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1.
Chemistry ; 27(19): 6050-6063, 2021 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33368741

RESUMO

The drive to develop maximal atom-efficient catalysts coupled to the continuous striving for more sustainable reactions has led to an ever-increasing interest in single-atom catalysis. Based on a periodic conceptual density functional theory (cDFT) approach, fundamental insights into the reactivity and adsorption of single late transition metal atoms supported on a fully hydroxylated amorphous silica surface have been acquired. In particular, this investigation revealed that the influence of van der Waals dispersion forces is especially significant for a silver (98 %) or gold (78 %) atom, whereas the oxophilicity of the Group 8-10 transition metals plays a major role in the interaction strength of these atoms on the irreducible SiO2 support. The adsorption energies for the less-electronegative row 4 elements (Fe, Co, Ni) ranged from -1.40 to -1.92 eV, whereas for the heavier row 5 and 6 metals, with the exception of Pd, these values are between -2.20 and -2.92 eV. The deviating behavior of Pd can be attributed to a fully filled d-shell and, hence, the absence of the hybridization effects. Through a systematic analysis of cDFT descriptors determined by using three different theoretical schemes, the Fermi weighted density of states approach was identified as the most suitable for describing the reactivity of the studied systems. The main advantage of this scheme is the fact that it is not influenced by fictitious Coulomb interactions between successive, charged reciprocal cells. Moreover, the contribution of the energy levels to the reactivity is simultaneously scaled based on their position relative to the Fermi level. Finally, the obtained Fermi weighted density of states reactivity trends show a good agreement with the chemical characteristics of the investigated metal atoms as well as the experimental data.

2.
Sci Total Environ ; : 143108, 2020 Oct 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33162133

RESUMO

Reservoirs are known to alter temperature and flow regimes, shift nutrient cycles, reduce downstream species diversity and enable a predominantly upstream spread of non-native species. However, information about the seasonal dynamics of the spread of non-natives from a reservoir to its tributaries and the further consequences regarding the spatial distribution of native species is rare. We observed the occurrence of fish in the Vltava River and its tributaries (Elbe catchment area, central Europe) upstream of the Lipno Reservoir for five consecutive years. We radio-tagged two non-native and four native species. To detect assemblage spatial variability, we sampled sites in the study area by electrofishing twice per year (spring and autumn). We expected seasonal trends in non-native species appearance in upstream reservoir tributaries and, conversely, low motivation of native fishes to descend to the reservoir. By analysing nearly 3000 individuals of 21 species from the longitudinal profile of the study area, we observed an effect of reservoir distance on the native species ratio in the upper Vltava catchment area, i.e., an increase in distance increased the native species proportion, and the opposite was observed for non-native species. Analyses of 3798 tracking positions of 193 tagged individuals showed massive spring dispersal of non-native species from the reservoir to the main tributary, the Vltava River, and their return to the reservoir for wintering. Their upstream movement positively correlated with an increase in flow rate. Native Salmo trutta showed a specific shift from the Vltava River to smaller streams during the summer, when the presence of non-native species in the Vltava River was most significant. These findings indicate that non-native species repeatedly spread from the reservoir to the upstream river stretch and its tributaries and potentially compete with native species for resources.

3.
Environ Pollut ; : 115888, 2020 Oct 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33158621

RESUMO

With increasing population growth and climate change, de facto reuse practices are predicted to increase globally. We investigated a longitudinal gradient within the Uhlava River, a representative watershed, where de facto reuse is actively occurring, during Fall and Spring seasons when instream flows vary. We observed human pharmaceutical levels in the river to continuously increase from the mountainous areas upstream to downstream locations and a potable intake location, with the highest concentrations found in small tributaries. Significant relationship was identified between mass flow of pharmaceuticals and the size of human populations contributing to wastewater treatment plant discharges. Advanced ozonation and granular activated carbon filtration effectively removed pharmaceuticals from potable source waters. We observed a higher probability of encountering a number of targeted pharmaceuticals during colder Spring months when stream flows were elevated compared to warmer conditions with lower flows in the Fall despite a dilution paradigm routinely applied for surface water quality assessment and management efforts. Such observations translated to greater water quality hazards during these higher Spring flows. Future water monitoring efforts should account for periods when higher chemical uses occur, particularly in the face of climate change for regions experiencing population growth and de facto reuse.

