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1.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35343926

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: ABC-123, a novel EPIC-EMR real-time score, assigns 0-3 points per bundle element to assess ABCDEF bundle compliance. We sought to determine if maximum daily ABC-123 score (ABC-MAX), individual bundle elements, and mobility were associated with mortality and delirium-free/coma-free ICU days (DF/CF-ICU) in critically injured patients. METHODS: We reviewed 6 months of single-center data (demographics, Injury Severity Score [ISS], Abbreviated Injury Score [AIS]-Head, ventilator and restraint use, Richmond Agitation Sedation Score [RASS], Confusion Assessment Method [CAM]-ICU, ABC-MAX, ABC-123 subscores, and mobility level). Hospital mortality and likelihood of DF/CF-ICU days were endpoints for logistic regression with ISS, AIS-Head, surgery, penetrating trauma, gender, age, restraint and ventilator use, ABC-MAX or individual ABC-123 subscores, and mobility level or a binary variable representing any improvement in mobility during admission. RESULTS: We reviewed 172 patients (69.8% male, 16.3% penetrating, median age 50.0 [IQR 32.0, 64.8] years, ISS 17.0 [11.0, 26.0], head AIS 2.0 [0.0, 3.0]). 66.9% had delirium, 48.8% were restrained, 51.7% were ventilated, and 11.0% died. Age, ISS, AIS-Head, and penetrating mechanism were associated with increased mortality. Restraints were associated with more than 70% reduction in odds of DF/CF-ICU days. ABC-MAX and mobility level were associated with decreased odds of death and increased odds of DF/CF-ICU days. Any improvement in mobility during hospitalization was associated with an 83% reduction in mortality odds. A and C subscores were associated with increased mortality and A was also associated with decreased DF/CF-ICU days. B and D subscores were associated with increased DF/CF-ICU days. D and E subscores were associated with decreased mortality. CONCLUSION: ABC-MAX is associated with reduced mortality and delirium in critically injured patients, while mobility is associated with dramatic reduction in mortality. B and D subscores have the strongest positive effects on both mortality and delirium. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: Therapeutic, Level III.

2.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35358121

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The US incarcerates more individuals than any other country. Prisoners are the only population guaranteed health care by the US constitution, but little is known about their surgical needs. This multicenter study aimed to describe the acute care surgery (ACS) needs of incarcerated individuals. METHODS: Twelve centers prospectively identified incarcerated patients evaluated in their emergency department (ED) by the ACS service. Centers collected diagnosis, treatment, and complications from chart review. Patients were classified as either emergency general surgery (EGS) patients or trauma patients and their characteristics and outcomes were investigated. Poisson regression accounting for clustering by center was used to calculate the relative risk (RR) of readmission, re-presentation within 90 days, and failure to follow up as an outpatient within 90 days for each cohort. RESULTS: Over 12 months, ACS services evaluated 943 patients, 726 (80.3%) from jail, 156 (17.3%) from prison, and 22 (2.4%) from other facilities. Most were men (89.7%) with a median age of 35 years (IQR 27,47). Trauma patients comprised 54.4% (n = 513) of the cohort. Admission rates were similar for trauma (61.5%) and EGS patients (60.2%). Head injuries and facial fractures were the most common injuries, while infections were the most common EGS diagnosis. Self-harm resulted in 102 trauma evaluations (19.9%). Self-inflicted injuries were associated with increased risk of readmission (RR 4.3, 95%CI: 3.02-6.13) and reevaluation within 90 days (RR 4.96, 95%CI 3.07-8.01). CONCLUSIONS: Incarcerated patients who present with a range of trauma and EGS conditions frequently require admission, and follow-up after hospitalization was low at the treating center. Poor follow-up coupled with high rates of assault, self-harm, mental health, and substance use disorders highlight the vulnerability of this population. Hospital and correctional facility interventions are needed to decrease self-inflicted injuries and assaults while incarcerated. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: Prognostic and Epidemiological, III.

