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Chem Soc Rev ; 49(9): 2688-2700, 2020 May 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32211673


Due to their electron deficiency, halonium ions act as particularly strong halogen bond donors. By accepting electrons in both lobes of their empty p-orbital, they are capable of simultaneously interacting with two Lewis bases. The interaction presumes the formation of three molecular orbitals and is accordingly typically entitled as a three-center halogen bond. In analogy to the [D-H-D]+ hydrogen bonds, which are at times entitled as short and strong bonds, the [D-X-D]+ halogen bonds of halonium ions show Bondi normalized interatomic distances of 0.6-0.7 and possess both charge transfer and electrostatic characteristics. The three-center halogen bond of halonium ions shows distinct differences in its properties from coordinative bonds of transition metals and is therefore applicable as a complementary synthon in supramolecular chemistry. The three-center halogen bond modulates the reactivity of halonium ions and is hence a useful tool for synthetic organic chemistry. Following the discussion of the nature and properties of halonium ions' halogen bonds, this tutorial review provides an overview of their current applications to stimulate future developments.

ACS Omega ; 4(7): 12012-12017, 2019 Jul 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31460313


Three-dimensional selective laser sintering printing was utilized to produce porous, solid objects, in which the catalytically active component, Pd/SiO2, is attached to an easily printable supporting polypropylene framework. Physical properties of the printed objects, such as porosity, were controlled by varying the printing parameters. Structural characterization of the objects was performed by helium ion microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, and X-ray tomography, and the catalytic performance of the objects was tested in the hydrogenation of styrene, cyclohexene, and phenylacetylene. The results show that the selective laser sintering process provides an alternative and effective way to produce highly active and easily reusable heterogeneous catalysts without significantly reducing the catalytic efficiency of the active Pd/SiO2 component. The ability to control the size, porosity, mechanical properties, flow properties, physical properties, and chemical properties of the catalyst objects opens up possibilities to optimize devices for different reaction environments including batch reactions and continuous flow systems.

Chem Sci ; 9(44): 8343-8351, 2018 Nov 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30542581


Coordinative halogen bonds have recently gained interest for the assembly of supramolecular capsules. Ion mobility-mass spectrometry and theoretical calculations now reveal the well-defined gas-phase structures of dimeric and hexameric [N···I+···N] halogen-bonded capsules with counterions located inside their cavities as guests. The solution reactivity of the large hexameric capsule shows the intriguing solvent-dependent equilibrium between the hexamer and an unprecedented pentameric [N···I+···N] halogen-bonded capsule, when the solvent is changed from chloroform to dichloromethane. The intrinsic flexibility of the cavitands enables this novel structure to adopt a pseudo-trigonal bipyramidal geometry with nine [N···I+···N] bonds along the edges and two pyridine binding sites uncomplexed.

Chem Asian J ; 13(2): 164-169, 2018 Jan 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29205943


Self-complementarity is a useful concept in supramolecular chemistry, molecular biology and polymeric systems. Two resorcinarene tetrabenzoxazines decorated with four oxalamide groups were synthesized and characterized. The oxalamide groups possessed self-complementary hydrogen bonding sites between the carbonyls and amide groups. The self-complementary nature of the oxalamide groups resulted in self-included dimeric assemblies. The hydrogen bonding interactions within the tetrabenzoxazines gave rise to the formation of dimers, which were confirmed by single-crystal X-ray diffractions analysis and supported by NMR spectroscopy and mass spectrometry. The self-included dimers were connected by numerous and strong intermolecular N-H⋅⋅⋅O and C-H⋅⋅⋅O hydrogen bonds supplemented with C-H⋅⋅⋅π interactions, forming one-dimensional polymers, which were then further linked into three-dimensional networks.

Chemistry ; 23(48): 11714-11718, 2017 Aug 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28631856


Tripodal N-donor ligands are used to form halogen-bonded assemblies via structurally analogous Ag+ -complexes. Selective formation of discrete tetrameric I6 L4 and dimeric I3 L2 halonium cages, wherein multiple [N⋅⋅⋅I+ ⋅⋅⋅N] halogen bonds are used in concert, can be achieved by using sterically rigidified cationic tris(1-methyl-1-azonia-4-azabicyclo[2.2.2]octane)-mesitylene ligand, L1(PF6 )3 , and flexible ligand 1,3,5-tris(imidazole-1-ylmethyl)-2,4,6-trimethylbenzene, L2, respectively. The iodonium cages, I6 L14 (PF6 )18 and I3 L22 (PF6 )3 , were obtained through the [N⋅⋅⋅Ag+ ⋅⋅⋅N]→ [N⋅⋅⋅I+ ⋅⋅⋅N] cation exchange reaction between the corresponding Ag6 L14 (PF6 )18 and Ag3 L22 (PF6 )3 coordination cages, prepared as intermediates, and I2 . The synthesized metallo- and halonium cages were studied in solution by NMR, in gas phase by ESI-MS and in the solid-state by single crystal X-ray diffraction.

Angew Chem Int Ed Engl ; 55(45): 14033-14036, 2016 11 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27709827


Two [N⋅⋅⋅I+ ⋅⋅⋅N] halogen-bonded dimeric capsules using tetrakis(3-pyridyl)ethylene cavitands with different lower rim alkyl chains are synthesized and analyzed in solution and the gas phase. These first examples of symmetrical dimeric capsules making use of the iodonium ion (I+ ) as the main connecting module are characterized by 1 H NMR spectroscopy, diffusion ordered NMR spectroscopy (DOSY), electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS), and ion mobility-mass spectrometry (TW-IMS) experiments. The synthesis and effective halogen-bonded dimerization proceeds through analogous dimeric capsules with [N⋅⋅⋅Ag+ ⋅⋅⋅N] binding motifs as the intermediates as evidenced by the X-ray structures of (CH2 Cl2 )2 @[3 a2 ⋅Ag4 ⋅(H2 O)2 ⋅OTs4 ] and (CH2 Cl2 )2 @[3 a2 ⋅Ag4 ⋅(H2 O)4 ⋅OTs4 ], two structurally different capsules.