresholds corresponding to the beginning of increased risk for the average patient. RESULTS: Out of 23,140 patients analyzed, myocardial injury occurred in 6.1% and acute kidney injury in 8.2%. Based on the lowest patient blood pressure experienced for greater than or equal to 5 min, estimated thresholds below which the odds of myocardial or kidney injury progressively increased (slope P < 0.001) were 90 mmHg for systolic, 65 mmHg for mean, 50 mmHg for diastolic, and 35 mmHg for pulse pressure. Weak discriminative ability was noted between the pressure components, with univariable C-statistics ranging from 0.55 to 0.59. Area under the curve in the highest (deepest) quartile of exposure below the respective thresholds had significantly higher odds of myocardial injury after noncardiac surgery and acute kidney injury compared to no exposure for systolic, mean, and pulse pressure (all P < 0.001), but not diastolic, after adjusting for confounding. CONCLUSIONS: Systolic, mean, and pulse pressure hypotension were comparable in their strength of association with myocardial and renal injury. In contrast, the relationship with diastolic pressure was poor. Baseline factors were much more strongly associated with myocardial and renal injury than intraoperative blood pressure, but pressure differs in being modifiable.

8.
Anesth Analg ; 130(2): 360-366, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30882520

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: We previously reported that the duration of hospitalization was not different between isoflurane and sevoflurane. But more plausible consequences of using soluble volatile anesthetics are delayed emergence from anesthesia and prolonged stays in the postanesthesia care unit (PACU). We therefore compared isoflurane and sevoflurane on emergence time and PACU duration. METHODS: We reanalyzed data from 1498 adults who participated in a previous alternating intervention trial comparing isoflurane and sevoflurane. Patients, mostly having colorectal surgery, were assigned to either volatile anesthetic in 2-week blocks that alternated for half a year. Emergence time was defined as the time from minimum alveolar concentration fraction reaching 0.3 at the end of the procedure until patients left the operating room. PACU duration was defined from admission to the end of phase 1 recovery. Treatment effect was assessed using Cox proportional hazards regression, adjusted for imbalanced baseline variables. RESULTS: A total of 674 patients were given isoflurane, and 824 sevoflurane. Emergence time was slightly longer for isoflurane with a median (quartiles) of 16 minutes (12-22 minutes) vs 14 minutes (11-19 minutes) for sevoflurane, with an adjusted hazard ratio of 0.81 (97.5% CI, 0.71-0.92; P < .001). Duration in the PACU did not differ, with a median (quartiles) of 2.6 hours (2.0-3.6 hours) for isoflurane and 2.6 hours (2.0-3.7 hours) hours for sevoflurane. The adjusted hazard ratio for PACU discharge time was 1.04 (97.5% CI, 0.91-1.18; P = .56). CONCLUSIONS: Isoflurane prolonged emergence by only 2 minutes, which is not a clinically important amount, and did not prolong length of stay in the PACU. The more soluble and much less-expensive anesthetic isoflurane thus seems to be a reasonable alternative to sevoflurane.

9.
Anesthesiology ; 132(1): 121-130, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31651439

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Low 25-hydroxyvitamin D is associated with cardiovascular, renal, and infectious risks. Postsurgical patients are susceptible to similar complications, but whether vitamin D deficiency contributes to postoperative complications remains unclear. We tested whether low preoperative vitamin D is associated with cardiovascular events within 30 days after noncardiac surgery. METHODS: We evaluated a subset of patients enrolled in the biobank substudy of the Vascular events In noncardiac Surgery patIents cOhort evaluatioN (VISION) study, who were at least 45 yr with at least an overnight hospitalization. Blood was collected preoperatively, and 25-hydroxyvitamin D was measured in stored samples. The primary outcome was the composite of cardiovascular events (death, myocardial injury, nonfatal cardiac arrest, stroke, congestive heart failure) within 30 postoperative days. Secondary outcomes were kidney injury and infectious complications. RESULTS: A total of 3,851 participants were eligible for analysis. Preoperative 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentration was 70 ± 30 nmol/l, and 62% of patients were vitamin D deficient. Overall, 26 (0.7%) patients died, 41 (1.1%) had congestive heart failure or nonfatal cardiac arrest, 540 (14%) had myocardial injury, and 15 (0.4%) had strokes. Preoperative vitamin D concentration was not associated with the primary outcome (average relative effect odds ratio [95% CI]: 0.93 [0.85, 1.01] per 10 nmol/l increase in preoperative vitamin D, P = 0.095). However, it was associated with postoperative infection (average relative effect odds ratio [95% CI]: 0.94 [0.90, 0.98] per 10 nmol/l increase in preoperative vitamin D, P adjusted value = 0.005) and kidney function (estimated mean change in postoperative estimated glomerular filtration rate [95% CI]: 0.29 [0.11, 0.48] ml min 1.73 m per 10 nmol/l increase in preoperative vitamin D, P adjusted value = 0.004). CONCLUSIONS: Preoperative vitamin D was not associated with a composite of postoperative 30-day cardiac outcomes. However, there was a significant association between vitamin D deficiency and a composite of infectious complications and decreased kidney function. While renal effects were not clinically meaningful, the effect of vitamin D supplementation on infectious complications requires further study.