4.
Sci Total Environ ; 720: 137518, 2020 Jun 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32143039

RESUMO

Hydrological and microclimatic changes after insect-induced tree dieback were evaluated in an unmanaged central European mountain (Plesné, PL) forest and compared to climate-related changes in a similar, but almost intact (Certovo, CT) control forest during two decades. From 2004 to 2008, 93% of Norway spruce trees were killed by a bark beetle outbreak, and the entire PL area was left to subsequent natural development. We observed that (1) climate-related increases in daily mean air temperature (2 m above ground) were 1.6 and 0.5 °C on an annual and growing season basis, respectively, and an increase in daily mean soil temperature (5 cm below ground) was 0.9 °C during growing seasons at the CT control from 2004 to 2017; (2) daily mean soil and air temperatures increased by 0.7-1.2 °C on average more at the disturbed PL plots than in the healthy forest; (3) water input to soils increased by 20% but decreased by 17% at elevations of 1122 and 1334 m, respectively, due to decreased occult deposition to, and evaporation from, canopies after tree dieback; (4) soil moisture was 5% higher on average (but up to 17% higher in dry summer months) in the upper PL soil horizons for 5-6 years following the tree dieback; (5) run-off from the PL forest ~6% (~70 mm yr-1) increased relatively to the CT forest (but without extreme peak flows and erosion events) after tree dieback due to the ceased transpiration of dead trees and elevated water input to soils; and (6) relative air humidity was 4% lower on average at disturbed plots than beneath living trees. The rapid tree regeneration during the decade following tree dieback resulted in a complete recovery in soil moisture, a slow recovery of discharge and air humidity, but a still insignificant recovery in air and soil temperatures.


Assuntos
Microclima , Árvores , Florestas , Hidrologia , Noruega , Solo
5.
Environ Pollut ; 261: 114150, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32062094

RESUMO

Environmental monitoring and surveillance studies of pharmaceuticals routinely examine occurrence of substances without current information on human consumption patterns. We selected 10 streams with diverse annual flows and differentially influenced by population densities to examine surface water occurrence and fish accumulation of select psychoactive medicines, for which consumption is increasing in the Czech Republic. We then tested whether passive sampling can provide a useful surrogate for exposure to these substances through grab sampling, body burdens of young of year fish, and tissue specific accumulation of these psychoactive contaminants. We identified a statistically significant (p < 0.05) relationship between ambient grab samples and passive samplers in these streams when psychoactive contaminants were commonly quantitated by targeted liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry, though we did not observe relationships between passive samplers and tissue specific pharmaceutical accumulation. We further observed smaller lotic systems with elevated contamination when municipal effluent discharges from more highly populated cities contributed a greater extent of instream flows. These findings identify the importance of understanding age and species specific differences in fish uptake, internal disposition, metabolism and elimination of psychoactive drugs across surface water quality gradients.


Assuntos
Preparações Farmacêuticas , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Animais , Cidades , República Tcheca , Monitoramento Ambiental , Humanos , Água
6.
Chemistry ; 26(27): 6070-6075, 2020 May 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32092197

RESUMO

The reactions of monomeric C,N-chelated organogermanium(II) hydride L(H)Ge⋅BH3 with organolithium salts RLi yielded lithium hydrogermanatoborates (Li(THF)2 {BH3 [L(H)GeR]})2 . Compound (Li(THF)2 {BH3 [L(H)GePh]})2 was used as a source of LiH for the reduction of organic C=O or C=N bonds in nonpolar solvents accompanied by the elimination of a neutral complex L(Ph)Ge⋅BH3 . The interaction of (Li(THF)2 {BH3 [L(H)GePh]})2 with the polar C=O bond was further investigated by computational studies revealing a plausible geometry of a pre-reactive intermediate. The experimental and theoretical studies suggest that, although the Li atom of (Li(THF)2 {BH3 [L(H)GePh]})2 coordinates the C=O bond, the GeH fragment is the active species in the reduction reaction. Finally, benzaldehyde was reduced by a mixture of L(H)Ge⋅BH3 with PhLi in nonpolar solvents.

