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1.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32449766

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: In an effort to improve the efficiency of computer algorithms applied to screening for COVID-19 testing, we used natural language processing (NLP) and artificial intelligence (AI)-based methods with unstructured patient data collected through telehealth visits. METHODS: After segmenting and parsing documents, we conducted analysis of overrepresented words in patient symptoms. We then developed a word embedding-based convolutional neural network for predicting COVID-19 test results based on patients' self-reported symptoms. RESULTS: Text analytics revealed that concepts such as "smell" and "taste" were more prevalent than expected in patients testing positive. As a result, screening algorithms were adapted to include these symptoms. The deep learning model yielded an AUC of 0.729 for predicting positive results and was subsequently applied to prioritize testing appointment scheduling. DISCUSSION: Informatics tools such as NLP and AI methods can have significant clinical impacts when applied to data streams early in the development of clinical systems for outbreak response.

2.
Int J Mol Sci ; 21(6)2020 Mar 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32244989

RESUMO

The Center of Biomedical Research Excellence in Matrix Biology strives to improve our understanding of extracellular matrix at molecular, cellular, tissue, and organismal levels to generate new knowledge about pathophysiology, normal development, and regenerative medicine. The primary goals of the Center are to i) support junior investigators, ii) enhance the productivity of established scientists, iii) facilitate collaboration between both junior and established researchers, and iv) build biomedical research infrastructure that will support research relevant to cell-matrix interactions in disease progression, tissue repair and regeneration, and v) provide access to instrumentation and technical support. A Pilot Project program provides funding to investigators who propose applying their expertise to matrix biology questions. Support from the National Institute of General Medical Sciences at the National Institutes of Health that established the Center of Biomedical Research Excellence in Matrix Biology has significantly enhanced the infrastructure and the capabilities of researchers at Boise State University, leading to new approaches that address disease diagnosis, prevention, and treatment. New multidisciplinary collaborations have been formed with investigators who may not have previously considered how their biomedical research programs addressed fundamental and applied questions involving the extracellular matrix. Collaborations with the broader matrix biology community are encouraged.

3.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32179158

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Bcl6 is required for the development of T follicular helper cells and T follicular regulatory (Tfr) cells that regulate germinal center responses. Bcl6 also affects the function of regulatory T (Treg) cells. OBJECTIVE: The goal of this study was to define the functions of Bcl6 in Treg cells, including Tfr cells, in the context of allergic airway inflammation. METHODS: We used a model of house dust mite sensitization to challenge wild-type, Bcl6fl/fl Foxp3-Cre, and Prdm1 (Blimp1)fl/fl Foxp3-Cre mice to study the reciprocal roles of Bcl6 and Blimp1 in allergic airway inflammation. RESULTS: In the house dust mite model, Tfr cells repress the production of IgE and Bcl6+ Treg cells suppress the generation of type 2 cytokine-producing cells in the lungs. In mice with Bcl6-deficient Treg cells, twice as many ST2+ (IL-33R+) Treg cells develop as are observed in wild-type mice. ST2+ Treg cells in the context of allergic airway inflammation are Blimp1 dependent, express type 2 cytokines, and share features of visceral adipose tissue Treg cells. Bcl6-deficient Treg cells are more susceptible, and Blimp1-deficient Treg cells are resistant, to acquiring the ST2+ Treg-cell phenotype in vitro and in vivo in response to IL-33. Bcl6-deficient ST2+ Treg cells, but not Bcl6-deficient ST2+ conventional T cells, strongly promote allergic airway inflammation when transferred into recipient mice. Lastly, ST2 is required for the exacerbated allergic airway inflammation in Bcl6fl/fl Foxp3-Cre mice. CONCLUSIONS: During allergic airway inflammation, Bcl6 and Blimp1 play dual roles in regulating Tfr-cell activity in the germinal center and in the development of ST2+ Treg cells that promote type 2 cytokine responses.

