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1.
PLoS One ; 15(2): e0229335, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32084208

RESUMO

Acclimation resulting from low- to moderate-intensity physical exertion in the heat induces several thermoregulatory adaptations, including slower exercise-induced increases in core body temperature. However, few studies have investigated the thermoregulatory adaptations induced by high-intensity interval training (HIIT) protocols. Thus, the present study aimed to compare the adaptations in rats' thermoregulatory parameters and aerobic performance observed after two different heat acclimation regimens consisting of HIIT protocols performed in a hot environment. Twenty-three adult male Wistar rats were initially subjected to an incremental-speed exercise at 32°C until they were fatigued and then randomly assigned to one of the following three heat acclimation strategies: passive heat exposure without any exercise (untrained controls-UN; n = 7), HIIT performed at the maximal aerobic speed (HIIT100%; n = 8) and HIIT performed at a high but submaximal speed (HIIT85%; n = 8). Following the two weeks of interventions, the rats were again subjected to a fatiguing incremental exercise at 32°C, while their colonic temperature (TCOL) was recorded. The workload performed by the rats and their thermoregulatory efficiency were calculated. After the intervention period, rats subjected to both HIIT protocols attained greater workloads (HIIT100%: 313.7 ± 21.9 J vs. HIIT85%: 318.1 ± 32.6 J vs. UN: 250.8 ± 32.4 J; p < 0.01) and presented a lower ratio between the change in TCOL and the distance travelled (HIIT100%: 4.95 ± 0.42°C/km vs. HIIT85%: 4.33 ± 0.59°C/km vs. UN: 6.14 ± 1.03°C/km; p < 0.001) when compared to UN rats. The latter finding indicates better thermoregulatory efficiency in trained animals. No differences were observed between rats subjected to the two HIIT regimens. In conclusion, the two HIIT protocols induce greater thermoregulatory adaptations and performance improvements than passive heat exposure. These adaptations do not differ between the two training protocols investigated in the present study.

2.
J Strength Cond Res ; 2019 Nov 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31800474

RESUMO

Turnes, T, Silva, BA, Kons, RL, and Detanico, D. Is bilateral deficit in handgrip strength associated with performance in specific judo tasks? J Strength Cond Res XX(X): 000-000, 2019-The aim of this study was to identify the existence of bilateral deficit (BD) on maximal handgrip strength during standing and seated positions in judo athletes and to correlate this with judo-specific tasks. Nineteen male judo athletes (age 22.1 ± 4.6 years) performed unilateral and bilateral handgrip strength tests in seated and standing postures to calculate bilateral index (BI). Athletes then performed the Judogi Grip Strength Test (dynamic and isometric modes) and Special Judo Fitness Test. The comparisons between bilateral and unilateral handgrip strength for each position, weight categories, or training experience (novice <10 years and advanced >10 years) were made by paired and unpaired t-tests. The sum of bilateral forces was significantly lower than unilateral forces at standing (unilateral: 105 ± 20 vs. bilateral: 102 ± 21 kgf, BI: -3.0 ± 5.9%, p = 0.043), but not at seated position (unilateral: 100 ± 19 vs. bilateral: 98 ± 19 kgf, BI: -2.1 ± 7.3%, p = 0.230), indicating BD only at standing position. Pearson coefficient correlations were not significant between judo tests and BI, with similar performance in judo tests between athletes with BD and bilateral facilitation (p > 0.05). Significant BD was observed at standing position in advanced (-4.5 ± 7.1%, p = 0.049) but not in novice athletes (-0.9 ± 3.8%, p = 0.592). We concluded that BI in maximal handgrip strength test was not related with judo-specific tests. However, the BD occurred only at standing position, suggesting that postural stability may contribute for this phenomenon.

3.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31663313

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: This study aimed to identify the relationship between the mean power output of 2000-m rowing ergometer performance with the peak power output obtained during an incremental test, in addition to verifying the possibility of using the 2000-m mean power as an intensity associated with V̇O2max. METHODS: Nineteen rowers (age 25.5 ± 10.6 years; V̇O2PEAK: 65.4 ± 5.8 mL.kg.min-1) completed an incremental test followed by a 2000-m familiarization test (day 1) and a 2000- m rowing ergometer test (day 2). During the incremental test, the peak power output (PV̇O2PEAK) and the exercise intensity thresholds were determined. The maximal oxygen uptake (V̇O2PEAK) was analyzed in both tests. RESULTS: The PV̇O2PEAK (284.8 ± 44.7 W) presented the highest correlation coefficient (r = 0.978) with 2000-m mean power (284.2 ± 49.9 W) and was the only one included in stepwise regression explaining 96% of 2000-m mean power. V̇O2PEAK was lower in the incremental test (4.69 ± 0.61 L.min-1) compared with the 2000-m rowing ergometer test (4.86 ± 0.63 L.min-1; P = 0.01) with a small bias ± LoA (0.16 ± 0.53 L.min-1). CONCLUSIONS: In conclusion, 2000-m mean power is a valid tool to estimate the PV̇O2PEAK and allow the achievement of V̇O2PEAK. Furthermore, the PV̇O2PEAK was the most important predictor of performance.