3.
Eur J Trauma Emerg Surg ; 48(2): 943-952, 2022 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33078257

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Sedation management of trauma patients after damage control laparotomy (DCL) has not been optimized. We evaluated if shorter sedation exposure was associated with increased proportion of delirium-free/coma-free (DF/CF-ICU) days and change in time to definitive fascial closure (DFC). METHODS: We reviewed trauma DCL patients at an ACS-verified level I center over 5 years as shorter (SE) or longer than median (LE) sedation exposure. We compared demographics, injury patterns, hemodynamic parameters, and injury severity between groups. We calculated the propensity for each patient to achieve DFC using age, gender, ISS, red blood cell transfusion, bowel discontinuity, abdominal vascular injury, and time to first takeback; we then determined the effect of sedation exposure on rate of DFC by multivariate Cox regression, adjusted for propensity to achieve DFC. We used linear regression adjusted for age, ISS, head-AIS, bowel discontinuity, and vascular injury to determine the effect of sedation exposure on the proportion of DF/CF-ICU days. RESULTS: 65 patients (33.8% penetrating) had mean age 41.8 ± 16.0, ISS 27.1 ± 14.2, Head-AIS 1.2 ± 1.6 and median sedation exposure of 2.2 [IQR 0.78, 7.3] days (35 SE and 30 LE). Pattern and severity of solid organ injuries and proportion of small and large bowel and vascular injuries were similar between groups. LE had more abdominal sepsis (23.3% vs 0%, p = 0.003) and enterocutaneous fistula (16.7% vs 0%, p = 0.016), and more ventilator (17.3 ± 12.7 vs 6.1 ± 6.8, p < 0.001), ICU (20.8 ± 14.2 vs 7.2 ± 7.6, p < 0.001), and hospital days (29.6 ± 19.6 vs 13.9 ± 9.0, p < 0.001). DFC was achieved more rapidly in the SE group (2.0 ± 1.5 days vs 3.9 ± 3.7 days [unadjusted], p = 0.023) and SE had a higher proportion of unadjusted DF/CF-ICU days (33.0 ± 32.0% vs 18.1 ± 16.4%, p = 0.020). SE was associated with an increased proportion of adjusted DF/CF-ICU days by multivariate linear regression (13.1% [95% CI 1.4-24.8%], p = 0.029) and with faster adjusted rate of DFC by multivariate Cox regression (RR 2.28 [95% CI 1.25-4.15, p = 0.007]). CONCLUSIONS: Shorter sedation exposure is associated with increased proportion of DF/CF-ICU days and more rapid DFC after DCL for trauma.


Assuntos
Traumatismos Abdominais , Lesões do Sistema Vascular , Traumatismos Abdominais/cirurgia , Adulto , Humanos , Escala de Gravidade do Ferimento , Laparotomia/métodos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Sono
4.
Ann Vasc Surg ; 79: 25-30, 2022 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34656717

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In traumatic axillo-subclavian vessel injuries, endovascular repair has been increasingly described, despite ongoing questions regarding infection risk and long-term durability. We sought to compare the clinical and safety outcomes between endovascular and surgical treatment of traumatic axillo-subclavian vessel injuries. METHOD: A search query of the prospectively maintained PROOVIT registry for patients older than 18 years of age with a diagnosis of axillary or subclavian vessel injury between 2014-2019 was performed at a Level 1 Trauma Center. Patient demographics, severity of injury, Mangled Extremity Severity Score (MESS), Injury Severity Score (ISS), procedural interventions, complications, and patency outcomes were collected and analyzed. RESULTS: Twenty-three patients with traumatic axillo-subclavian vessel injuries were included. There were similar rates of penetrating and blunt injuries (48% vs. 52%, respectively). Eighteen patients (78%) underwent intervention: 11 underwent endovascular stenting or diagnostic angiography; 7 underwent open surgical repair. There was similar severity of arterial injuries between the endovascular and open surgical groups: transection (30% vs. 40%, respectively), occlusion (30% vs. 40%, respectively). The open surgical group had worse initial clinical comorbidities: higher ISS scores (17.0 vs 13.5, p = 0.034), higher median MESS scores (6 vs. 3.5, P = 0.001). The technical success for the endovascular group was 100%. The endovascular group had a lower estimated procedural blood loss (27.5 mL vs. 624 mL, P = 0.03). The endovascular arterial group trended toward a shorter length of hospital stay (5.6 days vs. 27.6 days, P = 0.09) and slightly reduced procedural time (191.0 min vs. 223.5 min, P = 0.165). Regarding imaging follow up (average of 60 days post-discharge), 7 patients (54%) underwent surveillance imaging (5 with duplex ultrasound, 2 with computed tomography angiography CTA) that demonstrated 100% patency. Regardless of ISS or MESS scores, at long term clinical follow up (average of 214 days), there were no limb losses, graft infections or vascular complications in either the endovascular or open surgical group. CONCLUSIONS: Endovascular treatment is a viable option for axillo-subclavian vessel injuries. Preliminary results demonstrate that endovascular treatment, when compared to open surgical repair, can have similar rates of technical success and long-term outcomes in patency, infection and vascular complications.