4.
PLoS One ; 15(3): e0219275, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32163417

RESUMO

Pathogenic bacteria often damage tissues by secreting toxins that form pores in cell membranes, and the most common pore-forming toxins are cholesterol-dependent cytolysins. During bacterial infections, glutamine becomes a conditionally essential amino acid, and glutamine is an important nutrient for immune cells. However, the role of glutamine in protecting tissue cells against pore-forming toxins is unclear. Here we tested the hypothesis that glutamine supports the protection of tissue cells against the damage caused by cholesterol-dependent cytolysins. Stromal and epithelial cells were sensitive to damage by the cholesterol-dependent cytolysins, pyolysin and streptolysin O, as determined by leakage of potassium and lactate dehydrogenase from cells, and reduced cell viability. However, glutamine deprivation increased the leakage of lactate dehydrogenase and reduced the viability of cells challenged with cholesterol-dependent cytolysins. Without glutamine, stromal cells challenged with pyolysin leaked lactate dehydrogenase (control vs. pyolysin, 2.6 ± 0.6 vs. 34.4 ± 4.5 AU, n = 12), which was more than three-fold the leakage from cells supplied with 2 mM glutamine (control vs. pyolysin, 2.2 ± 0.3 vs. 9.4 ± 1.0 AU). Glutamine cytoprotection did not depend on glutaminolysis, replenishing the Krebs cycle via succinate, changes in cellular cholesterol, or regulators of cell metabolism (AMPK and mTOR). In conclusion, although the mechanism remains elusive, we found that glutamine supports the protection of tissue cells against the damage caused by cholesterol-dependent cytolysins from pathogenic bacteria.


Assuntos
Colesterol/metabolismo , Citoproteção/efeitos dos fármacos , Citotoxinas/toxicidade , Glutamina/farmacologia , Animais , Proteínas de Bactérias/toxicidade , Toxinas Bacterianas/toxicidade , Bovinos , Células HeLa , Proteínas Hemolisinas/toxicidade , Humanos , L-Lactato Desidrogenase/metabolismo , Estreptolisinas/toxicidade , Células Estromais/efeitos dos fármacos
5.
J Acoust Soc Am ; 147(2): 794, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32113300

RESUMO

Transition bandwidths, observed as peaks in threshold functions in band-widening discrimination experiments, exhibit a number of notable features, such as a tenfold range of individual differences. The transition from a discrimination process based on temporal features to a process akin to profile analysis occurs automatically when the stimulus becomes wide enough to support across channel comparisons. A challenging finding is that transition bandwidths are unaffected by spectral density, tolerating frequency differences between spectral components as great as 400 Hz. Theoretical considerations based on this fact favor distinguishing between spectral and temporal processes as early as the initial stage of peripheral filtering.

6.
EMBO J ; 39(5): e102622, 2020 Mar 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31985069

RESUMO

The L-type Ca2+ channel CaV 1.2 governs gene expression, cardiac contraction, and neuronal activity. Binding of α-actinin to the IQ motif of CaV 1.2 supports its surface localization and postsynaptic targeting in neurons. We report a bi-functional mechanism that restricts CaV 1.2 activity to its target sites. We solved separate NMR structures of the IQ motif (residues 1,646-1,664) bound to α-actinin-1 and to apo-calmodulin (apoCaM). The CaV 1.2 K1647A and Y1649A mutations, which impair α-actinin-1 but not apoCaM binding, but not the F1658A and K1662E mutations, which impair apoCaM but not α-actinin-1 binding, decreased single-channel open probability, gating charge movement, and its coupling to channel opening. Thus, α-actinin recruits CaV 1.2 to defined surface regions and simultaneously boosts its open probability so that CaV 1.2 is mostly active when appropriately localized.