10.
Am J Sports Med ; 48(2): 432-443, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31851536

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Shoulder pain and dysfunction are common indications for rotator cuff repair surgery, yet the factors that are associated with these symptoms are not fully understood. PURPOSE/HYPOTHESIS: This study aimed to investigate the associations of patient and disease-specific factors with baseline patient-reported outcome measures (PROMs) in patients undergoing rotator cuff repair. We hypothesized that tear size and mental health status, as assessed by the Veterans RAND 12-Item Health Survey mental component score (VR-12 MCS), would be associated with baseline total Penn Shoulder Score (PSS) and its pain, function, and satisfaction subscale scores. STUDY DESIGN: Cross-sectional study; Level of evidence, 3. METHODS: We prospectively identified 12 patient factors and 12 disease-specific factors as possible statistical predictors for baseline PROMs in patients undergoing surgical repair of superior-posterior rotator cuff tears at a single institution over a 3-year period. Multivariable statistical modeling and Akaike information criterion comparisons were used to investigate the unique associations with, and relative importance of, these factors in accounting for variation in baseline PSS and its subscale scores. RESULTS: A total of 1442 patients who had undergone surgery by 23 surgeons met inclusion criteria, with a baseline median total PSS of 38.5 (pain, 12; function, 24.2; satisfaction, 2). Adjusted R2 in multivariable models demonstrated that the 24 general patient and disease-specific factors accounted for 22% to 24% of the variability in total PSS and its pain and function subscale scores. Large/massive tear size was significantly associated with worse PSS total score and function score but not pain or satisfaction scores. Lower VR-12 MCS was significantly associated with worse total PSS and all 3 subscale scores. Among other factors significantly associated with baseline PROMs were sex, race, preoperative opioid use, years of education, employment status, acromion status, and adhesive capsulitis. Lower VR-12 MCS, preoperative opioid use, female sex, and black race were the factors most strongly associated with baseline PROMs. CONCLUSION: Large/massive tear size, lower VR-12 MCS, and several additional patient and disease-specific factors are associated with baseline PROMs in patients undergoing rotator cuff repair. Further studies are needed to investigate whether these factors will also predict poor postoperative PROMs.