Assuntos
Artéria Axilar/cirurgia , Procedimentos Endovasculares , Artéria Subclávia/cirurgia , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Vasculares , Lesões do Sistema Vascular/cirurgia , Adulto , Idoso , Artéria Axilar/diagnóstico por imagem , Artéria Axilar/lesões , Artéria Axilar/fisiopatologia , Procedimentos Endovasculares/efeitos adversos , Feminino , Humanos , Escala de Gravidade do Ferimento , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/etiologia , Sistema de Registros , Estudos Retrospectivos , Artéria Subclávia/diagnóstico por imagem , Artéria Subclávia/lesões , Artéria Subclávia/fisiopatologia , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento , Grau de Desobstrução Vascular , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Vasculares/efeitos adversos , Lesões do Sistema Vascular/diagnóstico por imagem , Lesões do Sistema Vascular/fisiopatologia , Adulto Jovem
5.
Am Surg ; 87(12): 1879-1885, 2021 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34749511

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: There are limited studies regarding the impact of post-operative leak on perforated peptic ulcer disease (PPUD) and conflicting results regarding routine drain placement in operative repair of PPUD. This study aims to identify risk factors for gastrointestinal leak after operative repair of PPUD to better guide intra-operative decisions about drain placement. METHODS: We performed a retrospective cohort study at a tertiary care center from 2008 to 2019, identifying 175 patients who underwent operative repair of PPUD. RESULTS: Patients who developed a leak (17%) were compared to patients who did not. Both hypoalbuminemia (albumin < 3.5 g/dL) (P = .03) and duodenal ulcers (P < .01) were identified as significant risk factors for leak. No significant difference was found between leak and no leak groups for AAST disease severity grade, repair technique, or pre-operative use of tobacco, alcohol, or steroids. Post-operative leaks were associated with prolonged hospital stay (29 days compared to 10, P < .01), increased complication rates (77% compared to 48%, P < .01), and increased re-operation rates (73% compared to 26%, <0.01). No difference was identified in patient characteristics or operative leak rates between patients who had drains placed at the index operation and those that did not. DISCUSSION: Leak after operative PPUD repair is associated with significant post-operative morbidity. Hypoalbuminemia and duodenal perforations are significant risk factors for post-operative leaks.


Assuntos
Úlcera Péptica Perfurada/cirurgia , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/epidemiologia , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Drenagem , Úlcera Duodenal/complicações , Feminino , Humanos , Hipoalbuminemia/complicações , Tempo de Internação , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Úlcera Péptica Perfurada/complicações , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/diagnóstico , Reoperação , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco
6.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34845499

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Damage control laparotomy (DCL) is used for both traumatic and non-traumatic indications. Failure to achieve primary fascial closure (PFC) in a timely fashion has been associated with complications including sepsis, fistula, and mortality. We sought to identify factors associated with time to PFC in a multicenter retrospective cohort. METHODS: We reviewed retrospective data from 15 centers in the EAST SLEEP-TIME registry, including age, comorbidities (Charlson Comorbidity Index [CCI]), small and large bowel resection, bowel discontinuity, vascular procedures, retained packs, number of re-laparotomies, net fluid balance after 24 h, trauma, and time to first takeback in 12-h increments to identify key factors associated with time to PFC. RESULTS: In total, 368 patients (71.2% trauma, of which 50.6% were penetrating, median ISS 25 [16, 34], with median Apache II score 15 [11, 22] in non-trauma) were in the cohort. Of these, 92.9% of patients achieved PFC at 60.8 ± 72.0 h after 1.6 ± 1.2 re-laparotomies. Each additional re-laparotomy reduced the odds of PFC by 91.5% (95%CI 88.2-93.9%, p < 0.001). Time to first re-laparotomy was highly significant (p < 0.001) in terms of odds of achieving PFC, with no difference between 12 and 24 h to first re-laparotomy (ref), and decreases in odds of PFC of 78.4% (65.8-86.4%, p < 0.001) for first re-laparotomy after 24.1-36 h, 90.8% (84.7-94.4%, p < 0.001) for 36.1-48 h, and 98.1% (96.4-99.0%, p < 0.001) for > 48 h. Trauma patients had increased likelihood of PFC in two separate analyses (p = 0.022 and 0.002). CONCLUSION: Time to re-laparotomy ≤ 24 h and minimizing number of re-laparotomies are highly predictive of rapid achievement of PFC in patients after trauma- and non-trauma DCL. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: 2B.