7.
Chemistry ; 26(5): 1144-1154, 2020 Jan 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31769071

RESUMO

Treatment of N,C,N-chelated organopnictogen(I) compounds ArE (1-3) (Ar=2,6-(RN=CH)2 C6 H3 , E/R=As/Dmp (1), Sb/tBu (2), and Bi/tBu (3), where Dmp=2,6-Me2 C6 H3 ) with various electron-deficient alkynes RC≡CR' (R/R'=CO2 Me (DMAD), R/R'=H/CO2 Me, or R/R'=NC5 F4 ) affords different types of heterocyclic compounds. In these reactions, 1-3 act as hidden dienes and participate in hetero-Diels-Alder (DA) reactions, a feature that has been only rarely reported for heavier pnictogen compounds. In this way, reactions of 1 furnished the set of 1-arsanaphthalenes 4-6. The most likely mechanism involves two steps, that is, an arsa-DA reaction giving a 1-arsa-1,4-dihydro-iminonaphthalene, followed by CH→NH proton migration. In contrast, this reaction sequence terminates at the first step in the case of the antimony analogue 2, thus giving the 1-stiba-1,4-dihydro-iminonaphthalenes 7 and 8. Reactions of the bismuth congener 3 gave one of two products depending on the alkyne used. Reaction of 3 with DMAD gave 1-bisma-1,4-dihydro-iminonaphthalene 9, whilst its reaction with two equivalents of HC≡C(CO2 Me) gave bismacyclohexadiene (10). All compounds have been characterized by NMR, IR, and Raman spectroscopies and X-ray diffraction analysis. The experimental data were complemented by a computational study, including a description of the reaction profiles of the hetero-DA reactions and an assessment of the aromaticities of the heterocyclic naphthalene derivatives.

8.
Chemistry ; 25(22): 5668-5671, 2019 Apr 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30861223

RESUMO

The 2,1-benzazaarsole (1) showed a diene-like reactivity towards selected alkynes RC≡CR (R=CO2 Me, C5 F4 N) thus forming 1-arsa-1,4-dihydro-iminonaphthalenes 2 a and 3 a as hardly isolable intermediates, that underwent facile CH→NH proton migration leading to before elusive substituted 1-arsanaphthalenes 2 b and 3 b that could be completely structurally characterized.

9.
Environ Manage ; 63(4): 466-484, 2019 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29159481

RESUMO

This study characterized changes in biomarker responses in common carp (Cyprinus carpio) upon exposure to effluent water discharged from a sewage treatment plant (STP) under real conditions. Fish were exposed to contamination in Cezarka pond, which receives all of its water input from the STP in the town of Vodnany, Czech Republic. Five sampling events were performed at day 0, 30, 90, 180, and 360 starting in April 2015. In total, 62 pharmaceutical and personal care products (PPCPs) were detected in the polar organic chemical integrative sampler. Compared to a control pond, the total concentration of PPCPs was 45, 16, 7, and 7 times higher in Cezarka pond at day 30, 90, 180, and 360, respectively. The result of oxidative stress and antioxidant enzyme biomarkers indicated alterations in the liver and intestine tissues of fish from Cezarka pond at day 30 and 360, respectively. High plasma vitellogenin levels were observed in both exposed females (180 and 360 days) and males (360 days) compared with their respective controls. However, only exposed female fish had higher vitellogenin mRNA expression than the control fish in these periods. Exposed female fish showed irregular structure of the ovary with scattered oocytes, which further developed to a vitellogenic stage at day 360. Low white blood cell levels were indicated in all exposed fish. Despite numerous alterations in exposed fish, favorable ecological conditions including high availability of food resulted in a better overall condition of the exposed fish after 1 year of exposure compared to the controls.