4.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31491339

RESUMO

The present study aimed to compare maximal oxygen uptake (V̇O2max) of a step incremental test with time to exhaustion verification tests (TLIM) performed on the same or different day. Nineteen recreationally trained cyclists (age: 23 ± 2.7 years; V̇O2max: 48.0 ± 5.8 ml.kg.min-1) performed three maximal tests, as follows: 1) Same-day: An incremental test with 3-min stages followed by a TLIM at 100% of peak power output of the incremental test (TLIM-SAME) interspaced by 15-min, and 2) Different-day: A TLIM at 100% of peak power output of the incremental test (TLIM-DIFF). The V̇O2max was determined for the three tests. The V̇O2max was not different among the tests (Incremental: 3.83 ± 0.41; TLIM-SAME: 3.72 ± 0.42; TLIM-DIFF: 3.75 ± 0.41 L.min-1; P = 0.951). Seven subjects presented a variability greater than ± 3% in both verification tests compared to the incremental. The same-day verification test decreased the exercise tolerance (240 ± 38 vs. 310 ± 36 s) compared to TLIM-DIFF (P < 0.05). In conclusion, the incremental protocol is capable of measuring VO2max because similar values were observed in comparison with verification tests. Although the need for the verification phase is questionable, the additional tests are useful to evaluate individual variability. • Step incremental test is capable of measuring V̇O2max with similar values during TLIM on the same or different day. • Although the necessity of the verification phase is questionable, it can allow the determination of variability in V̇O2max.

5.
J Electromyogr Kinesiol ; 48: 37-43, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31226630

RESUMO

Intermittent blood flow restriction to local or remote vascular beds induces endogenous protection against ischemia-reperfusion injury in several tissues and organs. When applied non-invasively by placing occlusion cuffs on the limbs, this ischemic conditioning has been shown to elicit an acute ergogenic response. However, the underlying mechanisms behind this phenomenon remain unknown. Prior research suggest that ischemic conditioning may operate via improved motor discharges from the central nervous system, thus enhancing the electrochemical activation and force generation of agonist muscles. Here we show that, for healthy individuals performing maximal voluntary contractions of the plantar flexors, the acute benefit elicited by ischemic conditioning on maximal isometric ankle torque production is largely explained by parallel gains in the surface myoelectrical activity of the triceps surae. However, the magnitude of this response appears to vary between individuals. These findings indicate that enhanced levels of agonist activity contribute to the ergogenic effect of ischemic conditioning during maximal efforts, thereby enabling more direct assessments of neural output following the procedure.


Assuntos
Articulação do Tornozelo/fisiologia , Pé/fisiologia , Precondicionamento Isquêmico , Contração Isométrica , Músculo Esquelético/fisiologia , Adulto , Tornozelo/fisiologia , Estudos Cross-Over , Eletromiografia , Humanos , Masculino , Dinamômetro de Força Muscular , Processamento de Sinais Assistido por Computador , Estresse Mecânico , Torque
6.
Contemp Clin Trials Commun ; 15: 100358, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31049461

RESUMO

The literature discusses that combined training, aerobic more resistance exercises in the same session, is a suitable strategy for people with obesity and that exercise periodization leads to positive health outcomes; however, the implication of different periodizations of combined training for health outcomes in obese adults requires further investigation. The aim of the study will be to describe the methodology used to compare the effect of linear periodized and non-periodized combined training on health markers and health-related physical fitness in adults with obesity. This is a blinded randomized controlled clinical trial investigating adults with obesity in the age group 20-50 years. The sample will be non-probabilistic, and participants will be allocated randomly into one of three groups: control group (CG), non-periodized group (NG), and periodized group (PG). The intervention will occur in 60-min sessions, 3 days a week for 16 weeks, with 1 week dedicated to familiarization with the training and 15 weeks of combined training (aerobic followed by resistance in the same session). The PG group will perform three mesocycles of 5 weeks each, progressing in intensity throughout the intervention [aerobic: from 40-49% to 60-69% of heart rate reserve (HRR); strength: from 12 to 14 maximum repetitions (MR) to 8 to 10MR]; the NG group will maintain the same relative intensity throughout the study (aerobic: 50-59% of HRR; strength: 2 sets of 10-12 MR). Participants in the CG group will maintain their usual activities without the proposed intervention. Pre- and post-intervention assessments will be performed for biochemical markers, body composition, cardiovascular parameters, cardiorespiratory fitness, maximum upper and lower limb strength, flexibility, and subjective health-related parameters. This project was approved by the Committee of Ethics and Research with Human Beings of the institution of origin (protocol 2,448,674) and registered in the Brazilian Registry of Clinical Trials (RBR-3c7rt3).