13.
Anesthesiology ; 2019 Nov 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31789639

RESUMO

WHAT WE ALREADY KNOW ABOUT THIS TOPIC: Arterial pressure is a complex signal that is characterized by three primary components - systolic, diastolic, and mean pressure, along with a derived component, pulse pressure (systolic minus diastolic pressure)Each blood pressure component reflects distinct hemodynamic variables, and therefore presumably differently influences perfusion of various organsPrevious work identifies associations between intraoperative systolic and mean hypotension with myocardial and kidney injury WHAT THIS ARTICLE TELLS US THAT IS NEW: For each blood pressure component, the authors report significant and clinically meaningful associations between the lowest pressure sustained for 5 min and myocardial and kidney injuryAbsolute population risk thresholds were similar for myocardial and kidney injury, being roughly 90 mmHg for systolic, 65 mmHg for mean, 50 mmHg for diastolic, and 35 mmHg for pulse pressuresThe odds for myocardial and kidney injury progressively increased with duration and severity of hypotension below each threshold, even after adjusting for potential baseline confounding factors BACKGROUND:: Arterial pressure is a complex signal that can be characterized by systolic, mean, and diastolic components, along with pulse pressure (difference between systolic and diastolic pressures). The authors separately evaluated the strength of associations among intraoperative pressure components with myocardial and kidney injury after noncardiac surgery. METHODS: The authors included 23,140 noncardiac surgery patients at Cleveland Clinic who had blood pressure recorded at 1-min intervals from radial arterial catheters. The authors used univariable smoothing and multivariable logistic regression to estimate probabilities of each outcome as function of patients' lowest pressure for a cumulative 5 min for each component, comparing discriminative ability using C-statistics. The authors further assessed the association between outcomes and both area and minutes under derived thresholds corresponding to the beginning of increased risk for the average patient. RESULTS: Out of 23,140 patients analyzed, myocardial injury occurred in 6.1% and acute kidney injury in 8.2%. Based on the lowest patient blood pressure experienced for greater than or equal to 5 min, estimated thresholds below which the odds of myocardial or kidney injury progressively increased (slope P < 0.001) were 90 mmHg for systolic, 65 mmHg for mean, 50 mmHg for diastolic, and 35 mmHg for pulse pressure. Weak discriminative ability was noted between the pressure components, with univariable C-statistics ranging from 0.55 to 0.59. Area under the curve in the highest (deepest) quartile of exposure below the respective thresholds had significantly higher odds of myocardial injury after noncardiac surgery and acute kidney injury compared to no exposure for systolic, mean, and pulse pressure (all P < 0.001), but not diastolic, after adjusting for confounding. CONCLUSIONS: Systolic, mean, and pulse pressure hypotension were comparable in their strength of association with myocardial and renal injury. In contrast, the relationship with diastolic pressure was poor. Baseline factors were much more strongly associated with myocardial and renal injury than intraoperative blood pressure, but pressure differs in being modifiable.

14.
Anesth Analg ; 129(6): 1468-1473, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31743165

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Pain after cardiac surgery is largely treated with opioids, but their poor safety profile makes nonopioid medications attractive as part of multimodal pathways. Anti-inflammatory drugs reduce acute postoperative pain, but the role of steroids in reducing acute poststernotomy pain is unclear. We evaluated the association between the intraoperative administration of methylprednisolone and postoperative analgesia, defined as a composite of pain scores and opioid consumption, during the initial 24 hours after cardiac surgery. METHODS: We conducted a post hoc retrospective analysis of a large clinical trial in which adults having cardiac surgery were randomized 1:1 to receive 2 intraoperative doses of 250 mg IV methylprednisolone or placebo. Pain scores and opioid consumption were collected during the initial 24 hours after surgery. Methylprednisolone was considered to be associated with better pain control than placebo if proven noninferior (not worse) on both pain scores (defined a priori with delta of 1 point) and opioid consumption (delta of 20%) and superior to placebo in at least 1 of the 2 outcomes. This test was repeated in the opposite direction (testing whether placebo is better than methylprednisolone on postoperative pain management). RESULTS: Of 251 eligible patients, 127 received methylprednisolone and 124 received placebo. Methylprednisolone was noninferior to placebo on pain with difference in mean (CI) pain scores of -0.25 (-0.71 to 0.21); P < .001. However, methylprednisolone was not noninferior to placebo on opioid consumption (ratio of geometric means [CI]: 1.11 [0.64-1.91]; P = .37). Because methylprednisolone was not noninferior to placebo on both outcomes, we did not proceed to superiority testing based on the a priori stopping rules. Similar results were found when testing the opposite direction. CONCLUSIONS: In this post hoc analysis, we could not identify a beneficial analgesic effect after cardiac surgery associated with methylprednisolone administration. There are currently no data to suggest that methylprednisolone has significant analgesic benefit in adults having cardiac surgery.