Assuntos
Carpas , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Animais , Feminino , Masculino , Esgotos , Vitelogeninas
10.
Environ Manage ; 63(4): 485, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29404738

RESUMO

The original version of this Article unfortunately contained an error. The authors' given and family names were transposed erroneously. It has been corrected now in this Erratum.

11.
Dalton Trans ; 47(41): 14503-14514, 2018 Oct 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30283956

RESUMO

N,C,N-Chelated pnictinidenes ArE [where E = As, Sb or Bi; Ar = 2,6-(tBuN[double bond, length as m-dash]CH)2C6H3] were used as ligands for the coordination of various gold(i) complexes. Thus, the reaction of ArE with [AuCl(Me2S)] gave complexes [AuCl(ArE)] [where E = As (1) or Sb (2)] that exhibited only limited stability in solution. By contrast, the reaction of ArBi with [AuCl(Me2S)] led to the immediate deposition of gold metal and the oxidation of the bismuth atom giving ArBiCl2. The treatment of a tetrameric gold alkynyl complex [Au(C[triple bond, length as m-dash]CPh)]4 with ArAs and ArSb gave ionic compounds [Au(ArAs)2]+[Au2(C[triple bond, length as m-dash]CPh)3]- [denoted as 3+[Au2(C[triple bond, length as m-dash]CPh)3]-] and [Au(ArSb)2]+[Au(C[triple bond, length as m-dash]CPh)2]- [denoted as 4+[Au(C[triple bond, length as m-dash]CPh)2]-], respectively. Finally, the reaction of ArE with the carbene gold(i) complex [Au(IPr)(MeCN)]+[BF4]- [where IPr = 1,3-bis(2,6-diisopropylphenyl)imidazolin-2-ylidene, MeCN = acetonitrile] produced ionic complexes [Au(IPr)(ArE)]+[BF4]- [for cations: E = As (5+), Sb (6+) or Bi (7+)]. All complexes were characterized using 1H and 13C NMR, high mass accuracy electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS), IR and Raman spectroscopy and (except for 1) by single-crystal X-ray diffraction analysis. Furthermore, the structure and bonding of both neutral and ionic complexes with different coordination patterns have also been investigated in detail using a Density Functional Theory (DFT) computational approach.

12.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 164: 92-99, 2018 Nov 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30098510

RESUMO

Monitoring the contamination level in aquatic environments and assessing the impact on aquatic life occurs throughout the world. In the present study, an approach based on a combination of biomarkers and the distribution of various industrial and municipal pollutants was used to investigate the effect of aquatic environmental contamination on fish. Monitoring was performed in ten rivers in the Czech Republic (Berounka, Dyje, Elbe, Luznice, Odra, Ohre, Otava, Sázava, Svratka, and Vltava rivers, with one or two locations in each river) at the same sites that were regularly monitored within the Czech National Monitoring Program in 2007-2011. Health status, hepatic ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase (EROD) activity, total cytochrome P450 content, and the plasma vitellogenin concentration were assessed in wild chub (Squalius cephalus) males caught at the monitored sites. The contamination level was the highest in the Svratka River downstream of Brno. Among all measured persistent organic pollutants (POPs), polychlorinated biphenyls and dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane and its metabolites were the major contributors of POPs in fish muscle. Elbe, Odra, and Svratka rivers were identified as the most polluted. Fish from these locations showed reduced gonad size, increased vitellogenin concentration in male plasma, EROD, and total cytochrome P450 content. These biomarkers can be used for future environmental monitoring assessments. Overall, this study improves our understanding of the relationship between human activities and pollutant loads and further contributes to the decision to support local watershed managers to protect water quality in this region.