7.
Int J Sports Physiol Perform ; 14(7): 871-879, 2019 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31034295

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The 2000-m rowing-ergometer test is the most common measure of rowing performance. Because athletes use different intervention strategies for enhancing performance, investigating the effect of preconditioning strategies on the 2000-m test is of great relevance. This study evaluated the effects of different preconditioning strategies on 2000-m rowing-ergometer performance in trained rowers. METHODS: A search of electronic databases (PubMed, Google Scholar, and Web of Science) identified 27 effects of different preconditioning strategies from 17 studies. Outcomes were calculated as percentage differences between control and experimental interventions, and data were presented as mean ± 90% confidence interval. Performance data were converted to the same metrics, that is, mean power. Meta-regression analyses were conducted to assess whether performance level or caffeine dose could affect the percentage change. RESULTS: The overall beneficial effect on 2000-m mean power was 2.1% (90% confidence limit [CL] ±0.6%). Training status affected the percentage change with interventions, with a -1.1% (90% CL ±1.2%) possible small decrease for 1.0-W·kg-1 increment in performance baseline. Caffeine consumption most likely improves performance, with superior effect in higher doses (≥6 mg·kg-1). Sodium bicarbonate and beta-alanine consumption resulted in likely (2.6% [90% CL ±1.5%]) and very likely (1.4% [90% CL ±1.2%]) performance improvements, respectively. However, some preconditioning strategies such as heat acclimation, rehydration, and creatine resulted in small to moderate enhancements in 2000-m performance. CONCLUSIONS: Supplementation of caffeine and beta-alanine is a popular and effective strategy to improve 2000-m ergometer performance in trained rowers. Additional research is warranted to confirm the benefit of other strategies to 2000-m rowing-ergometer performance.


Assuntos
Desempenho Atlético/fisiologia , Substâncias para Melhoria do Desempenho/administração & dosagem , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Esportiva , Esportes Aquáticos/fisiologia , Atletas , Cafeína/administração & dosagem , Suplementos Nutricionais , Ergometria , Humanos , Bicarbonato de Sódio/administração & dosagem , beta-Alanina/administração & dosagem
8.
Int J Sports Physiol Perform ; 14(8): 1103-1109, 2019 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30702376

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To compare the intensity and physiological responses of deoxygenated hemoglobin breaking point ([HHb]BP) and anaerobic threshold (AnT) during an incremental test and to verify their association with 2000-m rowing-ergometer performance in well-trained rowers. METHODS: A total of 13 male rowers (mean [SD] age = 24 [11] y and V˙O2peak = 63.7 [6.1] mL·kg-1·min-1) performed a step incremental test. Gas exchange, vastus lateralis [HHb], and blood lactate concentration were measured. Power output, V˙O2, and heart rate of [HHb]BP and AnT were determined and compared with each other. A 2000-m test was performed in another visit. RESULTS: No differences were found between [HHb]BP and AnT in the power output (236 [31] vs 234 [31] W; Δ = 0.7%), 95% confidence interval [CI] 6.7%), V˙O2 (4.2 [0.5] vs 4.3 [0.4] L·min-1; Δ = -0.8%, 95% CI 4.0%), or heart rate (180 [16] vs 182 [12] beats·min-1; Δ = -1.6%, 95% CI 2.1%); however, there was high typical error of estimate (TEE) and wide 95% limits of agreement (LoA) for power output (TEE 10.7%, LoA 54.1-50.6 W), V˙O2 (TEE 5.9%, LoA -0.57 to 0.63 L·min-1), and heart rate (TEE 2.4%, LoA -9.6 to 14.7 beats·min-1). Significant correlations were observed between [HHb]BP (r = .70) and AnT (r = .89) with 2000-m mean power. CONCLUSIONS: These results demonstrate a breaking point in [HHb] of the vastus lateralis muscle during the incremental test that is capable of distinguishing rowers with different performance levels. However, the high random error would compromise the use of [HHb]BP for training and testing in rowing.


Assuntos
Limiar Anaeróbio , Desempenho Atlético/fisiologia , Hemoglobinas/análise , Esportes Aquáticos/fisiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Atletas , Ergometria , Frequência Cardíaca , Humanos , Ácido Láctico/sangue , Masculino , Consumo de Oxigênio , Músculo Quadríceps/fisiologia , Adulto Jovem
9.
Res Q Exerc Sport ; 90(1): 3-13, 2019 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30653425

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Metabolic perturbation and V˙O2 on-kinetics are potential modifiers of fatigue and vary in importance depending on the exercise task. Thus, performance fatigability during high-intensity exercise seems to be exercise mode dependent, affecting tolerance in the severe domain. However, the effects of exercise mode on severe domain amplitude are still unknown. The aims of this study were to compare the severe domain amplitude in endurance runners and cyclists and to verify its possible determinants. METHODS: Ten runners and eleven cyclists were tested to determine V˙O2 max, maximal velocity/power output of incremental test (v V˙O2 max/p V˙O2 max), critical velocity/power (CV/CP), distance/work above CV/CP (D'/W'), and the highest velocity/power output which V˙O2 max is attained during constant exercise (VHIGH/PHIGH). The severe domain amplitude was considered as VHIGH/PHIGH relative to CV/CP. RESULTS: When normalized by v V˙O2 max/p V˙O2 max, although VHIGH and PHIGH were similar, CV (89.0 ± 2.2% v V˙O2 max) was higher than CP (84.0 ± 4.1% p V˙O2 max; p < .05; ES = 1.51). Consequently, the severe domain amplitude was higher in cyclists (153.6 ± 14.4% CP vs. 137.2 ± 14.6% CV; p < .05; ES = 1.13). Runners presented faster V˙O2 on-kinetics than cyclists at VHIGH/PHIGH. The severe domain amplitude was correlated with D' (r = .65) and W' (r = .71), but not with V˙O2 on-kinetics. CONCLUSIONS: Cyclists have a lower CP (%p V˙O2 max) and a greater severe domain amplitude than runners, providing a greater range of intensities for attainment of V˙O2 max. Furthermore, the severe domain amplitude appears to be linked to finite energy reserves, but unrelated to V˙O2 on-kinetics.


