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1.
Drug Chem Toxicol ; : 1-12, 2020 Aug 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32781857

RESUMO

The clinical use of drugs used in the treatment of diseases is limited due to the toxic side effects, and many studies have been conducted to benefit from herbal adjuvant therapies recently to eliminate these effects. In this study, the protective effect of zingerone against liver and kidney damage generated in rats through methotrexate (MTX). Histopathological investigations were performed to determine tissue damage caused by MTX and the healing effect of zingone and liver function markers such as serum alanine transaminase (ALT), aspartate transaminase (AST), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), and renal function markers such as urea, creatine, and aquaporin-1 (AQP-1) were measured. The effects of MTX and protective properties of zingerone on oxidative stress were investigated through the measurement of malondialdehyde and reduced glutathione (GSH) levels, catalase (CAT), and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) enzyme activities. The anti-inflammatory effect of zingerone was determined by measuring the cytokine levels causing inflammation such as nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), and interleukin-1ß (IL-1ß), and its effects on apoptosis were determined by immunohistochemical analysis of caspase-3 and B-cell lymphoma-2 (Bcl-2) expression levels. According to the results obtained within the scope of the study, it was determined that zingerone treatment prevented the increase in MTX-induced liver and kidney function markers, showed healing effects on antioxidant parameters degraded in both tissues, and decreased the inflammation parameters. It was determined that it also prevented apoptosis and possessed a protective effect on disrupted tissue architecture by decreasing the increased caspase-3 expression and increasing the decreased Bcl-2 level.

2.
J Vet Pharmacol Ther ; 43(5): 435-439, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32743801

RESUMO

The objective of this study was to determine the pharmacokinetics of tolfenamic acid (TA) following intravenous (IV) administration at doses of 2 and 4 mg/kg in goats. In this study, six healthy goats were used. TA was administered intravenously to each goat at 2 and 4 mg/kg doses in a cross-over pharmacokinetic design with a 15-day washout period. Plasma concentrations of TA were analyzed using the high performance liquid chromatography with ultraviolet detector, and pharmacokinetic parameters were assigned by noncompartmental analysis. Following IV administration at dose of 2 mg/kg, area under the concentration-time curve (AUC0-∞ ), elimination half-life (t1/2ʎz ), total clearance (ClT ) and volume of distribution at steady state (Vdss ) were 6.64 ± 0.81 hr* µg/ml, 1.57 ± 0.14 hr, 0.30 ± 0.04 L h-1  kg-1 and 0.40 ± 0.05 L/kg, respectively. After the administration of TA at a dose of 4 mg/kg showed prolonged t1/2ʎz , increased dose-normalized AUC0-∞ , and decreased ClT . In goats, TA at 4 mg/kg dose can be administered wider dose intervals compared to the 2 mg/kg dose. However, further studies are needed to determine the effect of different doses on the clinical efficacy of TA in goats.

3.
J Vet Pharmacol Ther ; 43(5): 440-447, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32815194

RESUMO

The pharmacokinetics of cefquinome (2 mg/kg every 24 hr for 5 days) was determined following intramuscular administration alone and co-administration with ketoprofen (3 mg/kg every 24 hr for 5 days) in goats. Six goats were used for the study. In the study, the crossover pharmacokinetics design with 20-day washout period was performed in two periods. Plasma concentrations of cefquinome were assayed using high-performance liquid chromatography by ultraviolet detection. The mean terminal elimination half-life (t1/2ʎz ), area under the concentration-time curve (AUC0-24 ), peak concentration (Cmax ), apparent volume of distribution (Vdarea /F), and total body clearance (CL/F) of cefquinome after the administration alone were 4.85 hr, 11.06 hr*µg/ml, 2.37 µg/mL, 1.23 L/kg, and 0.17 L/h/kg after the first dose, and 5.88 hr, 17.01 hr*µg/mL, 3.04 µg/mL, 0.95 L/kg, and 0.11 L/h/kg after the last dose. Ketoprofen significantly prolonged t1/2ʎz of cefquinome, increased AUC0-24 and Cmax , and decreased Vdarea /F and CL/F. Cefquinome exhibited low accumulation after the administration alone and in combination with ketoprofen. These results indicated that ketoprofen prolonged the elimination of cefquinome in goats. The 24-hr dosing intervals at 2 mg/kg dose of cefquinome, which co-administered with ketoprofen, may maintain T> minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) values above 40% in the treatment of infections caused by susceptible pathogens with the MIC value of ≤0.75 µg/ml in goats with an inflammatory condition.