Assuntos
Cyprinidae , Monitoramento Ambiental , Rios/química , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Animais , Biomarcadores/metabolismo , Citocromo P-450 CYP1A1/metabolismo , Sistema Enzimático do Citocromo P-450/metabolismo , República Tcheca , DDT/análise , Poluição Ambiental , Peixes/metabolismo , Hidrocarbonetos Clorados/análise , Fígado/efeitos dos fármacos , Fígado/metabolismo , Masculino , Bifenilos Policlorados/análise , Análise de Componente Principal , Vitelogeninas/sangue , Qualidade da Água
13.
Sci Total Environ ; 635: 1160-1169, 2018 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29710571

RESUMO

Sewage treatment plants (STPs) are one of the major source of pharmaceuticals and personal care products in the aquatic environment. Generally, the effects of individual chemicals on fish are studied under laboratory conditions, which leads to results that are potentially not realistic regarding the effects of these chemicals under environmental conditions. Therefore, in this study, common carps were held in exposed pond that receive water from STP effluents for 360 days under natural conditions. Elimination of xenobiotics starts in the fish intestine, in which the microbial community strongly influences its function. Moreover, the fish intestine functions as crucial organ for absorbing lipids and fatty acids (FA), with consequent transport to the liver where their metabolism occurs. The liver is the primary organ performing xenobiotic metabolism in fish, and therefore, the presence of pollutants may interact with the metabolism of FA. The catalytic activity of CYP1A and CYP3A-like enzymes, their gene expression, FA composition and intestinal microbiome consortia were measured. The catalytic activity of enzymes and their gene and protein expression, were induced in hepatic and intestinal tissues of fish from the exposed pond. Also, fish from the exposed pond had different compositions of FA than those from the control pond: concentration of 18:1 n-9 and 18:2 n-6 were significantly elevated and the longer chain n-3 FA 20:5 n-3, 22:5 n-3 and 22:6 n-3 were significantly lowered. There were clear differences among microbiome consortia in fish intestines across control and exposed groups. Microbiome taxa measured in exposed fish were also associated with those found in STP activated sludge. This study reveals that treated STP water, which is assumed to be clean, affected measured biomarkers in common carp.


Assuntos
Carpas/fisiologia , Eliminação de Resíduos Líquidos , Águas Residuárias/toxicidade , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade , Animais , Biomarcadores/metabolismo , Fígado/metabolismo , Esgotos , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise
14.
Water Res ; 134: 226-233, 2018 05 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29427964

RESUMO

The fate of fourteen target perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) are described within a small stream affected by a sewage treatment plant (STP) effluent. Concentrations of target PFASs in samples of water, benthic macroinvertebrates and brown trout (Salmo trutta) are presented. Two hundred brown trout individuals originating from clean sites within the same stream were tagged and stocked into an experimental site affected by the STP's effluent. As a passive sampling approach, polar organic chemical integrative samplers (POCIS) were deployed in the water to reveal the water-macroinvertebrates-fish biotransformation processes of PFASs. Bioconcentration/bioaccumulation of target compounds was monitored one, three, and six months after stocking. Twelve of the fourteen target PFASs were found in concentration above the LOQ in at least one of the studied matrices. The compound pattern varied significantly between both the studied species and water samples. Concerning the accumulation of PFASs in fish, the highest concentrations were found in the liver of individuals sampled after three months of exposure. These concentrations rapidly decreased after six months although the water concentrations were slightly increasing during experiment.


Assuntos
Fluorcarbonetos/análise , Invertebrados , Truta , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Animais , Monitoramento Ambiental , Feminino , Cadeia Alimentar , Fígado/química , Masculino , Rios , Esgotos
15.
J Am Chem Soc ; 140(6): 2316-2325, 2018 02 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29334454

RESUMO

Attractive metallophilic (aurophilic, argentophilic, cuprophilic, etc.) interactions play an important role in arrangement and stabilization of oligonuclear metal ion complexes. We report a combined experimental and theoretical assessment of aurophilic interactions in closed-shell gold(I) dimers. The experimental binding energies were obtained for charged [(LH)AuCl]+...[(L')AuCl] dimers (L is either a phosphine or an N-heterocyclic carbene ligand) in the gas phase. These energies served for benchmarking of correlated quantum chemical calculations (CCSD(T)-calibrated SCS-MP2/CBS method) that were then applied to neutral [(L)AuCl]...[(L')AuCl] dimers. The overall attractive interactions between monomeric units are in the order of 100-165 kJ mol-1 in the charged dimers and of 70-105 kJ mol-1 in the corresponding neutral dimers. In the neutral dimers, pure aurophilic interactions account for 25-30 kJ mol-1, the dipole-dipole interactions for 30-45 kJ mol-1, and the L···L' "inter-ligand" dispersion interactions for 5-25 kJ mol-1. Energy of the aurophilic interactions is thus comparable or even larger than that of strong hydrogen bonds.