7.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34807273

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To evaluate factors associated with ICU delirium in patients who underwent damage control laparotomy (DCL), with the hypothesis that benzodiazepines and paralytic infusions would be associated with increased delirium risk. We also sought to evaluate the differences in sedation practices between trauma (T) and non-trauma (NT) patients. METHODS: We reviewed retrospective data from 15 centers in the EAST SLEEP-TIME registry admitted from January 1, 2017 to December 31, 2018. We included all adults undergoing DCL, regardless of diagnosis, who had completed daily Richmond Agitation Sedation Score (RASS) and Confusion Assessment Method-ICU (CAM-ICU). We excluded patients younger than 18 years, pregnant women, prisoners and patients who died before the first re-laparotomy. Data collected included age, number of re-laparotomies after DCL, duration of paralytic infusion, duration and type of sedative and opioid infusions as well as daily CAM-ICU and RASS scores to analyze risk factors associated with the proportion of delirium-free/coma-free ICU days during the first 30 days (DF/CF-ICU-30) using multivariate linear regression. RESULTS: A 353 patient subset (73.2% trauma) from the overall 567-patient cohort had complete daily RASS and CAM-ICU data. NT patients were older (58.9 ± 16.0 years vs 40.5 ± 17.0 years [p < 0.001]). Mean DF/CF-ICU-30 days was 73.7 ± 96.4% for the NT and 51.3 ± 38.7% in the T patients (p = 0.030). More T patients were exposed to Midazolam, 41.3% vs 20.3% (p = 0.002). More T patients were exposed to Propofol, 91.0% vs 71.9% (p < 0.001) with longer infusion times in T compared to NT (71.2 ± 85.9 vs 48.9 ± 69.8 h [p = 0.017]). Paralytic infusions were also used more in T compared to NT, 34.8% vs 18.2% (p < 0.001). Using linear regression, dexmedetomidine infusion and paralytic infusions were associated with decreases in DF/CF-ICU-30, (- 2.78 (95%CI [- 5.54, - 0.024], p = 0.040) and (- 7.08 ([- 13.0, - 1.10], p = 0.020) respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Although the relationship between paralytic use and delirium is well-established, the observation that dexmedetomidine exposure is independently associated with increased delirium and coma is novel and bears further study.

8.
iScience ; 24(8): 102892, 2021 Aug 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34308277

RESUMO

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is an emerging new type of coronavirus that is responsible for the COVID-19 pandemic and the unprecedented global health emergency. Whole-genome sequencing (WGS) of SARS-CoV-2 plays a critical role in understanding the disease. Performance variation exists across SARS-CoV-2 viral WGS technologies, but there is currently no benchmarking study comparing different WGS sequencing protocols. We compared seven different SARS-CoV-2 WGS library protocols using RNA from patient nasopharyngeal swab samples under two storage conditions with low and high viral inputs. We found large differences in mappability and genome coverage, and variations in sensitivity, reproducibility, and precision of single-nucleotide variant calling across different protocols. For certain amplicon-based protocols, an appropriate primer trimming step is critical for accurate single-nucleotide variant calling. We ranked the performance of protocols based on six different metrics. Our findings offer guidance in choosing appropriate WGS protocols to characterize SARS-CoV-2 and its evolution.