7.
Exp Dermatol ; 29(1): 102-106, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31566815

RESUMO

Ex vivo culture of mouse and human skin causes an inflammatory response characterized by production of multiple cytokines. We used ex vivo culture of mouse tail skin specimens to investigate mechanisms of this skin culture-induced inflammatory response. Multiplex assays revealed production of interleukin 1 alpha (IL-1α), interleukin 1 beta (IL-1ß), interleukin 6 (IL-6), chemokine C-X-C motif ligand 1 (CXCL1), granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) and granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) during skin culture, and quantitative PCR revealed transcripts for these proteins were also increased. Ex vivo cultures of skin from myeloid differentiation primary response 88 deficient mice (Myd88-/- ) demonstrated significantly reduced expression of transcripts for the aforementioned cytokines. The same result was observed with skin from interleukin 1 receptor type 1 deficient mice (Il1r1-/- ). These data suggested the IL-1R1/MyD88 axis is required for the skin culture-induced inflammatory response and led us to investigate the role of IL-1α and IL-1ß (the ligands for IL-1R1) in this process. Addition of IL-1α neutralizing antibody to skin cultures significantly reduced expression of Cxcl1, Il6 and Csf3. IL-1ß neutralization did not reduce levels of these transcripts. These studies suggest that IL-1α promotes the skin the culture-induced inflammatory response.

8.
Indoor Air ; 30(2): 284-293, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31814168

RESUMO

Chlorine-based disinfectants protect pool water from pathogen contamination but produce potentially harmful halogenated disinfection by-products (DBPs). This study characterized the bioaccumulation and elimination of exhaled DBPs post-swimming and investigated changes in exhaled breath profiles associated with chlorinated pool exposure. Nineteen participants provided alveolar-enriched breath samples prior to and 5, 90, 300, 510, and 600 minutes post-swimming. Known DBPs associated with chlorinated water were quantitated by thermal desorption-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Two distinct exhaled DBP elimination profiles were observed. Most participants (84%) reported peak concentrations immediately post-swimming that reduced exponentially. A sub-group exhibited a previously unobserved and delayed washout profile with peak levels at 90 minutes post-exposure. Metabolomic investigations tentatively identified two candidate biomarkers associated with swimming pool exposure, demonstrating an upregulation in the hours after exposure. These data demonstrated a hitherto undescribed exhaled DBP elimination profile in a small number of participants which contrasts previous findings of uniform accumulation and exponential elimination. This sub-group which exhibited delayed peak-exhaled concentrations suggests the uptake, processing, and immediate elimination of DBPs are not ubiquitous across individuals as previously understood. Additionally, non-targeted metabolomics highlighted extended buildup of compounds tentatively associated with swimming in a chlorinated pool environment that may indicate airway responses to DBP exposure.

9.
Mar Drugs ; 17(12)2019 Nov 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31795126

RESUMO

KTM is a 16 amino acid peptide with the sequence WCCSYPGCYWSSSKWC. Here, we present the nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) structure and bioactivity of this rationally designed α-conotoxin (α-CTx) that demonstrates potent inhibition of rat α3ß2-nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (rα3ß2-nAChRs). Two bioassays were used to test the efficacy of KTM. First, a qualitative PC12 cell-based assay confirmed that KTM acts as a nAChR antagonist. Second, bioactivity evaluation by two-electrode voltage clamp electrophysiology was used to measure the inhibition of rα3ß2-nAChRs by KTM (IC50 = 0.19 ± 0.02 nM), and inhibition of the same nAChR isoform by α-CTx MII (IC50 = 0.35 ± 0.8 nM). The three-dimensional structure of KTM was determined by NMR spectroscopy, and the final set of 20 structures derived from 32 distance restraints, four dihedral angle constraints, and two disulfide bond constraints overlapped with a mean global backbone root-mean-square deviation (RMSD) of 1.7 ± 0.5 Å. The structure of KTM did not adopt the disulfide fold of α-CTx MII for which it was designed, but instead adopted a flexible ribbon backbone and disulfide connectivity of C2-C16 and C3-C8 with an estimated 12.5% α-helical content. In contrast, α-CTx MII, which has a native fold of C2-C8 and C3-C16, has an estimated 38.1% α-helical secondary structure. KTM is the first reported instance of a Framework I (CC-C-C) α-CTx with ribbon connectivity to display sub-nanomolar inhibitory potency of rα3ß2-nAChR subtypes.