16.
J Hazard Mater ; 342: 401-407, 2018 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28854392

RESUMO

Although pharmaceuticals are frequently studied contaminants, their fate in the environment is still not completely clear. During a one year study, a complex approach including water, sediment and fish sampling was used to describe the behaviour of pharmaceuticals and their metabolites (PTMs) in the environment. Eighteen pharmaceuticals and seven of their metabolites were determined in a pond used for the tertiary treatment of wastewater effluent. A liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method was applied to determine the PTMs concentrations in all matrices. Seasonal variations in concentrations were evaluated. The partitioning of contaminants between pond compartments was estimated by means of solid water distribution coefficients (Kd) and bioaccumulation factors (BAF) for the livers of fish. Kd values were almost stable throughout the year, which may be a sign of the continuous transport of PTMs between water and sediment under the experimental conditions. Almost all of the studied compounds, with exception of sertraline (BAF of 6200), were found to not be bioaccumulative in fish livers. The pond removal efficiency was calculated for all PTMs, and favourable conditions for natural pharmaceutical removal were proposed. Further aspects regarding fish pharmaceutical exposure need to be studied.


Assuntos
Peixes/metabolismo , Sedimentos Geológicos/análise , Águas Residuárias/análise , Água/análise , Animais , Organismos Aquáticos , Cromatografia Líquida , Preparações Farmacêuticas , Estações do Ano
17.
Water Res ; 124: 654-662, 2017 11 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28825984

RESUMO

The treated effluent from sewage treatment plants (STP) is a major source of active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs) that enter the aquatic environment. Bioaccumulation of 11 selected psychoactive pharmaceuticals (citalopram, clomipramine, haloperidol, hydroxyzine, levomepromazine, mianserin, mirtazapine, paroxetine, sertraline, tramadol and venlafaxine) was examined in Zivny Stream (tributary of the Blanice River, the Czech Republic), which is a small stream highly affected by effluent from the Prachatice STP. Six of the 11 pharmaceuticals were detected in grab water samples and in passive samplers. All pharmaceuticals were found in fish exposed to the stream for a defined time. The organs with highest presence of the selected pharmaceuticals were the liver and kidney; whereas only one pharmaceutical (sertraline) was detected in the brain of exposed fish. Fish plasma and muscle samples were not adequate in revealing exposure because the number of hits was much lower than that in the liver or kidney. Using the criterion of a bioaccumulation factor (BAF) ≥ 500, citalopram, mianserin, mirtazapine and sertraline could be classified as potential bioaccumulative compounds. In combination, data from integrative passive samplers and fish liver or kidney tissue samples were complimentary in detection of target compounds and simultaneously helped to distinguish between bioconcentration and bioaccumulation.


Assuntos
Peixes , Poluentes Químicos da Água/farmacocinética , Animais , República Tcheca , Preparações Farmacêuticas , Rios , Esgotos , Eliminação de Resíduos Líquidos
18.
Chemistry ; 23(58): 14604-14613, 2017 Oct 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28783213