9.
J Trauma Acute Care Surg ; 91(1): 100-107, 2021 07 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34144559

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Damage-control laparotomy (DCL) has been used for traumatic and nontraumatic indications. We studied factors associated with delirium and outcome in this population. METHODS: We reviewed DCL patients at 15 centers for 2 years, including demographics, Charlson Comorbidity Index (CCI), diagnosis, operations, and outcomes. We compared 30-day mortality; renal failure requiring dialysis; number of takebacks; hospital, ventilator, and intensive care unit (ICU) days; and delirium-free and coma-free proportion of the first 30 ICU days (DF/CF-ICU-30) between trauma (T) and nontrauma (NT) patients. We performed linear regression for DF/CF-ICU-30, including age, sex, CCI, achievement of primary fascial closure (PFC), small and large bowel resection, bowel discontinuity, abdominal vascular procedures, and trauma as covariates. We performed one-way analysis of variance for DF/CF-ICU-30 against traumatic brain injury severity as measured by Abbreviated Injury Scale for the head. RESULTS: Among 554 DCL patients (25.8% NT), NT patients were older (58.9 ± 15.8 vs. 39.7 ± 17.0 years, p < 0.001), more female (45.5% vs. 22.1%, p < 0.001), and had higher CCI (4.7 ± 3.3 vs. 1.1 ± 2.2, p < 0.001). The number of takebacks (1.7 ± 2.6 vs. 1.5 ± 1.2), time to first takeback (32.0 hours), duration of bowel discontinuity (47.0 hours), and time to PFC were similar (63.2 hours, achieved in 73.5%). Nontrauma and T patients had similar ventilator, ICU, and hospital days and mortality (31.0% NT, 29.8% T). Nontrauma patients had higher rates of renal failure requiring dialysis (36.6% vs. 14.1%, p < 0.001) and postoperative abdominal sepsis (40.1% vs. 17.1%, p < 0.001). Trauma and NT patients had similar number of hours of sedative (89.9 vs. 65.5 hours, p = 0.064) and opioid infusions (106.9 vs. 96.7 hours, p = 0.514), but T had lower DF/CF-ICU-30 (51.1% vs. 73.7%, p = 0.029), indicating more delirium. Linear regression analysis indicated that T was associated with a 32.1% decrease (95% CI, 14.6%-49.5%; p < 0.001) in DF/CF-ICU-30, while achieving PFC was associated with a 25.1% increase (95% CI, 10.2%-40.1%; p = 0.001) in DF/CFICU-30. Increasing Abbreviated Injury Scale for the head was associated with decreased DF/CF-ICU-30 by analysis of variance (p < 0.001). CONCLUSION: Nontrauma patients had higher incidence of postoperative abdominal sepsis and need for dialysis, while T was independently associated with increased delirium, perhaps because of traumatic brain injury. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: Therapeutic study, level IV.


Assuntos
Traumatismos Abdominais/cirurgia , Delírio/epidemiologia , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva/estatística & dados numéricos , Laparotomia/estatística & dados numéricos , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/epidemiologia , Adulto , Analgésicos Opioides/administração & dosagem , Delírio/etiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Escala de Gravidade do Ferimento , Laparotomia/efeitos adversos , Tempo de Internação , Modelos Lineares , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/etiologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Sono , Estados Unidos , Adulto Jovem
10.
J Trauma Acute Care Surg ; 90(3): 557-564, 2021 03 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33507026

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The Emergency Surgery Score (ESS) was recently validated as an accurate mortality risk calculator for emergency general surgery. We sought to prospectively evaluate whether ESS can predict the need for respiratory and/or renal support (RRS) at discharge after emergent laparotomies (EL). METHODS: This is a post hoc analysis of a 19-center prospective observational study. Between April 2018 and June 2019, all adult patients undergoing EL were enrolled. Preoperative, intraoperative, and postoperative variables were systematically collected. In this analysis, patients were excluded if they died during the index hospitalization, were discharged to hospice, or transferred to other hospitals. A composite variable, the need for RRS, was defined as the need for one or more of the following at hospital discharge: tracheostomy, ventilator dependence, or dialysis. Emergency Surgery Score was calculated for all patients, and the correlation between ESS and RRS was examined using the c-statistics method. RESULTS: From a total of 1,649 patients, 1,347 were included. Median age was 60 years, 49.4% were men, and 70.9% were White. The most common diagnoses were hollow viscus organ perforation (28.1%) and small bowel obstruction (24.5%); 87 patients (6.5%) had a need for RRS (4.7% tracheostomy, 2.7% dialysis, and 1.3% ventilator dependence). Emergency Surgery Score predicted the need for RRS in a stepwise fashion; for example, 0.7%, 26.2%, and 85.7% of patients required RRS at an ESS of 2, 12, and 16, respectively. The c-statistics for the need for RRS, the need for tracheostomy, ventilator dependence, or dialysis at discharge were 0.84, 0.82, 0.79, and 0.88, respectively. CONCLUSION: Emergency Surgery Score accurately predicts the need for RRS at discharge in EL patients and could be used for preoperative patient counseling and for quality of care benchmarking. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: Prognostic and epidemiological, level III.