Assuntos
Ciclismo/fisiologia , Fadiga/fisiopatologia , Resistência Física/fisiologia , Corrida/fisiologia , Adulto , Teste de Esforço , Treinamento Intervalado de Alta Intensidade , Humanos , Cinética , Masculino , Consumo de Oxigênio , Troca Gasosa Pulmonar , Adulto Jovem
10.
J Strength Cond Res ; 33(2): 408-416, 2019 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28704307

RESUMO

Lisbôa, FD, Raimundo, JAG, Salvador, AF, Pereira, KL, Turnes, T, Diefenthaeler, F, Oliveira, MFMd, and Caputo, F. Acute cardiopulmonary, metabolic, and neuromuscular responses to severe-intensity intermittent exercises. J Strength Cond Res 33(2): 408-416, 2019-The purpose of this study was to compare cardiopulmonary, neuromuscular, and metabolic responses to severe-intensity intermittent exercises with variable or constant work rate (CWR). Eleven cyclists (28 ± 5 years; 74 ± 7 kg; 175 ± 5 cm; 63 ± 4 ml·kg·min) performed the following tests until exhaustion on separate days: (a) an incremental test; (b) in random order, 2 CWR tests at 95 and 110% of the peak power for the determination of critical power (CP); (c) 2-4 tests for the determination of the highest power that still permits the achievement of maximal oxygen uptake (PHIGH); and (d) 2 random severe-intensity intermittent exercises. The last 2 sessions consisted of a CWR exercise performed at PHIGH or a decreasing work rate (DWR) exercise from PHIGH until 105% of CP. Compared with CWR, DWR presented higher time to exhaustion (635 ± 223 vs. 274 ± 65 seconds), time spent above 95% of V[Combining Dot Above]O2max (t95% V[Combining Dot Above]O2max) (323 ± 227 vs. 98 ± 65 seconds), and O2 consumed (0.97 ± 0.41 vs. 0.41 ± 0.11 L). Electromyography amplitude (root mean square [RMS]) decreased for DWR but increased for CWR during each repetition. However, RMS and V[Combining Dot Above]O2 divided by power output (RMS/PO and V[Combining Dot Above]O2/PO ratio) increased in every repetition for both protocols, but to a higher extent and slope for DWR. These findings suggest that the higher RMS/PO and V[Combining Dot Above]O2/PO ratio in association with the longer exercise duration seemed to have been responsible for the higher t95% V[Combining Dot Above]O2max observed during severe DWR exercise.


Assuntos
Ciclismo/fisiologia , Fadiga/fisiopatologia , Treinamento Intervalado de Alta Intensidade/métodos , Consumo de Oxigênio/fisiologia , Adulto , Eletromiografia , Feminino , Frequência Cardíaca/fisiologia , Humanos , Ácido Láctico/sangue , Masculino , Taxa Respiratória/fisiologia , Fatores de Tempo , Adulto Jovem
12.
Eur J Appl Physiol ; 118(8): 1599-1607, 2018 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29796856

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Although ischaemic preconditioning (IPC), induced by cycles of transient limb ischaemia and reperfusion, seems to improve exercise performance, the optimal duration of ischaemia-reperfusion cycles is not established. The present study investigated the effect of ischaemia-reperfusion duration within each IPC cycle on performance in a 2000-m rowing ergometer test. METHODS: After incremental and familiarization tests, 16 trained rowers (mean ± SD: age, 24 ± 11 years; weight, 74.1 ± 5.9 kg; [Formula: see text] peak, 67.2 ± 7.4 mL·kg-1·min-1) were randomly submitted to a 2000-m rowing test preceded by intermittent bilateral cuff inflation of the lower limbs with three cycles of ischaemia-reperfusion, lasting 5 min (IPC-5) or 10 min (IPC-10) at 220 or 20 mmHg (control). Power output, [Formula: see text], heart rate, blood lactate concentration, pH, ratings of perceived exertion (RPE), and near-infrared spectroscopy-derived measurements of the vastus lateralis muscle were continuously recorded. RESULTS: No differences among treatments were found in the 2000-m test (control: 424 ± 17; IPC-5: 425 ± 16; IPC-10: 424 ± 17 s; P = 0.772). IPC-10 reduced the tissue saturation index and oxy-haemoglobin concentration during exercise compared with control. The power output during the last 100-m segment was significantly lower with IPC-10. The IPC treatments increased the heart rate over the first 500 m and decreased the pH after exercise. No alterations were observed in [Formula: see text], blood lactate, or RPE among the trials. CONCLUSION: In conclusion, IPC does not improve the 2000-m rowing ergometer performance of trained athletes regardless of the length of ischaemia-reperfusion cycles.