10.
Toxins (Basel) ; 11(12)2019 Nov 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31757080

RESUMO

A pheochromocytoma of the rat adrenal medulla derived (a.k.a. PC12) cell-based assay for dopamine measurement by luminescence detection was customized for the qualitative evaluation of agonists and antagonists of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs). The assay mechanism begins with ligand binding to transmembrane nAChRs, altering ion flow into the cell and inducing dopamine release from the cell. Following release, dopamine is oxidized by monoamine oxidase generating hydrogen peroxide that catalyzes a chemiluminescence reaction involving luminol and horseradish peroxidase, thus producing a detectable response. Results are presented for the action of nAChR agonists (acetylcholine, nicotine, and cytisine), and antagonists (α-conotoxins (α-CTxs) MII, ImI, LvIA, and PeIA) that demonstrate a luminescence response correlating to the increase or decrease of dopamine release. A survey of cell growth and treatment conditions, including nerve growth factor, nicotine, ethanol, and temperature, led to optimal assay requirements to achieve maximal signal intensity and consistent response to ligand treatment. It was determined that PC12 cells treated with a combination of nerve growth factor and nicotine, and incubated at 37 °C, provided favorable results for a reduction in luminescence signal upon treatment of cells with α-CTxs. The PC12 assay is intended for use as a fast, efficient, and economic qualitative method to assess the bioactivity of molecules that act on nAChRs, in which testing of ligand-nAChR binding hypotheses and computational predictions can be validated. As a screening method for nAChR bioactivity, lead compounds can be assessed for their likelihood of exhibiting desired bioactivity prior to being subjected to more complex quantitative methods, such as electrophysiology or live animal studies.

11.
BMC Microbiol ; 19(1): 223, 2019 Oct 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31606034

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Our recent '-omics' comparisons of Streptococcus mutans wild-type and lrgAB-mutant revealed that this organism undergoes dynamic cellular changes in the face of multiple exogenous stresses, consequently affecting its comprehensive virulence traits. In this current study, we further demonstrate that LrgAB functions as a S. mutans pyruvate uptake system. RESULTS: S. mutans excretes pyruvate during growth as an overflow metabolite, and appears to uptake this excreted pyruvate via LrgAB once the primary carbon source is exhausted. This utilization of excreted pyruvate was tightly regulated by glucose levels and stationary growth phase lrgAB induction. The degree of lrgAB induction was reduced by high extracellular levels of pyruvate, suggesting that lrgAB induction is subject to negative feedback regulation, likely through the LytST TCS, which is required for expression of lrgAB. Stationary phase lrgAB induction was efficiently inhibited by low concentrations of 3FP, a toxic pyruvate analogue, without affecting cell growth, suggesting that accumulated pyruvate is sensed either directly or indirectly by LytS, subsequently triggering lrgAB expression. S. mutans growth was inhibited by high concentrations of 3FP, implying that pyruvate uptake is necessary for S. mutans exponential phase growth and occurs in a Lrg-independent manner. Finally, we found that stationary phase lrgAB induction is modulated by hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and by co-cultivation with H2O2-producing S. gordonii. CONCLUSIONS: Pyruvate may provide S. mutans with an alternative carbon source under limited growth conditions, as well as serving as a buffer against exogenous oxidative stress. Given the hypothesized role of LrgAB in cell death and lysis, these data also provide an important basis for how these processes are functionally and mechanically connected to key metabolic pathways such as pyruvate metabolism.