Assuntos
Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência , Hospitalização , Laparotomia/efeitos adversos , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/epidemiologia , Diálise Renal , Respiração Artificial , Idoso , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Determinação de Necessidades de Cuidados de Saúde , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/terapia , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Medição de Risco
12.
Am J Surg ; 221(5): 1069-1075, 2021 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32917366

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: We sought to evaluate whether the Emergency Surgery Score (ESS) can accurately predict outcomes in elderly patients undergoing emergent laparotomy (EL). METHODS: This is a post-hoc analysis of an EAST multicenter study. Between April 2018 and June 2019, all adult patients undergoing EL in 19 participating hospitals were prospectively enrolled, and ESS was calculated for each patient. Using the c-statistic, the correlation between ESS and mortality, morbidity, and need for ICU admission was assessed in three patient age cohorts (65-74, 75-84, ≥85 years old). RESULTS: 715 patients were included, of which 52% were 65-74, 34% were 75-84, and 14% were ≥85 years old; 51% were female, and 77% were white. ESS strongly correlated with postoperative mortality (c-statistic:0.81). Mortality gradually increased from 0% to 20%-60% at ESS of 2, 10 and 16 points, respectively. ESS predicted mortality, morbidity, and need for ICU best in patients 65-74 years old (c-statistic:0.81, 0.75, 0.83 respectively), but its performance significantly decreased in patients ≥85 years (c-statistic:0.72, 0.64, 0.67 respectively). CONCLUSION: ESS is an accurate predictor of outcome in the elderly EL patient 65-85 years old, but its performance decreases for patients ≥85. Consideration should be given to modify ESS to better predict outcomes in the very elderly patient population.


Assuntos
Tratamento de Emergência/estatística & dados numéricos , Laparotomia/estatística & dados numéricos , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Tratamento de Emergência/efeitos adversos , Tratamento de Emergência/mortalidade , Feminino , Humanos , Laparotomia/efeitos adversos , Laparotomia/mortalidade , Masculino , Medição de Risco , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Resultado do Tratamento , Estados Unidos
14.
Blood Coagul Fibrinolysis ; 32(1): 37-43, 2021 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33196508

RESUMO

To determine if there is a significant association between administration of tranexamic acid (TXA) in severely bleeding, injured patients, and venous thromboembolism (VTE), myocardial infarction (MI), or cerebrovascular accident (CVA). A multicenter, retrospective study was performed. Inclusion criteria were: age 18-80 years old and need for 5 units or more of blood in the first 24 h after injury. Exclusion criteria included: death within 24 h, pregnancy, administration of TXA more than 3 h following injury, and routine ultrasound surveillance for deep venous thrombosis. Incidence of VTE was the primary outcome. Secondary outcomes included MI, CVA, and death. A power analysis found that a total of 830 patients were needed to detect a true difference in VTE risk. 1333 patients (TXA = 887, No-TXA = 446 patients) from 17 centers were enrolled. There were no differences in age, shock index, Glasgow coma score, pelvis/extremity abbreviated injury score, or paralysis. Injury severity score was higher in the No-TXA group. Incidence of VTE, MI, or CVA was similar between the groups. The TXA group required significantly less transfusion (P < 0.001 for all products) and had a lower mortality [adjusted odds ratio 0.67 (95% confidence interval 0.45-0.98)]. Despite having a higher extremity/pelvis abbreviated injury score, results did not change when evaluating only patients with blunt injury. Use of TXA in bleeding, injured patients is not associated with VTE, MI, or CVA but is associated with a lower transfusion need and mortality.


Assuntos
Tromboembolia Venosa/epidemiologia , Ferimentos e Lesões/tratamento farmacológico , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Ácido Tranexâmico , Adulto Jovem
16.
J Am Coll Surg ; 231(1): 133-138, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32240771

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Electric scooters are popular in Southern California due to their ease of use, affordability, and availability. The objective of this study was to characterize how hospital admissions and outcomes varied due to electric scooter injury among Southern California trauma centers. STUDY DESIGN: Trauma registry data from 9 urban trauma centers were queried for patients sustaining injury while operating an electric scooter from January to December 2018. Data collection included patient demographics, diagnoses, interventions, and outcomes. RESULTS: During the 1-year study period, 87 patients required trauma surgeon care due to scooter-related injury, with a mean age of 35.1 years; 71.3% were male with 20.7% and 17.2% of patients requiring ICU admission and a surgical intervention, respectively. One (1.1%) patient died. The head and face were most commonly injured, followed by the extremities. Helmet use was uncommon (71.3%). High variability in patient volume was noted, with 2 centers considered high-incidence and the remaining low-incidence. CONCLUSIONS: Injuries from electric scooter crashes are primarily to the head, face, and extremities, with approximately 1 in 5 patients requiring ICU admission and/or a surgical intervention. There is significant variation in patient volume among Southern California trauma centers that could affect the delivery of care with the abrupt introduction of this technology. Targeted public health interventions and policies might better address community use of the electric scooter.