Assuntos
Tolerância ao Exercício , Precondicionamento Isquêmico/métodos , Traumatismo por Reperfusão/fisiopatologia , Esportes Aquáticos/fisiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Teste de Esforço , Hemodinâmica , Humanos , Masculino , Músculo Esquelético/irrigação sanguínea , Músculo Esquelético/fisiologia , Consumo de Oxigênio , Distribuição Aleatória , Traumatismo por Reperfusão/prevenção & controle
13.
Rev. bras. cineantropom. desempenho hum ; 20(2): 201-210, Mar.-Apr. 2018. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: biblio-958349

RESUMO

Abstract The aims of the present study were to assess the reliability of long sprint cycling performance in a group of recreationally trained cyclists and to provide thresholds for changes in performance for this particular group of subjects in repeated measures designs through a scale of magnitudes. Repeatability of mean power output during a 1-min cycling time trial was assessed in a group of 15 recreationally trained cyclists (26 ± 5, years, 176 ± 5 cm, 78 ± 8 kg). They were tested on separate days, approximately one week apart. The test and retest values for the whole group of cyclists were 7.0 ± 0.5 W/kg and 6.9 ± 0.6 W/kg (systematic change and 90% confidence limits of -1.0% ± 1.1%). Our results indicated good test-retest reproducibility (typical error of 1.8%, 90% confidence limits of 1.4% to 2.6%; intraclass correlation coefficient of 0.96, confidence limits of 0.91 to 0.99), but suggested a reduction of mean power for the "slower" subjects on retest (-2.0%, 90% confidence limits of ±1.8%). If not monitored, this systematic decrease could interfere in results of studies utilizing groups with similar performance levels, particularly investigating strategies to improve performance in sprint cycling exercises around 1 min. The thresholds for moderate, large, very large and extremely large effects for mean power output on long sprint cycling performance are about 0.4%, 1.3%, 2.3%, 3.6%, and 5.8%, respectively.


Resumo Os objetivos do presente estudo foram avaliar a confiabilidade do desempenho de sprint longo no ciclismo em um grupo de ciclistas recreacionais e fornecer limiares para mudanças no desempenho para este grupo de sujeitos em delineamentos de medidas repetidas, através de uma escala de magnitudes. A reprodutibilidade da potência média durante um contrarrelógio de 1-min foi avaliada em um grupo de 15 ciclistas recreativamente treinados (26 ± 5 anos, 176 ± 5 cm, 78 ± 8 kg). Eles foram avaliados em dias separados, com aproximadamente uma semana de intervalo. Os valores de teste-reteste no contrarrelógio de 1-min para o grupo inteiro foram 7,0 ± 0,5 W/kg and 6,9 ± 0,6 W/kg (mudança sistemática e limite de confiança de 90% de -1,0% ± 1,2%). Nossos resultados indicam boa reprodutibilidade teste-reteste (erro típico de 1,8%, limite de confiança de 90% de 1,4% para 2,6%; coeficiente de correlação intraclasse de 0,96, limite de confiança de 90% de 0,91 para 0,99), mas sugeriu uma redução da média de potência para os sujeitos "mais lentos" no reteste (-2,0%, limite de confiança de 90% de ±1,8%). Se não monitorada, esta queda sistemática na potência pode interferir nos resultados de estudos utilizando grupos com níveis similares de desempenho, particularmente investigando estratégias para melhorar o desempenho em sprints com duração próxima a 1 min. Os limiares para efeitos moderado, grande, muito grande e extremamente grande para média da potência em sprint longo no ciclismo são aproximadamente 0,4%, 1,3%, 2,3%, 3,6% e 5,8%, respectivamente.


Assuntos
Humanos , Adulto , Ciclismo , Desempenho Atlético/estatística & dados numéricos
14.
Rev. bras. ciênc. mov ; 25(4): 153-165, out.- dez.2017. ilus
Artigo em Português | LILACS | ID: biblio-882917

RESUMO

A relação entre desempenhos em diferentes distâncias com seus respectivos tempos fornece um válido, barato e prático índice de avaliação da capacidade aeróbia para natação. Este índice, conhecido como Velocidade Crítica, tem recebido muita atenção por pesquisadores, pois possibilita a substituição de outros indicadores de capacidade aeróbia que geralmente são caros ou demandam demasiado tempo do período de treinamento. No entanto, ainda não foi realizada uma compilação de estudos tratando da Velocidade Crítica com outros índices de capacidade aeróbia na natação. Assim, o objetivo desta revisão foi comparar a relação da Velocidade Crítica com outros índices de capacidade aeróbia comumente utilizados na natação como: Teste de 30 Minutos, Máximo Estado Estável de Lactato, Limiar Anaeróbio e Velocidade Aeróbia Máxima. Foi realizada uma busca bibliográfica nas bases de dados PubMed e SciELO, utilizando-se as seguintes palavras-chave: "Critical swimming speed", "critical swimming velocity" e "velocidade crítica and natação". Ao fim do processo de seleção foram incluídos 21 artigos para esta revisão. Foi observado que a relação da Velocidade Crítica com o Limiar Anaeróbio e o Teste de 30 Minutos é dependente da idade dos nadadores, requerendo cautela quando comparados. Também foi observado que a Velocidade Crítica superestima a intensidade do Máximo Estado Estável de Lactato e do Limiar Anaeróbio em nadadores adultos, indicando delimitar os domínios do exercício pesado e severo na natação. Contudo, a Velocidade Crítica pode ser influenciada pelas distâncias preditivas utilizadas para sua determinação, e assim, devem ser cuidadosamente selecionadas. Por fim, a Velocidade Crítica apresenta boa correlação com os principais índices aeróbios representando ser um bom parâmetro para avaliação da capacidade aeróbia em nadadores....(AU)