RESUMO

The bonding in heavier Group 14 zero-valent complexes of a general formula L2 E (E=Si-Pb; L=phosphine, N-heterocyclic and acyclic carbene, cyclic tetrylene and carbon monoxide) is probed by combining valence bond (VB) theory and maximum probability domain (MPD) approaches. All studied complexes are initially evaluated on the basis of the structural parameters and the shape of frontier orbitals revealing a bent structural motif and the presence of two lone pairs at the central E atom. For the VB calculations three resonance structures are suggested, representing the "ylidone", "ylidene" and "bent allene" structures, respectively. The influence of both ligands and central atoms on the bonding situation is clearly expressed in different weights of the resonance structures for the particular complexes. In general, the bonding in the studied E0 compounds, the tetrylones, is best described as a resonating combination of "ylidone" and "ylidene" structures with a minor contribution of the "bent allene" structure. Moreover, the VB calculations allow for a straightforward assessment of the π-backbonding (E→L) stabilization energy. The validity of the suggested resonance model is further confirmed by the complementary MPD calculations focusing on the E lone pair region as well as the E-L bonding region. Likewise, the MPD method reveals a strong influence of the σ-donating and π-accepting properties of the ligand. In particular, either one single domain or two symmetrical domains are found in the lone pair region of the central atom, supporting the predominance of either the "ylidene" or "ylidone" structures having one or two lone pairs at the central atom, respectively. Furthermore, the calculated average populations in the lone pair MPDs correlate very well with the natural bond orbital (NBO) populations, and can be related to the average number of electrons that is backdonated to the ligands.

19.
Dalton Trans ; 46(11): 3556-3568, 2017 Mar 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28240753

RESUMO

N,C,N-Chelated pnictinidenes ArE [where E = As (1), Sb (2) or Bi (3); Ar = C6H3-2,6-(CH[double bond, length as m-dash]Nt-Bu)2] were used as ligands for the coordination of transition metal carbonyls. Thus, the reaction of 1-3 with [M(CO)5THF] (where M = Cr, W) or [Mo(CO)5(Me3N)] gave complexes [(ArE)M(CO)5] [where E = As and M = Cr (1a), Mo (1b), W (1c); E = Sb and M = Cr (2a), Mo (2b), W (2c); E = Bi and M = Cr (3a), Mo (3b), W (3c)]. Analogously, the treatment of 1-3 with [Fe2(CO)9] resulted in the formation of the complexes [(ArE)Fe(CO)4] [where E = As (1d), Sb (2d) or Bi (3d)]. All compounds were characterized by 1H and 13C NMR spectroscopy, Raman, IR and UV-Vis spectroscopy. The molecular structures of the majority of the compounds (except 1b and 1c) were also determined by the single-crystal X-ray diffraction analysis. Furthermore, the structure and bonding of the title compounds have also been thoroughly investigated using a computational approach.

20.
Chemistry ; 23(10): 2340-2349, 2017 Feb 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27943507

RESUMO

The reduction of N,C,N-chelated antimony(III) chlorides [C6 H3 -2,6-(CH=NR)2 ]SbCl2 (R=Ph (1), tBu (2), Dip (3); Dip=2,6-iPr2 C6 H3 ) with an appropriate amount of KC8 or Li[AlH4 ] resulted in the formation of rare examples of monomeric stibinidenes [C6 H3 -2,6-(CH=NR)2 ]Sb (R=Ph (4), tBu (5), Dip (6)). Similarly, the reduction of compounds 1 or 2 by two equivalents of K[B(sBu)3 H] led to the stibinidenes 4 and 5. In contrast, the analogous reaction of compound 3 resulted in the formation of an unprecedented stibinidene [C6 H3 -2-(CH=NR)-6-(CH2 NHR)]Sb (7) (R=Dip), in which the hydrogen atoms that come from the K[B(sBu)3 H] are incorporated into the ligand backbone. To gain further insight into this intriguing reactivity with K[B(sBu)3 H] and to assess the influence of the substitution at both the antimony atom and pendant substituents, we prepared compounds [C6 H3 -2-(CH=NDip)]Sb(Ph)Cl (8) and [C6 H2 -2-(CH=NDip)-4,6-(tBu)2 ]SbCl2 (9). The treatment of compound 8 with K[B(sBu)3 H] smoothly led to the 1-Ph-2-Dip-1H-2,1-benzazastibole (11), whereas the reaction of compound 9 with K[B(sBu)3 H] resulted in either tBu-substituted 1-Cl-2-Dip-1H-2,1-benzazastibole (13) or the formation of unprecedented Sb-Sb dimer bis(2-Dip-1H-2,1-benzazastibole) (12) depending on the reaction stoichiometry. The miscellaneous reactivity of antimony(III) precursors with reducing agents together with the structure and bonding of the resulting products has also been investigated from a theoretical point of view.

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