Assuntos
Acidentes de Trânsito/estatística & dados numéricos , Fraturas Ósseas/epidemiologia , Centros de Traumatologia/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , California/epidemiologia , Feminino , Fraturas Ósseas/etiologia , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Estudos Retrospectivos
17.
J Trauma Acute Care Surg ; 89(1): 118-124, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32176177

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The Emergency Surgery Score (ESS) was recently developed and retrospectively validated as an accurate mortality risk calculator for emergency general surgery. We sought to prospectively validate ESS, specifically in the high-risk nontrauma emergency laparotomy (EL) patient. METHODS: This is an Eastern Association for the Surgery of Trauma multicenter prospective observational study. Between April 2018 and June 2019, 19 centers enrolled all adults (aged >18 years) undergoing EL. Preoperative, intraoperative, and postoperative variables were prospectively and systematically collected. Emergency Surgery Score was calculated for each patient and validated using c-statistic methodology by correlating it with three postoperative outcomes: (1) 30-day mortality, (2) 30-day complications (e.g., respiratory/renal failure, infection), and (3) postoperative intensive care unit (ICU) admission. RESULTS: A total of 1,649 patients were included. The mean age was 60.5 years, 50.3% were female, and 71.4% were white. The mean ESS was 6, and the most common indication for EL was hollow viscus perforation. The 30-day mortality and complication rates were 14.8% and 53.3%; 57.0% of patients required ICU admission. Emergency Surgery Score gradually and accurately predicted 30-day mortality; 3.5%, 50.0%, and 85.7% of patients with ESS of 3, 12, and 17 died after surgery, respectively, with a c-statistic of 0.84. Similarly, ESS gradually and accurately predicted complications; 21.0%, 57.1%, and 88.9% of patients with ESS of 1, 6, and 13 developed postoperative complications, with a c-statistic of 0.74. Emergency Surgery Score also accurately predicted which patients required intensive care unit admission (c-statistic, 0.80). CONCLUSION: This is the first prospective multicenter study to validate ESS as an accurate predictor of outcome in the EL patient. Emergency Surgery Score can prove useful for (1) perioperative patient and family counseling, (2) triaging patients to the intensive care unit, and (3) benchmarking the quality of emergency general surgery care. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: Prognostic study, level III.


Assuntos
Emergências , Cirurgia Geral , Medição de Risco/métodos , Ferimentos e Lesões/cirurgia , Adulto , Idoso , Feminino , Mortalidade Hospitalar , Humanos , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva/estatística & dados numéricos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/mortalidade , Pontuação de Propensão , Estudos Prospectivos , Ferimentos e Lesões/mortalidade
18.
Trauma Surg Acute Care Open ; 4(1): e000356, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31799417

RESUMO

Background: Thoracic injuries are common in trauma. Approximately one-third will develop a pneumothorax, hemothorax, or hemopneumothorax (HPTX), usually with concomitant rib fractures. Tube thoracostomy (TT) is the standard of care for these conditions, though TTs expose the patient to the risk of infectious complications. The controversy regarding antibiotic prophylaxis at the time of TT placement remains unresolved. This multicenter study sought to reconcile divergent evidence regarding the effectiveness of antibiotics given as prophylaxis with TT placement. Methods: The primary outcome measures of in-hospital empyema and pneumonia were evaluated in this prospective, observational, and American Association for the Surgery of Trauma multicenter study. Patients were grouped according to treatment status (ABX and NoABX). A 1:1 nearest neighbor method matched the ABX patients with NoABX controls. Multilevel models with random effects for matched pairs and trauma centers were fit for binary and count outcomes using logistic and negative binomial regression models, respectively. Results: TTs for HPTX were placed in 1887 patients among 23 trauma centers. The ABX and NoABX groups accounted for 14% and 86% of the patients, respectively. Cefazolin was the most frequent of 14 antibiotics prescribed. No difference in the incidence of pneumonia and empyema was observed between groups (2.2% vs 1.5%, p=0.75). Antibiotic treatment demonstrated a positive but non-significant association with risk of pneumonia (OR 1.61; 95% CI: 0.86~3.03; p=0.14) or empyema (OR 1.51; 95% CI: 0.42~5.42; p=0.53). Conclusion: There is no evidence to support the routine use of presumptive antibiotics for post-traumatic TT to decrease the incidence of pneumonia or empyema. More investigation is necessary to balance optimal patient outcomes and antibiotic stewardship. Level of evidence: II Prospective comparative study.