The relationship between distance covered and the time needed to cover it at maximal speed provide a valid, cheap and practice index to evaluate aerobic capacity in swimming. This index, known as Critical Swimming Speed, has received much attention for researchers, because it could replace other aerobic capacity indexes that usually are more expensive and demand more time of training. However, there is no compilation of studies involving Critical Swimming Speed and other aerobic capacity index on the literature. Hence, the purpose of this literature review was comparing the relationship between Critical Swimming Speed with others aerobic capacity indexes generally used in swimming as: 30-min Test, Maximal Lactate Steady State, Anaerobic Threshold and Maximal Aerobic Speed. The articles were surveyed on the scientific bases PubMed and SciELO using the following keywords: "Critical swimming speed", "critical swimming velocity" and "velocidade crítica and natação" (on Portuguese). At the end of the search process, 21 articles were included in the revision. It was observed that the relationship between Critical Swimming Speed with Anaerobic Threshold and 30-min Test is affected by the age of the swimmers, demanding caution when comparing these indexes. It was also observed that the Critical Swimming Speed overestimates the Maximal Lactate Steady State and Anaerobic Threshold in adult swimmers, which indicates a boundary between the heavy and severe intensity domains during swimming exercises. However, the predictive distances used for the Critical Swimming Speed determination may influence on its final value and, thus, they should be carefully selected. Lastly, Critical Swimming Speed shows a good correlation with major aerobic indexes and represents a good aerobic capacity parameter to evaluate swimmers....(AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Criança , Adolescente , Adulto , Atletas , Desempenho Atlético , Ácido Láctico , Consumo de Oxigênio , Educação Física e Treinamento , Natação , Medidores de Velocidade
15.
J Sci Med Sport ; 20(5): 507-511, 2017 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27717653

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The present study aimed to determine the effects of ischemic preconditioning on performance in three successive 50-m swimming trials and to measure stroke rate, stroke length and blood lactate accumulation. DESIGN: Counterbalanced, repeated-measures cross-over study. METHODS: On two separate days, eleven competitive male swimmers (20±3 years, 182±5cm, 77±5kg) performed three successive 50-m trials in a 50-m swimming pool, preceded by intermittent bilateral cuff inflation (4× 5-min of blood flow restriction+5-min of cuff deflation) at either 220 for thighs and 180mmHg for arms (ischemic preconditioning) or 20mmHg for both limbs (control-treatment). The 50-m trials were conducted 1-, 2-, and 8-h after the procedure. RESULTS: While no ergogenic effect of ischemic preconditioning was observed for 1-h (0.4%, 95% confidence limits of ±0.6%, p=0.215), there were clear beneficial effects of ischemic preconditioning on 2- and 8-h (1.0% and 1.2%, respectively; 95% confidence limits of ±0.6% in both cases, p≤0.002). Furthermore, ischemic preconditioning increased blood lactate accumulation in 2-(p<0.001) and 8-h (p=0.010) and stroke rate for 2- and 8-h in specific 10-m segments (p<0.05). CONCLUSIONS: These findings suggest a time-dependent effect of ischemic preconditioning on 50-m swimming performance for competitive athletes, with the time window of the beneficial effect starting after about 2-h and lasting for at least 8-h after ischemic preconditioning. This change in performance was accompanied by an increase in blood lactate accumulation and faster strokes in front crawl.


Assuntos
Desempenho Atlético/psicologia , Precondicionamento Isquêmico/métodos , Esforço Físico/fisiologia , Natação/fisiologia , Adolescente , Estudos Cross-Over , Humanos , Ácido Láctico/sangue , Masculino , Fatores de Tempo , Adulto Jovem
16.
Respir Physiol Neurobiol ; 235: 83-87, 2017 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27743811

RESUMO

The off-transient pulmonary oxygen uptake (V˙O2) response to a single bout of intense, exhaustive exercise has been characterized over the years by a second-order exponential model. In this paper, we report the superiority of a third-order exponential decay in describing the V˙O2 off-kinetics after a maximal cycling exercise lasting 60-s. Our findings are in accordance with a biphasic pattern of phosphocreatine resynthesis when muscle pH is affected.