4.
Naunyn Schmiedebergs Arch Pharmacol ; 393(9): 1691-1699, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32383030

RESUMO

The antioxidant and cardioprotective effects of oleuropein have been reported in several studies; however, its effect on ketamine cardiotoxicity has not been known yet. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of oleuropein in ketamine-induced cardiotoxicity model in rats. A total of 28 male Wistar Albino rats were included in the study and they were randomly divided into four groups, each having seven rats. Group 1 (control): rats were given 1 mL of DMSO by oral gavage method for 7 days. Group 2 (ketamine): on the seventh day of the study, 60 mg/kg ketamine was administered intraperitoneally. Then, 60 mg/kg ketamine was administered intraperitoneally every 10 min for 3 h. Group 3 (oleuropein): rats were given 200 mg/kg/day oleuropein by oral gavage method for 7 days. Group 4 (oleuropein + ketamine): rats were given 1 × 200 mg/kg oleuropein by oral gavage method for 7 days. Furthermore, 60 mg/kg ketamine was administered intraperitoneally on the seventh day of the experiment. Then, 60 mg/kg ketamine was administered intraperitoneally every 10 min for 3 h. Serum cardiac marker (TnI, CK-MB and CK) levels were measured. Histopathological analysis was performed on a portion of the cardiac tissue. Cardiac tissue oxidative stress and antioxidant markers (MDA, GSH, GSH.Px and CAT), TNF-α, IL-6, NF-κB, COX-2 and Nrf-2 gene expressions, and protein conversion levels of related genes were determined. Data obtained showed that ketamine administration increased MDA (p < 0.001), TNF-α (p < 0.01), IL-6 (p < 0.01), COX-2 (p < 0.001) and NF-κB (p < 0.001) levels, as well as serum TnI (p < 0.001), CK-MB (p < 0.001) and CK (p < 0.01) levels whereas decreased GSH (p < 0.05) and Nrf-2 (p < 0.05) levels, as well as GSH-Px (p < 0.001) and CAT (p < 0.05) enzyme activities. Oleuropein administration was observed to decrease MDA, TNF-α, IL-6, COX-2, NF-κB, TnI, CK-MB and CK levels close to the control group and to increase GSH levels and GSH-Px and CAT enzyme activities close to the control group. This study showed that oleuropein administration reversed the increased oxidative stress and inflammation as a result of the use of ketamine and had protective effects on the heart.

5.
J Vet Pharmacol Ther ; 43(5): 429-434, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32420638

RESUMO

The aim of this study was to determine the changes in the pharmacokinetics of meloxicam in goat kids who were castrated following the administration of xylazine. Six goat kids were used for the study. The study was performed in two periods according to a longitudinal study, with a 15-day washout period between periods. In the first period (Control group), 1 mg/kg meloxicam was administered by i.v. route to kids. In the second period (Castration group), the kids were sedated with 0.3 mg/kg xylazine and castration was performed following meloxicam administration. Plasma meloxicam concentration was analyzed using HPLC-UV, and pharmacokinetic parameters were calculated by noncompartmental model. In the control group following the administration of meloxicam, mean elimination half-life (t1/2 ʎz ), area under the concentration-time curve (AUC0-∞ ), total body clearance (ClT ), and volume of distribution at steady-state (Vdss ) were 13.50 ± 0.62 hr, 41.10 ± 2.86 hr µg/ml, 24.43 ± 1.75 ml hr-1  kg-1 , and 0.45 ± 0.03 L/kg, respectively. In the castration group, the t1/2 ʎz of meloxicam prolonged, AUC0-∞ increased, and ClT and Vdss decreased. In conclusion, the excretion of meloxicam from the body slowed and the t1/2 ʎz was prolonged in the castrated goat kids following xylazine administration. However, there is a need to determine the pharmacodynamics of meloxicam in castrated goat kids.

6.
Chem Biol Interact ; 308: 89-100, 2019 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31100273

RESUMO

Although Doxorubicin (DOX) is a widespread drug used in the treatment of cancer, its clinical use is restricted due to its common side effects. In addition, administrating DOX with an antioxidant has recently become a new strategy in preventing the side effects of DOX. The protective effects of morin, a natural flavonoid, against DOX-induced liver and kidney damage in rats were investigated biochemically, immunohistochemically and histopathologically in this study. The experimental procedure was planned as 10 days, and 5 groups consisting of seven rats were formed. Morin was given orally to rats at a dose of 50 and 100 mg/kg for 10 days and DOX was given a single dose of 40 mg/kg intraperitoneally on day 8. In order to determine the protective effect of morin against oxidative stress caused by DOX, reduced glutathione (GSH) and malondialdehyde (MDA) levels and superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) enzyme activities were measured in liver and kidney tissues. Liver and kidney tissue damage were determined both histopathologically and by serum alanine transaminase (ALT), aspartate transaminase (AST), urea and creatinine analysis. In order to determine the effect of DOX-induced inflammation and against the effect of morin, tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin-1ß (IL-1ß) and nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) levels were determined in both tissues. Liver and kidney B-cell lymphoma-2 (Bcl-2) levels were determined biochemically. In addition, Bax expression in liver tissue and aquaporin-2 (AQP-2) and nephrin expression in renal tissue were determined immunohistochemically. It was determined that oxidative damage caused by DOX decreased and improvement of liver and kidney function markers were observed in the groups that were treated with morin. In addition, pre-treatment of morin showed a regulatory effect on TNF-α, IL-1ß and NF-κB levels. It prevented the increase in DOX-induced Bax expression and decrease in Bcl-2 level, AQP-2 and nephrin expression. Histopathological examination revealed that it prevented tissue damage in liver and kidney tissues.