12.
Microbiologyopen ; 8(12): e934, 2019 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31599128

RESUMO

Streptococcus mutans is a key pathogenic bacterium in the oral cavity and a primary contributor to dental caries. The S. mutans Cid/Lrg system likely contributes to tolerating stresses encountered in this environment as cid and/or lrg mutants exhibit altered oxidative stress sensitivity, genetic competence, and biofilm phenotypes. It was recently noted that the cidB mutant had two stable colony morphologies: a "rough" phenotype (similar to wild type) and a "smooth" phenotype. In our previously published work, the cidB rough mutant exhibited increased sensitivity to oxidative stress, and RNAseq identified widespread transcriptomic changes in central carbon metabolism and oxidative stress response genes. In this current report, we conducted Illumina-based genome resequencing of wild type, cidB rough, and cidB smooth mutants and compared their resistance to oxidative and acid stress, biofilm formation, and competence phenotypes. Both cidB mutants exhibited comparable aerobic growth inhibition on agar plates, during planktonic growth, and in the presence of 1 mM hydrogen peroxide. The cidB smooth mutant displayed a significant competence defect in BHI, which was rescuable by synthetic CSP. Both cidB mutants also displayed reduced XIP-mediated competence, although this reduction was more pronounced in the cidB smooth mutant. Anaerobic biofilms of the cidB smooth mutant displayed increased propidium iodide staining, but corresponding biofilm CFU data suggest this phenotype is due to cell damage and not increased cell death. The cidB rough anaerobic biofilms showed altered structure relative to wild type (reduced biomass and average thickness) which correlated with decreased CFU counts. Sequencing data revealed that the cidB smooth mutant has a unique "loss of read coverage" of ~78 kb of DNA, corresponding to the genomic island TnSMU2 and genes flanking its 3' end. It is therefore likely that the unique biofilm and competence phenotypes of the cidB smooth mutant are related to its genomic changes in this region.

13.
R Soc Open Sci ; 6(8): 191249, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31543978

RESUMO

[This corrects the article DOI: 10.1098/rsos.190194.].

14.
Fitoterapia ; 137: 104281, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31381957

RESUMO

Veratrum californicum is a rich source of steroidal alkaloids, many of which have proven to be antagonists of the Hedgehog (Hh) signaling pathway that becomes aberrant in over twenty types of cancer. These alkaloids first became known in the 1950's due to their teratogenic properties, which resulted in newborn and fetal lambs developing cyclopia as a result of pregnant ewes consuming Veratrum californicum. It was discovered that the alkaloids in V. californicum were concentrated in the root and rhizome of the plant with much lower amounts of the most active alkaloid, cyclopamine, present in the aerial plant, especially in the late growth season. Inspired by the limitations in analytical instrumentation and methods available to researchers at the time of the original investigation, we have used state-of-the-art instrumentation and modern analytical methods to quantitate four steroidal alkaloids based on study parameters including plant part, harvest location, and growth stage. The results of the current inquiry detail differences in alkaloid composition based on the study parameters, provide a detailed assessment for alkaloids that have been characterized previously (cyclopamine, veratramine, muldamine and isorubijervine), and identify at least six alkaloids that have not been previously characterized. This study provides insight into optimal harvest time, plant growth stage, harvest location, and plant part required to isolate, yet to be characterized, alkaloids of interest for exploration as Hh pathway antagonists with desirable medicinal properties.