15.
Anesth Analg ; 2019 Nov 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31725024

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Postoperative delirium is common in critically ill patients, with a reported incidence of 11%-43%, and is associated with significant morbidity and cost. Perioperative hypotension and consequent brain hypoperfusion may contribute. We, therefore, tested the hypotheses that intraoperative and postoperative hypotension are associated with critical care delirium. METHODS: We included 1083 postoperative patients who were admitted directly from an operating room to the surgical intensive care unit. Delirium was assessed with the Confusion Assessment Method for Intensive Care Unit patients at 12-hour intervals. We used a confounder-adjusted Cox proportional hazard survival model to assess the association between the amount of intraoperative hypotension, which was measured as the time-weighted average of mean arterial pressure <65 mm Hg, and delirium while in critical care. Thereafter, we used a Cox model with the lowest mean arterial pressure on each intensive care day as a time-varying covariate to assess the relationship between critical care hypotension and delirium, adjusted for confounders and amount of intraoperative hypotension. RESULTS: Three hundred seventy-seven (35%) patients had delirium within the first 5 postoperative days in the surgical intensive care unit. Intraoperative hypotension was moderately associated with higher odds of postoperative delirium. The adjusted hazard ratio associated with 1 mm Hg increase in time-weighted average of mean arterial pressure <65 mm Hg was 1.11 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.03-1.20; P = .008). Postoperatively, a 10 mm Hg reduction in the lowest mean pressure on each day in the critical care unit was significantly associated with a higher hazard of delirium, with an adjusted hazard ratio 1.12 (95% CI, 1.04-1.20; P = .003). CONCLUSIONS: Both intraoperative and postoperative hypotension are associated with delirium in postoperative critical care patients. The extent to which these relationships are causal remains unknown, but to the extent that they are, hypotension prevention may help reduce delirium and should be studied in prospective clinical trials.

16.
Anesth Analg ; 2019 Sep 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31490254

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Perioperative hyperoxia has been recommended by the World Health Organization and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention for the prevention of surgical site infections. Based on animal studies and physiological concerns, the kidneys and heart may be at risk from hyperoxia. We therefore conducted 2 unplanned subanalyses of a previous alternating cohort trial in which patients having colorectal surgery were assigned to either 30% or 80% inspired intraoperative oxygen. Specifically, we tested 2 coprimary hypotheses: (1) hyperoxia increases the incidence of acute kidney injury (AKI) within 7 postoperative days (PODs); and (2) hyperoxia worsens a composite of myocardial injury, in-hospital cardiac arrest, and 30-day mortality. METHODS: The underlying controlled trial included 5749 colorectal surgeries in 4481 patients, with the exposure alternating between 30% and 80% fraction of inspired oxygen (FIO2) during general anesthesia at 2-week intervals over a period of 39 months. AKI was defined as a 1.5-fold increase in creatinine from the preoperative level to the highest value measured during the initial 7 PODs. Myocardial injury was defined by fourth-generation troponin-T level >0.03 ng/mL. We assessed the effect of 80% vs 30% oxygen on the outcomes using generalized estimating equation (GEE) logistic models that adjusted for the possible within-patient correlation across multiple potential operations for a patient on different visits. RESULTS: For the AKI outcome, 2522 surgeries were allocated to 80% oxygen and 2552 to 30% oxygen. Hyperoxia had no effect on the primary outcome of postoperative AKI, with an incidence of 7.7% in the 80% oxygen group and 7.7% in the 30% oxygen group (relative risk = 0.99; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.82-1.2; P = .95). One thousand six hundred forty-seven surgeries (all with scheduled troponin monitoring) were analyzed for the composite cardiovascular outcome. Hyperoxia had no effect on the collapsed composite of myocardial injury, cardiac arrest, and 30-day mortality, nor on any of its components (estimated relative risk = 0.71; 95% CI, 0.44-1.16; P = .17). CONCLUSIONS: We found no evidence that intraoperative hyperoxia causes AKI or cardiovascular complications in adults undergoing colorectal surgery. Consequently, we suggest that clinicians select intraoperative inspired oxygen fraction based on other considerations.

17.
J Thorac Dis ; 11(7): 3156-3170, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31463144

RESUMO

The advent of advanced diagnostic bronchoscopy has shown an increased demand for anesthesiologists to administer anesthesia in the bronchoscopy suite. Procedures such as navigational bronchoscopy, airway stenting and advanced therapeutic procedures often require the presence of an anesthesiologist to manage these more complex patients and procedures. In this review we describe the various bronchoscopic procedures and anesthetic management and complications of these procedures at our institution The Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland Ohio.