Assuntos
Exercício/fisiologia , Modelos Biológicos , Modelos Estatísticos , Consumo de Oxigênio/fisiologia , Troca Gasosa Pulmonar/fisiologia , Adulto , Ciclismo/fisiologia , Humanos , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Cinética , Ácido Láctico/sangue , Masculino , Músculo Esquelético/metabolismo , Fosfocreatina/metabolismo
17.
Rev. bras. educ. fís. esp ; 30(3): 553-563, jul.-set. 2016. tab, graf
Artigo em Português | LILACS | ID: biblio-829792

RESUMO

Resumo O objetivo deste estudo foi determinar o modo e o grau com que variáveis aeróbias e anaeróbias influenciam o desempenho e a fadiga em "sprints" repetidos (RS) na corrida. Para este fim, participaram do estudo 24 homens, sendo oito corredores velocistas, oito corredores fundistas e oito sujeitos ativos. Em uma pista sintética de atletismo estes sujeitos foram submetidos aos seguintes testes: 1) teste incremental para determinação do VO2max e da velocidade aeróbia máxima (VAM); 2) teste de velocidade constante realizado a 110%VAM para determinar a cinética do VO2 durante exercício e o máximo déficit acumulado de oxigênio (MAOD); 3) teste de "sprints" repetidos (10 "sprints" de 35 m, intercalados com 20 s de recuperação) para determinar o tempo total dos "sprints" (TT), tempo do melhor sprint (TM) e a queda do desempenho em percentual (Sdec). Para analisar a diferença entre os grupos e as relações entre as variáveis foram utilizadas a análise de variância ANOVA "one-way", complementada pelo teste de Tukey, e a correlação de Pearson, respectivamente. O TT em RS foi diferente significativamente entre todos os grupos (velocistas, 49,5 ± 0,8 s; fundistas, 52,6 ± 3,1 s; ativos, 55,5 ± 2,6 s) e Sdec foi significativamente inferior em fundistas comparado aos outros grupos (velocistas, 8,9 ± 2,1%; fundistas, 4,0 ± 2,0%; ativos, 8,4 ± 4,4%). O TT foi correlacionado significativamente com o TM (r = 0,85, p < 0,01) e com o MAOD (r = - 0,54, p < 0,01). Além disso, Sdec foi correlacionado significativamente com variáveis aeróbias (VO2max, r = - 0,58, < 0,01; VAM, r = - 0,59, p < 0,01; constante de tempo "tau", r = 0,45, p = 0,03). Portanto, conclui-se que apesar de índices aeróbios influenciarem na redução da fadiga em RS, o desempenho em RS é principalmente influenciado por características anaeróbias.(AU)


Abstract This study aimed to determine the manner and degree to which aerobic and anaerobic variables influence repeated running sprint performance and ability. Twenty four males (sprinters = 8, endurance runners = 8 and physical active subjects = 8) performed in a synthetic track the following tests: 1) incremental test to determine the VO2max and the maximum aerobic velocity (MAV); 2) constant velocity test performed at 110% of MAV to determine the VO2 kinetics and the maximum accumulated oxygen deficit (MAOD); 3) repeated sprint test (10 sprints of 35-m interspersed by 20s) to determine sprint total time (TT), best sprint time (BT) and score decrement (Sdec). Between-groups comparisons and the correlations between variables were analyzed by one-way ANOVA with a Tukey post-hoc tests and Pearson correlation, respectively. TT was significantly different among all groups (sprinters = 49.5 ± 0.8 s; endurance = 52.6 ± 3.1 s; active = 55.5 ± 2.6 s) and Sdec was significantly lower in endurance runners as compared with sprinters and physical active subjects (sprinters = 8.9 ± 2.1%; endurance = 4.0 ± 2.0%; active = 8.4 ± 4.4%). TT correlated significantly with BT (r = 0.85, p < 0.01) and MAOD (r = - 0.54, p < 0.01). Moreover, Sdec was significantly correlated with aerobic parameters (VO2max, r = - 0.58, p < 0.01; MAV, r = - 0.59, p < 0.01; time constant tau, r = 0.45, p = 0.03). In conclusion, although the aerobic parameters have an important contribution to RS ability, RS performance is mainly influenced by anaerobic parameters.(AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Adulto , Desempenho Atlético , Consumo de Oxigênio , Educação Física e Treinamento , Corrida
18.
Eur J Appl Physiol ; 116(10): 1975-84, 2016 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27491618

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Although high-intensity interval training (HIT) seems to promote greater improvements in aerobic parameters than continuous training, the influence of exercise intensity on [Formula: see text] on-kinetics remains under investigation. METHODS: After an incremental test, twenty-one recreationally trained cyclists performed several time-to-exhaustion tests to determine critical power (CP), and the highest intensity (I HIGH), and the lowest exercise duration (T LOW) at which [Formula: see text] is attained during constant exercise. Subjects also completed a series of step transitions to moderate- and heavy-intensity work rates to determine pulmonary [Formula: see text] on-kinetics. Surface electromyography (EMG) of vastus lateralis muscle and blood lactate accumulation (∆BLC) was measured during heavy exercise. Subjects were assigned to one of two 4-week work-matched training groups: the lower [105 % CP: n = 11; 4 × 5 min at 105 % CP (218 ± 39 W), 1 min recovery] or the upper [I HIGH: n = 10; 8 × 100 % I HIGH (355 ± 60 W), 1:2 work:recovery ratio] intensity of the severe exercise domain. RESULTS: The two interventions were similarly effective in reducing the phase II [Formula: see text] time constant during moderate (105 % CP: 34 ± 13 to 25 ± 8 s; I HIGH: 31 ± 9 to 23 ± 6 s) and heavy exercise (105 % CP: 25 ± 7 to 18 ± 5 s; I HIGH: 27 ± 7 to 16 ± 5 s) and in reducing the amplitude of [Formula: see text] slow component, EMG amplitude, and ∆BLC during heavy exercise. CONCLUSION: In conclusion, the short-term adjustments in response to step transitions to moderate and heavy exercise were independent of training intensity within the severe exercise domain.