Assuntos
Alcaloides/química , Esteroides/química , Veratrum/química , Alcaloides/isolamento & purificação , Proteínas Hedgehog/antagonistas & inibidores , Idaho , Estrutura Molecular , Compostos Fitoquímicos/química , Compostos Fitoquímicos/isolamento & purificação , Componentes Aéreos da Planta/química , Rizoma/química , Estações do Ano , Esteroides/isolamento & purificação , Alcaloides de Veratrum
15.
R Soc Open Sci ; 6(7): 190194, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31417725

RESUMO

Assessing scientists using exploitable metrics can lead to the degradation of research methods even without any strategic behaviour on the part of individuals, via 'the natural selection of bad science.' Institutional incentives to maximize metrics like publication quantity and impact drive this dynamic. Removing these incentives is necessary, but institutional change is slow. However, recent developments suggest possible solutions with more rapid onsets. These include what we call open science improvements, which can reduce publication bias and improve the efficacy of peer review. In addition, there have been increasing calls for funders to move away from prestige- or innovation-based approaches in favour of lotteries. We investigated whether such changes are likely to improve the reproducibility of science even in the presence of persistent incentives for publication quantity through computational modelling. We found that modified lotteries, which allocate funding randomly among proposals that pass a threshold for methodological rigour, effectively reduce the rate of false discoveries, particularly when paired with open science improvements that increase the publication of negative results and improve the quality of peer review. In the absence of funding that targets rigour, open science improvements can still reduce false discoveries in the published literature but are less likely to improve the overall culture of research practices that underlie those publications.

16.
Nat Protoc ; 14(9): 2707-2747, 2019 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31451784

RESUMO

Nitrogen-vacancy (NV) quantum defects in diamond are sensitive detectors of magnetic fields. Owing to their atomic size and optical readout capability, they have been used for magnetic resonance spectroscopy of nanoscale samples on diamond surfaces. Here, we present a protocol for fabricating NV diamond chips and for constructing and operating a simple, low-cost 'quantum diamond spectrometer' for performing NMR and electron spin resonance (ESR) spectroscopy in nanoscale volumes. The instrument is based on a commercially available diamond chip, into which an NV ensemble is ion-implanted at a depth of ~10 nm below the diamond surface. The spectrometer operates at low magnetic fields (~300 G) and requires standard optical and microwave (MW) components for NV spin preparation, manipulation, and readout. We demonstrate the utility of this device for nanoscale proton and fluorine NMR spectroscopy, as well as for the detection of transition metals via relaxometry. We estimate that the full protocol requires 2-3 months to implement, depending on the availability of equipment, diamond substrates, and user experience.


Assuntos
Diamante/química , Espectroscopia de Ressonância de Spin Eletrônica/instrumentação , Espectroscopia de Ressonância Magnética/instrumentação , Nanotecnologia/instrumentação , Espectroscopia de Ressonância de Spin Eletrônica/métodos , Espectroscopia de Ressonância Magnética/métodos , Nanopartículas/química , Processamento de Sinais Assistido por Computador
17.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 116(31): 15362-15367, 2019 Jul 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31315977

RESUMO

Collective motion is found in various animal systems, active suspensions, and robotic or virtual agents. This is often understood by using high-level models that directly encode selected empirical features, such as coalignment and cohesion. Can these features be shown to emerge from an underlying, low-level principle? We find that they emerge naturally under future state maximization (FSM). Here, agents perceive a visual representation of the world around them, such as might be recorded on a simple retina, and then move to maximize the number of different visual environments that they expect to be able to access in the future. Such a control principle may confer evolutionary fitness in an uncertain world by enabling agents to deal with a wide variety of future scenarios. The collective dynamics that spontaneously emerge under FSM resemble animal systems in several qualitative aspects, including cohesion, coalignment, and collision suppression, none of which are explicitly encoded in the model. A multilayered neural network trained on simulated trajectories is shown to represent a heuristic mimicking FSM. Similar levels of reasoning would seem to be accessible under animal cognition, demonstrating a possible route to the emergence of collective motion in social animals directly from the control principle underlying FSM. Such models may also be good candidates for encoding into possible future realizations of artificial "intelligent" matter, able to sense light, process information, and move.