19.
Surgery ; 166(6): 1111-1116, 2019 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31500906

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Patients with an open abdomen after trauma or emergency surgery may benefit from reduced sedation and chemical paralysis. We studied the effect of attending surgeon experience on sedation depth and paralytic use, as well as enteral nutrition and time between laparotomies. METHODS: We performed an institutional review board-approved survey (Sedation Level after Emergent ExLap without Primary Fascial Closure) of the senior and active Eastern Association for the Surgery of Trauma membership using Qualtrics (Qualtrics, Inc, Provo, UT). We obtained 393/1,655 responses (23.7%). Spearman's rho was used for ordinal data, and multivariate logistic regression was used to adjust for trauma center level and presence of trainees in the relationship between surgeon experience and use of deep sedation. RESULTS: Surgeon experience was associated with deep sedation (Richmond Agitation and Sedation Score ≤-3, P = .001) and chemical paralysis (P = .001). Surgeon experience was associated with less concern about delirium and more concern for evisceration as the reason for sedation depth (P = .001) and for paralysis (P = .001). Using multivariate logistic regression, surgeon experience was associated with deep sedation (odds ratio 3.6 [95% confidence interval 1.3, 10.4], P = .017 for ≥20 years; odds ratio 3.5 [95% confidence interval 1.1, 10.4], P = .025 for 15-20 years). Trauma center level was also significant (odds ratio 7.2 for Richmond Agitation and Sedation Score ≤-3 [95% confidence interval 1.7, 31.0], P = .008 for level III/IV versus level I/II). Increased surgeon experience was associated with delay of commencement of enteral feeds until return of bowel function (P = .013). Few respondents indicated willingness to extubate or mobilize open abdomen patients. Experienced surgeons were likely to wait for a defined time rather than for normalization of resuscitation markers to perform the first takeback laparotomy (P = .047) and waited longer between subsequent laparotomies (P = .004). CONCLUSION: There were significant variations in practice among respondents based on the length of time since their last residency or fellowship, including variations that deviate from current best practice for management of patients with an open abdomen.


Assuntos
Traumatismos Abdominais/cirurgia , Parede Abdominal/cirurgia , Sedação Profunda/estatística & dados numéricos , Delírio/terapia , Bloqueio Neuromuscular/estatística & dados numéricos , Traumatismos Abdominais/complicações , Músculos Abdominais/efeitos dos fármacos , Músculos Abdominais/inervação , Parede Abdominal/inervação , Delírio/etiologia , Nutrição Enteral/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Bloqueadores Neuromusculares/administração & dosagem , Cirurgiões/estatística & dados numéricos , Inquéritos e Questionários/estatística & dados numéricos
20.
Am Surg ; 85(5): 456-461, 2019 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31126355

RESUMO

Estimating the prevalence of harassment, verbal abuse, and discrimination among residents is difficult as events are often under-reported. The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence of discrimination and abuse among surgical residents using the HITS (Hurt, Insulted, Threatened with harm or Screamed at) screening tool. A multicenter, cross-sectional, survey-based study was conducted at five academic teaching hospitals. Of 310 residents, 76 (24.5%) completed the survey. The HITS screening tool was positive in 3.9 per cent. The most common forms of abuse included sexual harassment (28.9%), discrimination based on gender (15.7%), and discrimination based on ethnicity (7.9%). There was a positive correlation between individuals who reported gender discrimination and racial discrimination (r = 0.778, n = 13, P = 0.002). Individuals who experienced insults were more likely to experience physical threats (r = 0.437, n = 79, P < 0.001) or verbal abuse (r = 0.690, n = 79, P < 0.001). Discrimination and harassment among surgical residents in academic teaching hospitals across the United States is not uncommon. Further research is needed to determine the impact of these findings on resident attrition.


Assuntos
Assédio não Sexual/estatística & dados numéricos , Internato e Residência , Abuso Físico/estatística & dados numéricos , Preconceito/estatística & dados numéricos , Assédio Sexual/estatística & dados numéricos , Discriminação Social/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Prevalência , Inquéritos e Questionários , Estados Unidos
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