Assuntos
Doxorrubicina/toxicidade , Flavonoides/farmacologia , Fígado/efeitos dos fármacos , Substâncias Protetoras/farmacologia , Alanina Transaminase/sangue , Animais , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Aquaporina 2/metabolismo , Aspartato Aminotransferases/sangue , Glutationa/metabolismo , Rim/efeitos dos fármacos , Rim/metabolismo , Rim/patologia , Fígado/metabolismo , Fígado/patologia , Masculino , Proteínas de Membrana/metabolismo , NF-kappa B/metabolismo , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-bcl-2/metabolismo , Ratos , Ratos Wistar , Superóxido Dismutase/metabolismo
7.
Biol Trace Elem Res ; 189(1): 95-108, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30066062

RESUMO

The present study was conducted to investigate the protective effects of hesperidin (HSP) against sodium arsenite (SA)-induced nephrotoxicity and hepatotoxicity in rats. Thirty-five male Sprague Dawley rats were divided into five groups as follows: control, HSP, SA, SA + HSP 100, and SA + HSP 200. Rats were orally gavaged with SA (10 mg/kg body weight) and HSP (100 and 200 mg/kg body weight) for 15 days. SA increased oxidative damage by decreasing antioxidant enzyme activities, such as catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD), and glutathione peroxidase (GPx), and glutathione (GSH) level and increasing malondialdehyde (MDA) level in the kidney and liver tissues. In addition, it increased serum aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) activities and serum urea and creatinine levels. Furthermore, SA caused inflammation, apoptosis, and oxidative DNA damage by increasing tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB), interleukin-1ß (IL-1ß), cysteine aspartate-specific protease-3 (caspase-3), and 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) levels in the kidney and liver tissues and by increasing liver p53 and kidney interleukin-6 (IL-6) expressions. In other words, HSP administration reduced apoptosis, oxidative stress, inflammation, and oxidative DNA damage significantly in SA-induced kidney and liver tissues depending on dose. In this study, it was seen that HSP showed a protective effect against SA-induced kidney and liver toxicity.


Assuntos
Arsenitos/toxicidade , Hesperidina/farmacologia , Rim/efeitos dos fármacos , Compostos de Sódio/toxicidade , Animais , Glutationa/metabolismo , Glutationa Peroxidase/metabolismo , Rim/metabolismo , Masculino , Malondialdeído/metabolismo , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Projetos de Pesquisa , Superóxido Dismutase/metabolismo
8.
Biomed Pharmacother ; 106: 443-453, 2018 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29990832

RESUMO

Doxorubicin (DOX) is an effective antineoplastic agent of the anthracycline group. However, as with most anticancer drugs, they cause some toxic effects, including major cardiotoxicity and cognitive impairment. In this study, protective effects of morin against DOX-induced cardiotoxicity and neurotoxicity in rats were investigated. Morin was orally administered to rats at a dose of 50 and 100 mg/kg body weight for 10 days. DOX was administered 40 mg/kg body weight by single dose intraperitoneal injection on the 8th day of the study. Both the levels of glutathione (GSH) and malondialdehyde (MDA) were assessed and enzyme activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) were assessed to determine the protective effect of morin against oxidative stress. To determine the anti-inflammatory effect, the levels of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin-1ß (IL-1ß), nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) were assessed in the heart and brain tissues. Lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and creatine kinase isoenzyme-MB (CKMB) activities, which are cardiac function markers, and cardiac troponin-I (cTn-I) levels were also determined. Anti-apoptotic effect was determined by anti-apoptotic protein B-cell lymphoma-2 (Bcl-2) and pro-apoptotic protein cysteine aspartate specific protease-3 (caspase-3) changes. The regulatory role of morin in signal transduction in the brain tissue was assigned with the determination of amount of acetylcholinesterase (AChE), and its healing effect on the central nervous system was determined with imuinohistochemical detection of glial fibrillar acidic protein (GFAP) level. Histopathological evaluation of heart and brain tissues was performed in all groups.


Assuntos
Anti-Infecciosos/farmacologia , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Encefalopatias/prevenção & controle , Encéfalo/efeitos dos fármacos , Doxorrubicina , Flavonoides/farmacologia , Cardiopatias/prevenção & controle , Inflamação/prevenção & controle , Miocárdio , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Acetilcolinesterase/metabolismo , Animais , Proteínas Reguladoras de Apoptose/metabolismo , Biomarcadores/metabolismo , Encéfalo/metabolismo , Encéfalo/patologia , Encefalopatias/induzido quimicamente , Encefalopatias/metabolismo , Encefalopatias/patologia , Cardiotoxicidade , Citocinas/metabolismo , Citoproteção , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Proteínas Ligadas por GPI/metabolismo , Proteína Glial Fibrilar Ácida/metabolismo , Cardiopatias/induzido quimicamente , Cardiopatias/metabolismo , Cardiopatias/patologia , Inflamação/induzido quimicamente , Inflamação/metabolismo , Inflamação/patologia , Mediadores da Inflamação/metabolismo , Masculino , Miocárdio/metabolismo , Miocárdio/patologia , Ratos Wistar , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos
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