19.
Immunohorizons ; 3(7): 306-316, 2019 07 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31356160

RESUMO

Autoantibodies can result from excessive T follicular helper (Tfh) cell activity, whereas T follicular regulatory (Tfr) cells negatively regulate autoantibody production. IL-2 knockout (KO) mice on the BALB/c background have elevated Tfh responses, produce autoantibodies, and develop lethal autoimmunity. We analyzed Tfh and Tfr cells in IL-2 KO mice on the C57BL/6 (B6) genetic background. In B6 IL-2 KO mice, the spontaneous formation of Tfh cells and germinal center B cells was greatly enhanced, along with production of anti-DNA autoantibodies. IL-2 has been reported to repress Tfr cell differentiation; however, Tfr cells were not increased over wild-type levels in the B6 IL-2 KO mice. To assess Tfh and Tfr cell regulation of autoantibody production in IL-2 KO mice, we generated IL-2 KO mice with a T cell-specific deletion of the master Tfh cell transcription factor Bcl6. In IL-2 KO Bcl6 conditional KO (2KO-Bcl6TC) mice, Tfh cells, Tfr cells, and germinal center B cells were ablated. In contrast to expectations, autoantibody IgG titers in 2KO-Bcl6TC mice were significantly elevated over autoantibody IgG titers in IL-2 KO mice. Specific deletion of Tfr cells with Foxp3-cre Bcl6-flox alleles in IL-2 KO mice led to early lethality, before high levels of autoantibodies could develop. We found IL-2+/+ Tfr cell-deficient mice produce significant levels of autoantibodies. Our overall findings provide evidence that Tfh cells are dispensable for high-level production of autoantibodies and also reveal a complex interplay between Tfh and Tfr cells in autoantibody production and autoimmune disease.


Assuntos
Autoanticorpos/biossíntese , Autoimunidade/imunologia , Técnicas de Inativação de Genes , Interleucina-2/genética , Linfócitos T Auxiliares-Indutores/imunologia , Linfócitos T Reguladores/imunologia , Animais , Diferenciação Celular , Interleucina-2/metabolismo , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Camundongos Knockout , Modelos Animais , Fator 88 de Diferenciação Mieloide/genética , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-bcl-6/genética , Linfócitos T Auxiliares-Indutores/metabolismo , Linfócitos T Reguladores/metabolismo
20.
J Breath Res ; 13(4): 046013, 2019 09 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31342933

RESUMO

Compact mass spectrometry (CMS) is a versatile and transportable analytical instrument that has the potential to be used in clinical settings to quickly and non-invasively detect a wide range of relevant conditions from breath samples. The purpose of this study is to optimise data preprocessing protocols by three proposed methods of breath sampling, using the CMS. It also lays out a general framework for which data processing methods can be evaluated. METHODS: This paper considers data from three previous studies, each using a different breath sampling method. These include a peppermint washout study using continuous breath sampling with a purified air source, an exercise study using continuous breath sampling with an ambient air source, and a single breath sampling study with an ambient air source. For each dataset, different breath selection (data preprocessing) methods were compared and benchmarked according to predictive performance on a validation set and quantitative reliability of m/z bin intensity measurements. RESULTS: For both continuous methods, the best breath selection method improved the predictive model compared to no preselection, as measured by the 95% CI range for Youden's index, from 0.68-0.86 to 0.86-0.97 for the exercise study and 0.69-0.82 to 1.00-1.00 for the peppermint study. The reliability of intensity measurements for both datasets (as measured by median relative standard deviation (RSD)), was improved slightly by the best selection method compared to no preselection, from 18% to 14% for the exercise study and 7%-5% for the peppermint study. For the single breath samples, all the models resulted in perfect prediction, with a 95% CI range for Youden's index of 1.00-1.00. The reliability of the proposed method was 38%. CONCLUSION: The method of selecting exhaled breath from CMS data can affect the reliability of the measurement and the ability to distinguish between breath samples taken under different conditions. The application of appropriate data processing methods can improve the quality of the data and results obtained from CMS. The methods presented will enable untargeted analysis of breath VOCs using CMS to be performed.

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