18.
A A Pract ; 13(8): 313-315, 2019 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31343432

RESUMO

We report the rare complication of a retained peripheral nerve block catheter (PNBC). A 45-year-old man with intractable postamputation phantom limb pain was treated with continuous infusions via femoral and sciatic peripheral nerve catheters. The catheters were removed by an emergency department physician 2 days after placement. Five months later, the patient presented with a discharging sinus from the sciatic nerve catheter site. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was inconclusive. Surgical exploration showed 15 cm of retained peripheral nerve catheter, which was removed.

19.
Trials ; 20(1): 255, 2019 May 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31053082

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Hypotension is associated with serious complications, including myocardial infarction, acute kidney injury, and mortality. Consequently, predicting and preventing hypotension may improve outcomes. We will therefore determine if use of a novel hypotension prediction tool reduces the duration and severity of hypotension in patients having non-cardiac surgery. METHODS/DESIGN: We will conduct a two-center, pragmatic, randomized controlled trial (N = 213) in noncardiac surgical patients > 45 years old who require intra-arterial blood pressure monitoring. All participating patients will be connected to a Flortrac IQ sensor and EV1000 platform (Edwards Lifesciences, Irvine). They will be randomly assigned to blinded or unblinded arms. The Hypotension Prediction Index (HPI) and advanced hemodynamic information will be universally recorded, but will only be available to clinicians when patients are assigned to unblinded monitoring. The primary outcome will be the effect of HPI software guidance on intraoperative time-weighted average mean arterial pressure under a threshold of 65 mmHg, which will be assessed with a Wilcoxon-Mann-Whitney 2-sample, two-tailed test. DISCUSSION: Our trial will determine whether the Hypotension Prediction Index and associated hemodynamic information substantively reduces hypotension during non-cardiac surgery. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT03610165 . Registered on 1 August 2018.


Assuntos
Pressão Arterial , Determinação da Pressão Arterial , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Cardíacos/efeitos adversos , Hipotensão/prevenção & controle , Monitorização Intraoperatória/métodos , Software , Feminino , Humanos , Hipotensão/diagnóstico , Hipotensão/etiologia , Hipotensão/fisiopatologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Multicêntricos como Assunto , Ohio , Ensaios Clínicos Pragmáticos como Assunto , Fatores de Risco , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento
20.
Anesth Analg ; 128(6): 1160-1166, 2019 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31094783

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Postoperative pain is common and promotes opioid use. Surgical wounds are hypoxic because normal perfusion is impaired. Local wound ischemia and acidosis promote incisional pain. Some evidence suggests that improving oxygen supply to surgical wounds might reduce pain. We therefore tested the hypothesis that supplemental (80% inspired) intraoperative oxygen reduces postoperative pain and opioid consumption. METHODS: We conducted a post hoc analysis of a large, single-center alternating cohort trial allocating surgical patients having general anesthesia for colorectal surgery to either 30% or 80% intraoperative oxygen concentration in 2-week blocks for a total of 39 months. Irrespective of allocation, patients were given sufficient oxygen to maintain saturation ≥95%. Patients who had regional anesthesia or nerve blocks were excluded. The primary outcome was pain and opioid consumption during the initial 2 postoperative hours, analyzed jointly. The secondary outcome was pain and opioid consumption over the subsequent 24 postoperative hours. Subgroup analyses of the primary outcome were conducted for open versus laparoscopic procedures and for patients with versus without chronic pain. RESULTS: A total of 4702 cases were eligible for analysis: 2415 were assigned to 80% oxygen and 2287 to 30% oxygen. The groups were well balanced on potential confounding factors. Average pain scores and opioid consumption were similar between the groups (mean difference in pain scores, -0.01 [97.5% CI, -0.16 to 0.14; P = .45], median difference in opioid consumption, 0.0 [97.5% CI, 0 to 0] mg morphine equivalents; P = .82). There were also no significant differences in the secondary outcome or subgroup analyses. CONCLUSIONS: Supplemental intraoperative oxygen does not reduce acute postoperative pain or reduce opioid consumption.


Assuntos
Hiperóxia , Manejo da Dor/métodos , Dor Pós-Operatória/terapia , Acidose , Adulto , Idoso , Analgésicos Opioides/efeitos adversos , Anestesia/métodos , Estudos de Coortes , Cirurgia Colorretal/métodos , Interpretação Estatística de Dados , Feminino , Humanos , Hipóxia , Laparoscopia/métodos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Oxigênio/uso terapêutico , Medição da Dor , Resultado do Tratamento
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