Assuntos
Tolerância ao Exercício/fisiologia , Treinamento Intervalado de Alta Intensidade/métodos , Músculo Esquelético/fisiologia , Consumo de Oxigênio/fisiologia , Oxigênio/metabolismo , Esforço Físico/fisiologia , Limiar Anaeróbio/fisiologia , Ciclismo/fisiologia , Metabolismo Energético/fisiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Cinética , Ácido Láctico/sangue , Masculino , Taxa de Depuração Metabólica , Força Muscular/fisiologia , Fatores de Tempo , Adulto Jovem
19.
Appl Physiol Nutr Metab ; 41(8): 825-31, 2016 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27404398

RESUMO

It has been demonstrated that ischemic preconditioning (IPC) improves endurance performance. However, the potential benefits during anaerobic events and the mechanism(s) underlying these benefits remain unclear. Fifteen recreational cyclists were assessed to evaluate the effects of IPC of the upper thighs on anaerobic performance, skeletal muscle activation, and metabolic responses during a 60-s sprint performance. After an incremental test and a familiarization visit, subjects were randomly submitted in visits 3 and 4 to a performance protocol preceded by intermittent bilateral cuff inflation (4 × (5 min of blood flow restriction + 5 min reperfusion)) at either 220 mm Hg (IPC) or 20 mm Hg (control). To increase data reliability, each intervention was replicated, which was also in a random manner. In addition to the mean power output, the pulmonary oxygen uptake, blood lactate kinetics, and quadriceps electromyograms (EMGs) were analyzed during performance and throughout 45 min of passive recovery. After IPC, performance was improved by 2.1% compared with control (95% confidence intervals of 0.8% to 3.3%, P = 0.001), followed by increases in (i) the accumulated oxygen deficit, (ii) the amplitude of blood lactate kinetics, (iii) the total amount of oxygen consumed during recovery, and (iv) the overall EMG amplitude (P < 0.05). In addition, the ratio between EMG and power output was higher during the final third of performance after IPC (P < 0.05). These results suggest an increased skeletal muscle activation and a higher anaerobic contribution as the ultimate responses of IPC on short-term exercise performance.


Assuntos
Desempenho Atlético/fisiologia , Ciclismo/fisiologia , Precondicionamento Isquêmico/métodos , Adulto , Índice de Massa Corporal , Dieta , Eletromiografia , Humanos , Masculino , Músculo Esquelético/metabolismo , Dinâmica não Linear , Consumo de Oxigênio , Reperfusão , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Fatores de Tempo , Adulto Jovem
20.
Eur J Appl Physiol ; 116(1): 161-9, 2016 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26373721

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Although time spent at VO2max (t@VO2max) has been suggested as an optimal stimulus for the promotion of greater VO2max improvements, scientific findings supporting this notion are surprisingly still lacking. To investigate this, the present study described t@VO2max in two different severe-intensity interval training regimens and compared its effects on aerobic indexes after a 4-week intervention. METHODS: Twenty-one recreational cyclists performed an incremental exercise test and six time-to-exhaustion tests on four different days to determine VO2max, lactate threshold (LT), critical power (CP) and the highest intensity (IHIGH) and lowest exercise duration (TLOW) at which VO2max was attained. Subjects were assigned to the lower (LO, n = 11, 4 × 5 min at 105% CP, 1 min recovery) or the upper severe-intensity training groups (UP, n = 10, 8 × 60% TLOW at 100% IHIGH, 1:2 work:recovery ratio). t@VO2max was measured during the first and last training sessions. RESULTS: A significantly higher t@VO2max was elicited in the UP during training sessions in comparison with the LO group (P < 0.05), and superior improvements were observed in VO2max (change in measure ± 95% confidence interval) (6.3 ± 1.9 vs. 3.3 ± 1.8%, P = 0.034 for interaction terms) and LT (54.8 ± 11.8 vs. 27.9 ± 11.3%, P = 0.023 for interaction terms). The other aerobic indexes were similarly improved between the groups. CONCLUSION: The present results demonstrated that UP training produced superior gains in VO2max and LT in comparison with LO training, which may be associated with the higher t@VO2max.


Assuntos
Limiar Anaeróbio/fisiologia , Exercício/fisiologia , Consumo de Oxigênio/fisiologia , Educação Física e Treinamento , Resistência Física/fisiologia , Adulto , Teste de Esforço/métodos , Feminino , Humanos , Ácido Láctico/metabolismo , Masculino , Adulto Jovem
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